Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cocos: A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.TriglyceridesCalcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Oils: Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Fat Substitutes: Compounds used in food or in food preparation to replace dietary fats. They may be carbohydrate-, protein-, or fat-based. Fat substitutes are usually lower in calories but provide the same texture as fats.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.alpha-Linolenic Acid: A fatty acid that is found in plants and involved in the formation of prostaglandins.Embolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Colipases: Colipase I and II, consisting of 94-95 and 84-85 amino acid residues, respectively, have been isolated from porcine pancreas. Their role is to prevent the inhibitory effect of bile salts on the lipase-catalyzed intraduodenal hydrolysis of dietary long-chain triglycerides.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Cocarcinogenesis: The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trans Fatty Acids: UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS that contain at least one double bond in the trans configuration, which results in a greater bond angle than the cis configuration. This results in a more extended fatty acid chain similar to SATURATED FATTY ACIDS, with closer packing and reduced fluidity. HYDROGENATION of unsaturated fatty acids increases the trans content.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fatty Acids, Essential: Long chain organic acid molecules that must be obtained from the diet. Examples are LINOLEIC ACIDS and LINOLENIC ACIDS.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Erucic Acids: cis-13-Docosenoic Acids. 22-Carbon monounsaturated, monocarboxylic acids.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.United StatesSucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Dimethylhydrazines: Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Rats, Inbred F344Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Palmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.

*  Nutrition Quiz: Dietary Guidelines, Proteins, Fats, Grains, and More

Take this WebMD quiz to find out how much you know about dietary guidelines. ... A solid fat is any type of fat that is solid at room temperature. This also includes milk fat, lard, stick margarine, and ... While solid fats make up an average of 16% of the total calories in the American diet, they contribute few nutrients and no ... The latest dietary guidelines recommend eating less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium daily -- and no more than 1,500 milligrams ...
webmd.com/diet/rm-quiz-nutrition-iq

*  Cut Solid Fats for Healthier Living, Let Oils Flow Instead - Says New Dietary Guidelines

Newly released 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans urge all of us to cut back on saturated fats, salt, and sugar as well as ... The newly released 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans urge most of us to cut back on saturated fats, salt and sugar, as well ... Cut Solid Fats for Healthier Living, Let Oils Flow Instead - Says New Dietary Guidelines ... A tablespoon of butter actually has three times the saturated fat (7 grams) as a tablespoon of olive oil (2 grams). Using olive ...
prweb.com/releases/2011/03/prweb5163664.htm

*  Dietary fats: Know which types to choose | SparkPeople

... monounsaturated and trans fats and some kinds are better for your , team1135board ... By Mayo Clinic staff Most foods contain several different kinds of fats including saturated, polyunsaturated, ... Healthy fats When choosing fats, your best options are unsaturated fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. These fats, ... Dietary cholesterol isn't technically a fat, but it's found in food derived from animal sources. Intake of dietary cholesterol ...
sparkpeople.com/myspark/team_messageboard_thread.asp?board=1255x1135x38674862

*  Dr. Gabe Mirkin on Health, Fitness and Nutrition. | DIETARY FAT WORSENS DIABETES

Recent research show that eating too much fat and too many refined carbohydrates cause the diabetes, and avoiding excess fat ... DIETARY FAT WORSENS DIABETES. Diabetes that starts in later life is almost always caused by inability to respond to insulin, ... Dietary fat content alters insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in healthy men. PH Bisschop, J deMetz, MT Ackermans, E Endert, H ... Eating too much fat and being fat decrease the number of insulin receptors and cause diabetes. Excess insulin production by the ...
drmirkin.com/diabetes/9056.html

*  Dietary fat and insulin action in humans.

