Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Glycemic Index: A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.DextrinsDietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.GlycogenPostprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Secale cereale: A hardy grain crop, rye, grown in northern climates. It is the most frequent host to ergot (CLAVICEPS), the toxic fungus. Its hybrid with TRITICUM is TRITICALE, another grain.Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.TriglyceridesAnimal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Liver Glycogen: Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.PolysaccharidesVegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Glycoside HydrolasesNutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Carbohydrate chemistry: Carbohydrate chemistry is a subdiscipline of chemistry primarily concerned with the synthesis, structure, and function of carbohydrates. Due to the general structure of carbohydrates, their synthesis is often preoccupied with the selective formation of glycosidic linkages and the selective reaction of hydroxyl groups; as a result, it relies heavily on the use of protecting groups.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Low-glycemic diet: A low-glycemic diet is one that selects foods on the basis of minimal alteration of circulating glucose levels. Glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are measures of the effect on blood glucose level after a food containing carbohydrates is consumed.Animal fatCellodextrin: Cellodextrins are glucose polymers of varying length (two or more glucose monomers) resulting from cellulolysis, the breakdown of cellulose.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Sucrose gap: The sucrose gap technique is used to create a conduction block in nerve or muscle fibers. A high concentration of sucrose is applied to the extracellular space to increase resistance between two groups of cells, which prevents the correct opening and closing of sodium and potassium channels.Fructose malabsorptionBlood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Glucose transporterLiver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIGlycogen synthase: ; ; rendered using PyMOL.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis: The Eutherian Fetoembryonic Defense System (eu-FEDS) is a hypothetical model describing a method by which immune systems are capable of recognizing additional states of relatedness like "own species" such as is observed in maternal immune tolerance in pregnancy. The model includes descriptions of the proposed signaling mechanism and several proposed examples of exploitation of this signaling in disease states.Happy Tooth: 72px|thumb|right|"Happy Tooth" logoTriglycerideDry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Crustless bread: Crustless bread is bread without crusts. Panko is made from such a bread, which is produced by passing an electric current through the dough.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Glucogenic amino acid: A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. This is in contrast to the ketogenic amino acids, which are converted into ketone bodies.Heptadecanoic acidSouthern California Steelhead DPS: The Southern California Steelhead Distinct Population Segment (DPS) occurs from the Santa Maria River to the Tijuana River at the United States and Mexican Border in seasonally accessible rivers and streams.*NOAA.ATC code H04: ==H04A Glycogenolytic hormones==Nitrogen deficiencyClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Calcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.CholesterolLactic acid fermentationHydrogen gas porosity: Hydrogen gas porosity is an aluminium casting defect under the form of a porosity or void in an aluminium casting caused by a high level of hydrogen gas (H2) dissolved in the aluminium at liquid phase. Because the solubility of hydrogen in solid aluminium is much smaller than in liquid aluminium, when the aluminium freezes, the dissolved hydrogen gas creates porosity in solid aluminium.JejunumErythromycin breath test: The erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is a method used to measure metabolism (oxidation and elimination from the system) by a part of the cytochrome P450 system. Erythromycin is tagged with carbon-14 and given as an intravenous injection; after 20 minutes the subject blows up a balloon and the carbon dioxide exhaled that is tagged with carbon-14 shows the activity of the CYP3A4 isoenzyme on the erythromycin.Copper toxicityAdipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.N-linked glycosylation: N-linked glycosylation, is the attachment of the sugar molecule oligosaccharide known as glycan to a nitrogen atom (amide nitrogen of asparagine (Asn) residue of a protein), in a process called N-glycosylation, studied in biochemistry. This type of linkage is important for both the structure and function of some eukaryotic proteins.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSalt and cardiovascular disease: Salt consumption has been intensely studied for its role in human physiology and impact on human health. In particular, excessive dietary salt consumption over an extended period of time has been associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in addition to other adverse health effects.Table of standard reduction potentials for half-reactions important in biochemistry: The values below are standard reduction potentials for half-reactions measured at 25°C, 1 atmosphere and a pH of 7 in aqueous solution.Leguminous lectin family: In molecular biology, the leguminous lectin family is a family of lectin proteins.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Vegetable juiceMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Respirometer: A respirometer is a device used to measure the rate of respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide. They allow investigation into how factors such as age, chemicals or the effect of light affect the rate of respiration.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Proteinogenic amino acid: Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are precursors to proteins, and are incorporated into proteins cotranslationally — that is, during translation. There are 23 proteinogenic amino acids in prokaryotes (including N-Formylmethionine, mainly used to initiate protein synthesis and often removed afterward), but only 21 are encoded by the nuclear genes of eukaryotes.MonosaccharideGlycosylation: Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Mannose 6-phosphateTumor-associated glycoprotein: Tumor-associated glycoproteins (TAGs) are glycoproteins found on the surface of many cancer cells. They are mucin-like molecules with a molar mass of over 1000 kDa.