Abstract A high intake of fat may increase the risk of obesity. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity, is an important ... However, controlled dietary intervention studies in humans investigating the effects of different types of fatty acids on ... It is suggested that a high proportion of fat in the diet is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and an increased risk ... Abstract A high intake of fat may increase the risk of obesity. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity, is an important ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/dietary-fat-and-insulin-action-in-humans-319512.html

*  Safer Fats for Healthier Hearts: The Case for Eliminating Dietary Artificial Trans Fat Intake | Annals of Internal Medicine |...

Safer Fats for Healthier Hearts: The Case for Eliminating Dietary Artificial Trans Fat Intake Julie Louise Gerberding, MD, MPH ... Safer Fats for Healthier Hearts: The Case for Eliminating Dietary Artificial Trans Fat Intake. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:137-138 ... Review: Dietary or supplemental calcium increase BMD by ≤ 1.8% in persons , 50 years of age Annals of Internal Medicine; 164 (2 ... Cholesterol Control Beyond the Clinic: New York City's Trans Fat Restriction Determining the Benefits of the New York City ...
annals.org/aim/article/744602/safer-fats-healthier-hearts-case-eliminating-dietary-artificial-trans-fat

*  Reprogramming Breast Cancer Risk in Utero via Endocrine Disruptor and Dietary Fat Interaction - UCTV - University of California...

Reprogramming Breast Cancer Risk in Utero via Endocrine Disruptor and Dietary Fat Interaction Breast Cancer and the Environment ...
uctv.tv/shows/Reprogramming-Breast-Cancer-Risk-in-Utero-via-Endocrine-Disruptor-and-Dietary-Fat-Interaction-25018

*  VIDEO: Sugar is out, good fat is in according to the new dietary guidelines | The Punxsutawney Spirit

VIDEO: Sugar is out, good fat is in according to the new dietary guidelines ... Home » VIDEO: Sugar is out, good fat is in according to the new dietary guidelines ...
punxsutawneyspirit.com/content/video-sugar-out-good-fat-according-new-dietary-guidelines

*  Cooking oil, dietary fat, fat metabolizing genes, and prostate cancer risk in a multiethnic population :: University of...

prostate cancer; nutrition; cooking oil; cooking fat; diet; dietary fat; PUFA; polyunsaturated fat; fat metabolizing genes; LOX ... Cooking oil, dietary fat, fat metabolizing genes, and prostate cancer risk in a multiethnic population ... COOKING OIL, DIETARY FAT, FAT METABOLIZING GENES, AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN A MULTIETHNIC POPULATION by John Christopher ... COOKING OIL, DIETARY FAT, FAT METABOLIZING GENES, AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN A MULTIETHNIC POPULATION by John Christopher ...
digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15799coll127/id/671963/rec/5

*  Advice to Restrict Dietary Fats Wanes | YourCareEverywhere

"Other fat-rich foods, like whole milk and cheese, appear pretty neutral; while many low-fat foods, like low-fat deli meats, fat ... Current U.S. dietary guidelines say no more than 35 percent of your daily calories should come from fat. However, nutrition ... Advice to Restrict Dietary Fats Wanes. By Sherry Baker @SherryNewsViews. , October 21, 2015. ... It's the kind of fat you eat that is most important.. "Placing limits on total fat intake has no basis in science and leads to ...
https://yourcareeverywhere.com/health-research/health-insights/heart-care-insights/advice-to-restrict-dietary-fats-wanes.html

*  Sabinet | Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school children in a low-income informal settlement...

Dietary fat intake and nutritional status indicators of primary school children in a low-income informal settlement in the Vaal region
journals.co.za/content/m_sajcn/24/3/EJC65242

*  NIH study finds cutting dietary fat reduces body fat more than cutting carbs - Medicare Report

Source - www.nih.gov). In a recent study, restricting dietary fat led to body fat loss at a rate 68 percent higher than cutting the same number of carbohydrate calories when adults with obesity ate strictly controlled diets. Carb restriction lowered production of the fat-regulating hormone insulin and increased fat burning as expected, whereas fat restriction had no observed changes in insulin production or fat burning. The research was conducted at the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. Results were published August 13 in Cell Metabolism External Web Site Policy. Read more…. Notice: The "Read more…" link provided above connects readers to the full content of the posted article. The URL (internet address) for this link is valid on the posted date; socialsecurityreport.org cannot guarantee the duration of the link's validity. Also, the opinions expressed in these postings are the viewpoints of the original ...
medicarereport.org/index.php/2015/08/13/nih-study-finds-cutting-dietary-fat-reduces-body-fat-more-than-cutting-carbs/

*  Dietary Fat: Why It's Healthy For You to Eat Bacon Again!

Dietary fat is healthy for you when consumed from healthy sources. It is essential part of the body. Stay away from trans fat at all cost!
purposedrivenmastery.com/2016/11/07/dietaryfat/

*  Good Diet Good Health: Are Our Healthy Eating Guidelines Wrong?

When it comes to obesity, a high fat intake may well contribute to excessive calorie intake but calories are not the whole story. Some of us are better than others at storing any surplus energy as body fat. In our caveman days our energy storage mechanism was what kept us alive from one infrequent meal to the next. Nowadays however, our food is plentiful and our storage mechanism, namely the hormone insulin, is not quite so useful. Not only do lean times come rarely, if ever, but we burn off ever less physical energy in our daily activities. Furthermore, our food is much higher in carbohydrates -- cavemen did not have refined foods such as the sugar and flour that are our staple foods today. These foods cause our blood sugar levels to rise faster, higher and more frequently than our control system was designed to handle. This results in a constant outpouring of insulin. For many this creates a blood sugar imbalance, which traps them in a vicious circle of eating, feeling hungry and eating again ...
gooddietgoodhealth.blogspot.com/2007/03/are-our-healthy-eating-guidelines-wrong.html

*  Whole Health Source: February 2010

What the authors focused on is the fact that insulin sensitivity declined slightly but significantly on the saturated fat diet compared with the pre-diet baseline. That's why this study is cited as evidence that saturated fat impairs insulin sensitivity. But those of you with a science background may be able to spot the problem here. You need a control group for comparison, to take into account normal fluctuations caused by such things as the season, eating a new diet provided by the investigators, and having a doctor poking at you. That control group was the group eating monounsaturated fat. The comparison between diet groups was the comparison that matters most, and it wasn't quite significant. I think the most you can say about this study is that it provides weak evidence that saturated fat decreases insulin sensitivity ...
wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2010/02/

*  Post - DIAKADI

Part IB: Paleo Topics in a Nutshell 4. Improve your Omega-6:Omega-3 Balance. Optimum ratios for health are generally in the range of 1:1 to 4:1. Before modern food processing, this is the ratio likely achieved in caveman times where the bulk of dietary fats came from wild animal meats and fish.. With the addition of highly processed vegetable oils as a dietary staple, the average American dietary profile has skyrocketed to a ratio of 10/15:1, with numbers as high as 40:1. This unnaturally high ratio can lead to whole body inflammation (does your shoulder and knee always hurt?), can aggravate autoimmune diseases, and can increase your risk for heart disease and certain forms of cancer.. At the same time that vegetable oils and processed foods have been increased, average omega-3 intake has decreased. Wild meats and fish are naturally high in Omega-3's, but have been replaced in most people's modern diets by domesticated, corn and grain-fed ...
diakadibody.com/blog/2012/06/paleo-nutrition-part-ib-do-cavemen-have-the-diet-solution

*  The Fat Guy | Dr. Chen Shares the Science of Nutritional Oils

One of the most dramatic developments in recent years has been the role of fat in health and nutrition. It's a complete reversal of thinking.. Logically, eating fat should make you fat-and until recently, that's what most experts believed.. Now we know the opposite is true. Eating the right fat can make you thin!. The basic reason is this: when you eat more fat, you train your body to use fat for fuel, instead of refined carbohydrates from foods like sugary beverages bread, pasta, pastries and sweets.. Once the body starts using fat for fuel, it doesn't stop with what you eat-it burns the fat in your belly, your butt, and everywhere else.. ...
thefatguy.com