(1/3525) Diet and risk of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity: carbohydrate-fat relationships in rats.
Nutritional status is a primary factor in the effects of xenobiotics and may be an important consideration in development of safety standards and assessment of risk. One important xenobiotic consumed daily by millions of people worldwide is alcohol. Some adverse effects of ethanol, such as alcohol liver disease, have been linked to diet. For example, ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in animal models requires diets that have a high percentage of the total calories as unsaturated fat. However, little attention has been given to the role of carbohydrates (or carbohydrate to fat ratio) in the effects of this important xenobiotic on liver injury. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-10/group) were infused (intragastrically) diets high in unsaturated fat (25 or 45% total calories), sufficient protein (16%) and ethanol (38%) in the presence or absence of adequate carbohydrate (21 or 2.5%) for 42-55 days (d). Animals infused ethanol-containing diets adequate in carbohydrate developed steatosis, but had no other signs of hepatic pathology. However, rats infused with the carbohydrate-deficient diet had a 4-fold increase in serum ALT levels (p < 0.05), an unexpectedly high (34-fold) induction of hepatic microsomal CYP2E1 apoprotein (p < 0.001), and focal necrosis. The strong positive association between low dietary carbohydrate, enhanced CYP2E1 induction and hepatic necrosis suggests that in the presence of low carbohydrate intake, ethanol induction of CYP2E1 is enhanced to levels sufficient to cause necrosis, possibly through reactive oxygen species and other free radicals generated by CYP2E1 metabolism of ethanol and unsaturated fatty acids. (+info)
(2/3525) Fermentation substrate and dilution rate interact to affect microbial growth and efficiency.
The effect of dilution rate (D) on carbohydrate, fibrous and nonfibrous, and protein fermentation by ruminal microorganisms was studied using a single-effluent continuous-culture system. The diets of fibrous carbohydrate, nonfibrous carbohydrate, or protein were formulated with soybean hulls (FC), ground corn (NFC), or isolated soy protein (PR) as the primary ingredient, respectively. Six dilution rates (.025, .050, .075, .10, .15, and .20/h of fermenter volume) were used. Digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP for the three diets and of NDF and ADF for the FC diet decreased (P<.001) as D increased, although the response of the digestibility to D varied with diet. Increasing D resulted in an increase in pH (P<.001) and a decrease (P<.001) in ammonia concentration. Daily volatile fatty acid production increased (quadratic; P<.01) for the FC and NFC diets, but decreased (quadratic; P<.001) for the PR diet. Increasing D quadratically increased (P<.001) the molar percentage of acetate and propionate, but quadratically decreased (P<.001) butyrate and valerate for the FC and NFC diets. For the PR diet, the molar percentage of propionate and valerate increased (quadratic; P<.01), whereas acetate and butyrate decreased (linear; P<.001) in response to increasing D. Molar percentage of isobutyrate and isovalerate decreased (P<.01) with increasing D for all three diets. As D increased, daily microbial N production showed quadratic responses with maximum values achieved at .126, .143, and .187/h D for the FC, NFC, and PR diet, respectively. There was a positive correlation between microbial growth efficiency (MOEFF) and D. A quadratic model fit the data of MOEFF as affected by D, and maximum MOEFF of 37.3, 59.6, and 71.4 g of bacterial N/kg OM truly fermented were calculated to be achieved at .177, .314, and .207/h D for the FC, NFC, and PR diet, respectively. Dilution rate significantly influenced the ruminal microbial fermentation of fibrous and nonfibrous carbohydrates and proteins, and was positively related to microbial yield and growth efficiency. In addition, microbial nitrogen composition, and therefore efficiency, was affected by substrate fermented. (+info)
(3/3525) Relationship between ruminal starch degradation and the physical characteristics of corn grain.
The objectives of this study were to determine the range of variation in the rate and extent of in situ ruminal starch degradation of 14 corns differing in vitreousness and to predict ruminal starch degradability by physical characteristics of corn grains. This study was conducted with eight dent and six flint corns. Ruminal starch degradability was determined by an in situ technique on 3-mm ground grains. Physical characteristics of corn grain were measured: hardness by grinding energy and particle size distribution, apparent and true densities, and specific surface area. Ruminal DM and starch degradabilities averaged 50 and 55.1% and varied from 39.7 to 71.5% and from 40.6 to 77.6%, respectively. Ruminal starch degradability averaged 61.9 and 46.2% in dent and flint types, respectively. The proportion of coarse particles (61.9 vs. 69.6% for dent and flint, respectively), the apparent density (1.29 vs. 1.36 g/cm3 for dent and flint, respectively), and the specific surface area (.13 vs. .07 m2/g for dent and flint, respectively) varied with the vitreousness. Ruminal starch degradability could be predicted accurately by vitreousness (r2 = .89) or by the combination of apparent density and 1,000-grain weight (R2 = .91), a measurement faster than the vitreousness determination. (+info)
(4/3525) Macronutrient intake and change in mammographic density at menopause: results from a randomized trial.