*  DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders: Cholesterol and Other Fats: Hypercholesterolemia

A complex chemical present in all animal fats and widespread in the body, esp. in bile, the brain, blood, adrenal glands, and nerve-fiber sheaths. It also forms deposits in blood vessels and forms gallstones.
dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Nutritional_and_Metabolic_Disorders/Cholesterol_and_Other_Fats/Hypercholesterolemia/

*  Whole Health Source: Diabetes and Your Small Intestine

I think your posts on diabetes, fatty liver, etc., are very interesting because I think finding out exactly what is happening in these case cases is central to a better understanding of human metabolism in general. I don't understand what keeps most doctors from widening their view and using what they know of the diabetes disease process as a basis for suggesting that all of their patients reduce their sugar intake drastically. It seems to me that the evidence that sugar is bad for us is much less ambivalent than the supposed evidence that saturated fat is bad for us, and yet they have not problem telling patients (even diabetics!) to reduce their saturated fat intake. If they are not satisfying their palate with the richness of fatty foods, what are they going to eat more of? Sugar, of course. ...
wholehealthsource.blogspot.com/2008/05/diabetes-and-your-small-intestine.html

*  3 fat on a diet - Carb Blocker Pill Dietrine - Jun 27, 2017

3 fat on a diet - 8 Easy Ways to Load Up on Healthy Omega-3 Fats - US News and.... Dietrine Carb Blocker is an exclusive formulation of research-supported botanical ingredients designed to Block Carbohydrates, Control Carb Cravings, Boost Energy levels and Block Fats from your body.
dietrine.herbalyzer.com/3-fat-on-a-diet.html

*  Good Fats are from Nature | Bad Fats are mostly Manmade

Fats from nature are always good and health supportive. Fats made or modified by human (industrial) is mostly bad and health detrimental.
healthy-ojas.com/cholesterol/good-bad-fats.html

*  How Is Ingested Fat Processed in the Body? | Healthy Eating | SF Gate

Although often maligned, dietary fat serves several critical purposes in your nutrition. It is a highly concentrated energy source for fueling your activities, it stores energy for later use when ...
healthyeating.sfgate.com/ingested-fat-processed-body-6040.html

*  Facts On Fats - AnabolicMinds.com

One of the most widely misunderstood food groups today, oils and fats can be both crucial and detrimental to your health, depending on what type they are and how they are processed
anabolicminds.com/forum/content/facts-fats-2935/

Animal fatMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Heptadecanoic acidUnsaturated fat: An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.Corn (medicine): A corn (or clavus, plural clavi or clavuses) is a distinctively shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal surface of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar skin surfaces.Rice bran oilHerman Taller: Herman Taller (5 May 1906 - June 1984) was a Romanian-born American doctor who advocated weight loss based on a low-carbohydrate diet with polyunsaturated fats including safflower oil. He was the author of the controversial best selling book, Calories Don't Count.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.Demographics of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands: This article is about the demographic features of the population of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.TriglycerideCalcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.CholesterolLipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Separator (oil production): The term separator in oilfield terminology designates a pressure vessel used for separating well fluids produced from oil and gas wells into gaseous and liquid components. A separator for petroleum production is a large vessel designed to separate production fluids into their constituent components of oil, gas and water.Bert WheelerLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Vegetable juiceSalt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.Olestra: (Where fatty acids are saturated)Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Triacylglycerol lipase: Triacylglycerol lipase (, lipase, butyrinase, tributyrinase, Tween hydrolase, steapsin, triacetinase, tributyrin esterase, Tweenase, amno N-AP, Takedo 1969-4-9, Meito MY 30, Tweenesterase, GA 56, capalase L, triglyceride hydrolase, triolein hydrolase, tween-hydrolyzing esterase, amano CE, cacordase, triglyceridase, triacylglycerol ester hydrolase, amano P, amano AP, PPL, glycerol-ester hydrolase, GEH, meito Sangyo OF lipase, hepatic lipase, lipazin, post-heparin plasma protamine-resistant lipase, salt-resistant post-heparin lipase, heparin releasable hepatic lipase, amano CES, amano B, tributyrase, triglyceride lipase, liver lipase, hepatic monoacylglycerol acyltransferase) is an enzyme with system name triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Embolus: An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "clot, lit. ram") is any detached, traveling intravascular mass (solid, liquid, or gaseous) carried by circulation, which is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.PhospholipidBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Chylomicron: Chylomicrons (from the Greek chylo, meaning juice or milky fluid, and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).M Mahmood Hussain: "Review Article: A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons"; Arterosclerosis; Vol.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsRhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation: Rhodium catalyzed hydrogenation is a chemical reaction that typically involves the addition of pairs of hydrogen atoms to another compound or element in the presence of a Rhodium complex catalyst. The addition of hydrogen to double or triple bonds in hydrocarbons is a type of redox reaction that can be thermodynamically favorable without a catalyst.TrioleinClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.

(1/8527) Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

(2/8527) Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.

1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis.  (+info)

(3/8527) Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats.

Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids.  (+info)

(4/8527) Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of five animal oils in cholesterol-fed rats.

The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various animal oils was compared in rats given a cholesterol-enriched diet. After acclimatization for one week, male F344 DuCrj rats (8 weeks of age) that had been fed with a conventional diet were assigned to diets containing 5% of oil from emu (Dromaius), Japanese Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis, Heude), sardine, beef tallow, or lard with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After this feeding period, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and of very-low-density lipoprotein + intermediate-density lipoprotein + low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the sardine oil group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the sardine oil and Japanese Sika deer oil groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol excretion by the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the sardine oil group, and the fecal bile acid excretion by the sardine oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the lard group. These results suggest that Japanese Sika deer oil reduced the atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet as well as sardine oil did by increasing the excretion of cholesterol from the intestines of rats.  (+info)

(5/8527) Manipulation of the type of fat consumed by growing pigs affects plasma and mononuclear cell fatty acid compositions and lymphocyte and phagocyte functions.

To investigate the immunological effect of feeding pigs different dietary lipids, 3-wk-old, weaned pigs were fed for 40 d on one of five diets, which differed only in the type of oil present (the oil contributed 5% by weight of the diet and the total fat content of the diets was 8% by weight). The oils used were soybean (control diet), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), sunflower oil (SO), canola oil (CO), and fish oil (FO; rich in long-chain [n-3] polyunsaturared fatty acids). There were no significant differences in initial or final animal weights, weight gains, or health scores among the groups. There were no significant differences in the concentration of anti-Escherichia coli vaccine antibodies in the gut lumens of pigs fed the different diets. The fatty acid composition of the diet markedly affected the fatty acid composition of the plasma and of mononuclear cells (a mixture of lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages) prepared from the blood, lymph nodes, or thymus. The FO feeding resulted in a significant increase in the number of circulating granulocytes. The FO feeding significantly decreased the proportion of phagocytes engaged in uptake of E. coli and decreased the activity of those phagocytes that were active. The proliferation of lymphocytes in cultures of whole blood from pigs fed the HOSO, SO, or FO diets was less than in those from pigs fed the CO diet. Proliferation of lymph node lymphocytes from SO- or FO-fed pigs was less than that from control, CO-, or HOSO-fed pigs. The natural killer cell activity of blood lymphocytes from pigs fed the FO diet was significantly reduced compared with those from pigs fed the CO diet. The concentration of PGE2 in the medium of cultured blood, lymph node, or thymic mononuclear cells was lower if the cells came from pigs fed the FO diet. Thus, the type of oil included in the diet of growing pigs affects the numbers and functional activities of immune cells in different body compartments.  (+info)

(6/8527) Lipoprotein lipase expression level influences tissue clearance of chylomicron retinyl ester.

Approximately 25% of postprandial retinoid is cleared from the circulation by extrahepatic tissues. Little is known about physiologic factors important to this uptake. We hypothesized that lipoprotein lipase (LpL) contributes to extrahepatic clearance of chylomicron vitamin A. To investigate this, [3H]retinyl ester-containing rat mesenteric chylomicrons were injected intravenously into induced mutant mice and nutritionally manipulated rats. The tissue sites of uptake of 3H label by wild type mice and LpL-null mice overexpressing human LpL in muscle indicate that LpL expression does influence accumulation of chylomicron retinoid. Skeletal muscle from mice overexpressing human LpL accumulated 1.7- to 2.4-fold more 3H label than wild type. Moreover, heart tissue from mice overexpresssing human LpL, but lacking mouse LpL, accumulated less than half of the 3H-label taken up by wild type heart. Fasting and heparin injection, two factors that increase LpL activity in skeletal muscle, increased uptake of chylomicron [3H] retinoid by rat skeletal muscle. Using [3H]retinyl palmitate and its non-hydrolyzable analog retinyl [14C]hexadecyl ether incorporated into Intralipid emulsions, the importance of retinyl ester hydrolysis in this process was assessed. We observed that 3H label was taken up to a greater extent than 14C label by rat skeletal muscle, suggesting that retinoid uptake requires hydrolysis. In summary, for each of our experiments, the level of lipoprotein lipase expression in skeletal muscle, heart, and/or adipose tissue influenced the amount of [3H]retinoid taken up from chylomicrons and/or their remnants.  (+info)

(7/8527) Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.  (+info)

(8/8527) Lower plasma levels and accelerated clearance of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and non-HDL cholesterol in scavenger receptor class B type I transgenic mice.

Recent studies have indicated that the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) may play an important role in the uptake of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesteryl ester in liver and steroidogenic tissues. To investigate the in vivo effects of liver-specific SR-BI overexpression on lipid metabolism, we created several lines of SR-BI transgenic mice with an SR-BI genomic construct where the SR-BI promoter region had been replaced by the apolipoprotein (apo)A-I promoter. The effect of constitutively increased SR-BI expression on plasma HDL and non-HDL lipoproteins and apolipoproteins was characterized. There was an inverse correlation between SR-BI expression and apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels in transgenic mice fed either mouse chow or a diet high in fat and cholesterol. An unexpected finding in the SR-BI transgenic mice was the dramatic impact of the SR-BI transgene on non-HDL cholesterol and apoB whose levels were also inversely correlated with SR-BI expression. Consistent with the decrease in plasma HDL and non-HDL cholesterol was an accelerated clearance of HDL, non-HDL, and their major associated apolipoproteins in the transgenics compared with control animals. These in vivo studies of the effect of SR-BI overexpression on plasma lipoproteins support the previously proposed hypothesis that SR-BI accelerates the metabolism of HDL and also highlight the capacity of this receptor to participate in the metabolism of non-HDL lipoproteins.  (+info)



trans fats


  • Most foods contain several different kinds of fats including saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and trans fats and some kinds are better for your health than others are. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Saturated and trans fats (trans-fatty acids) are less healthy kinds of fats. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Intake of dietary cholesterol increases blood cholesterol levels, but not as much as saturated and trans fats do, and not to the same degree in all people. (sparkpeople.com)
  • To answer this question, it is important to assess the evidence of a significant health benefit from reducing exposure to trans fats, the feasibility of doing so on a national scale, and the degree to which federal government intervention is essential to achieving health impact. (annals.org)
  • Created artificially by adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils, trans fats are inexpensive to produce and last a long time, so they are used in many processed and fast foods. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

intake


  • As examples of healthy eating styles, the guidelines point to the Mediterranean diet, which olive oil has always been part of, and the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet that emphasizes lower sodium intake. (prweb.com)
  • Abstract A high intake of fat may increase the risk of obesity. (omicsonline.org)
  • We had three objectives: to examine the effects of dietary fat intake, type of cooking oil used, and whether genetic variants in the PUFA LOX pathways are associated with the risk of prostate cancer. (usc.edu)
  • Dietary fat intake and preferred cooking oil were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. (usc.edu)
  • Placing limits on total fat intake has no basis in science and leads to all sorts of wrong industry and consumer decisions," said Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH , dean of the Friedman School. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

healthier


  • Instead, choose the healthier types of fats and enjoy them in moderation. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Instead of demonizing all fats, the DGAC recommends shifting emphasis to healthier diets with more fruits and veggies, whole grains, nuts, seafood, and beans and fewer meats, sugars, and refined grains. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

Grains


  • Americans jumped onboard by eating more low-fat or non-fat products that tend to be loaded with refined grains and added sugars - a fact that may have added to the obesity epidemic. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • Lifting the restriction on total fat would clear the way for restaurants and industry to reformulate products containing more healthful fats and fewer refined grains and added sugars. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

fiber


  • Many whole-grain products are good sources of dietary fiber -- but not all of them. (webmd.com)

Vegetable


  • When we evaluated the risks isolated to a particular stage of prostate cancer, we observed that men who use vegetable or corn oil, but not hydrogenated fat, were 1.72 times as likely to experience localized prostate cancer than men who used olive or canola oil, and those who used hydrogenated oils were 1.59 times as likely to experience localized prostate cancer. (usc.edu)
  • Furthermore, we observe that men who used vegetable or corn oil, but not hydrogenated fat, were 1.87 times as likely to experience advanced stage prostate cancer than men who used olive or canola oil, and those who used hydrogenated oils were 1.50 times as likely to experience advanced stage prostate cancer. (usc.edu)
  • Modern evidence clearly shows that eating more foods rich in healthful fats like nuts, vegetable oils, and fish has protective effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease," Mozaffarian said. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

guidelines


  • The typical American eat less than 20% of the amount of vegetables recommended in updated dietary guidelines released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services for 2015-2020. (webmd.com)
  • The latest dietary guidelines recommend eating less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium daily -- and no more than 1,500 milligrams a day for anyone 51 or older, African-Americans, and people with high blood pressure, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. (webmd.com)
  • Newly released 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans urge all of us to cut back on saturated fats, salt, and sugar as well as eat smaller portions to reduce our nation's unhealthy and costly obesity epidemic. (prweb.com)
  • Current U.S. dietary guidelines say no more than 35 percent of your daily calories should come from fat. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • However, nutrition experts from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University and Boston Children's Hospital have advised the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Committee (DGAC), a group of independent scientists convened by the federal government to analyze scientific literature on nutrition, to drop restrictions on how much total fat should be consumed. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • So it won't come as a surprise if the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, agencies that look to the DGAC for guidance, also drop low fat recommendations in their new soon-to-be-published Dietary Guidelines for Americans. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • The push toward low-fat diets began in l980 when federal guidelines first recommended that mode of eating as the healthiest. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

cholesterol


  • These fats, if used in place of others, can lower your risk of heart disease by reducing the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in your blood. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Dietary cholesterol isn't technically a fat, but it's found in food derived from animal sources. (sparkpeople.com)
  • Metabolically healthy obese adults consuming a diet high in unsaturated fat and low in saturated fat may be able to decrease their total cholesterol by 10 points, a new University of Illinois study suggests. (illinois.edu)

meals


  • You don't need to completely eliminate all fats from your meals. (sparkpeople.com)

grams


  • A tablespoon of butter actually has three times the saturated fat (7 grams) as a tablespoon of olive oil (2 grams). (prweb.com)
  • For example, if you see the words "partially hydrogenated oils" on a product, that means it contains trans fat, even if the ingredients lists "0 grams of trans fat per serving," the CDC warns . (yourcareeverywhere.com)

sugar


  • 30% Reduced Fat Salad Cream with Sugar & Sweetener. (ocado.com)

restriction


  • The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's trans fat restriction program (described by Angell and colleagues in this issue [2] ) provides a powerful demonstration that commercial, social, and political barriers to regulating fats used for food preparation in restaurants and similar venues can be overcome, albeit not voluntarily, even in a sprawling metropolis with diverse stakeholders and contentious interest groups. (annals.org)

olive


  • This includes olive oil and canola oil - but not coconut and palm kernel oils, which actually have higher levels of saturated fat than butter. (prweb.com)
  • Using olive oil not only helps reduce solid fats in a diet but also adds distinctive taste to any cuisine. (prweb.com)

content


  • Dietary fat content alters insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in healthy men. (drmirkin.com)
  • Since then, many city and state governments across the United States are following suit, and they are struggling with the controversies inherent in defining their role in reducing the fat content of foods prepared and served in their communities. (annals.org)
  • It's the food that matters, not its fat content. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

food


  • What food is the largest single source of saturated fat in the American diet? (webmd.com)
  • If you eat more of anything than you should, regardless of what kind of food it is, you're going to pack on more fat. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

healthy


  • Experts now say it's fine to eat fat, as long you eat the healthy kind in moderation. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • While eating a lot of anything will make you fat, regardless of how "healthy" it is, eating a lot of the right kind of fat, it turns out, can be good for you. (yourcareeverywhere.com)
  • But there are plenty of healthy fats that can actually boost health. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

salad


  • while many low-fat foods, like low-fat deli meats, fat-free salad dressing, and baked potato chips, are no better and often even worse than full-fat alternatives. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

diet


  • Burgers and sandwiches are a major source of saturated fats in the American diet, as are snacks and sweets. (webmd.com)
  • The epidemic increase in diabetes over the last 20 years is most certainly caused by changes in our diet: taking in too much fat and refined carbohydrates, and being too fat. (drmirkin.com)
  • It is suggested that a high proportion of fat in the diet is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and an increased risk of developing diabetes, independent of obesity and body fat localization, and that this risk may be influenced by the type of fatty acids in the diet. (omicsonline.org)
  • What's driving this about face is a simple fact: There's no evidence to back up the long accepted claims that more fat in the diet equals more fat in the arteries and more flab around the middle. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

type


  • One type of polyunsaturated fat, omega-3 fatty acids, may be especially beneficial to your heart. (sparkpeople.com)

Eating


  • Recent research show that eating too much fat and too many refined carbohydrates cause the diabetes, and avoiding excess fat and refined carbohydrates helps to control diabetes. (drmirkin.com)
  • Eating too much fat and being fat decrease the number of insulin receptors and cause diabetes. (drmirkin.com)

insulin


  • Dietary fat and insulin action in humans. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, controlled dietary intervention studies in humans investigating the effects of different types of fatty acids on insulin sensitivity have so far been negative. (omicsonline.org)

calories


However


  • The effect of cooking oil has not been extensively investigated, however, there is evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis, 2008). (usc.edu)

total


  • In fact, for the first time since l980, the DGAC didn't advise restricting total fat consumption in a technical report the group released earlier this year. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

foods


  • If you've been aware of advice over the last couple of decades concerning foods that are supposedly heart and waistline friendly, you've probably heard that low-fat or non-fat is the way to go. (yourcareeverywhere.com)

potential


  • This successful intervention creates a very visible precedent that raises a key policy question: Is it time to institute broader federal government efforts to assure that people in all communities can experience the potential health benefits of safer dietary fats? (annals.org)
  • Dietary fat has been implicated as a potential promotional factor leading to progression of small, latent, non-metastatic prostate tumors to invasive, metastatic lesions. (usc.edu)

cheese


  • But cheese is our single largest source of saturated fat. (webmd.com)

important


make


  • We have developed our website to provide all the information consumers need to make a smooth transition away from solid fats. (prweb.com)