To examine the effects of dietary fat intake on breast cancer risk, we are conducting a randomized trial of dietary intervention in women with extensive areas of radiologically dense breast tissue on mammography, a risk factor for breast cancer. Early results show that after 2 years on a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet there is a significant reduction in area of density, particularly in women going through menopause. In women who went through menopause during the 2-year follow-up, the mean decreases in area of density and percentage of density in the intervention group were 11.0 cm2 and 11.0%, respectively, whereas the control group decreased 4.5 cm2 and 5.2%. The purpose of this analysis was to determine whether changes in intake of specific macronutrients could account for the observed reduction in breast density in these women. Differences between 2-year and baseline values of macronutrients (averaged over 3 nonconsecutive days of food intake) were calculated. We examined the effect of dietary variables, adjusted for changes in total calorie intake and weight and for family history of breast cancer, on changes in area of density and percentage of density using linear regression. Reduction in total or saturated fat intake or cholesterol intake was significantly associated with decreased dense area (p < or = .004). The most significant dietary variable associated with reduction in percentage of density was reduction in dietary cholesterol intake (P = 0.001), although reducing saturated fat intake was of borderline significance (P = 0.05). The effect of the membership in the intervention and control groups on change in area of density or percentage of density was reduced by models that included changes in intake of any fat, or cholesterol, or carbohydrates. The observation of an effect of diet at menopause on breast density, a marker of increased risk of breast cancer, may be an indication that exposures at this time have an enhanced effect on subsequent risk. (+info)
(5/3525) Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads.
We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size. (+info)
(6/3525) Rapidly available glucose in foods: an in vitro measurement that reflects the glycemic response.
BACKGROUND: A chemically based classification of dietary carbohydrates that takes into account the likely site, rate, and extent of digestion is presented. The classification divides dietary carbohydrates into sugars, starch fractions, and nonstarch polysaccharides, and groups them into rapidly available glucose (RAG) and slowly available glucose (SAG) as to the amounts of glucose (from sugar and starch, including maltodextrins) likely to be available for rapid and slow absorption, respectively, in the human small intestine. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that RAG is an important food-related determinant of the glycemic response. DESIGN: The measurement of RAG, SAG, and starch fractions by an in vitro technique is described, based on the measurement by HPLC of the glucose released from a test food during timed incubation with digestive enzymes under standardized conditions. Eight healthy adult subjects consumed 8 separate test meals ranging in RAG content from 11 to 49 g. RESULTS: The correlation between glycemic response and RAG was highly significant (P < 0.0001) and a given percentage increase in RAG was associated with the same percentage increase in glycemic response. After subject variation was accounted for, RAG explained 70% of the remaining variance in glycemic response. CONCLUSIONS: We show the significance of in vitro measurements of RAG in relation to glycemic response in human studies. The simple in vitro measurement of RAG and SAG is of physiologic relevance and could serve as a tool for investigating the importance of the amount, type, and form of dietary carbohydrates for health. (+info)
(7/3525) Composition of enteral diets and meals providing optimal absorption rates of nutrients in mini pigs.
BACKGROUND: Commercial enteral diets differ widely in nutrient composition. It is unknown whether the nutrient composition of the diets influences intestinal absorption. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different enteral diets providing 60% of energy as carbohydrate, protein, or fat or 33.3% of energy from each nutrient on intestinal absorption in mini pigs. DESIGN: Kinetics of nutrient absorption were determined by perfusing a 150-cm jejunal segment. The kinetics of absorption were used to determine optimal relations between the absorption and recovery of each nutrient. From these data, the optimal nutrient composition of the diets providing complete absorption of the macronutrients in the shortest intestinal length was evaluated. Absorption of nutrients was further determined after oral administration of 4 corresponding meals. RESULTS: With all enteral diets, the absorption of nutrients displayed saturation kinetics. Absorption rates of carbohydrate were significantly larger than those of fat and protein. Consequently, the amounts of nutrients remaining unabsorbed per unit length of jejunum differed among the macronutrients. After administration of various test meals, the length of the small intestine required for complete absorption of the nutrients depended on the composition of the meals. The shortest intestinal length for complete absorption was needed for a diet providing 48% of energy as carbohydrate, 23% as protein, and 29% as fat. This composition closely matched the nutritional requirements. CONCLUSION: The nutrient composition of diets can optimize intestinal absorption. This may be especially important in patients with malabsorption or short-bowel syndrome. (+info)
(8/3525) Response of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase to the cephalic phase of insulin secretion.
Modulation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) allows a tissue-specific partitioning of triglyceride-derived fatty acids, and insulin is a major modulator of its activity. The present studies were aimed to assess in rats the contribution of insulin to the response of adipose tissue and muscle LPL to food intake. Epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose LPL rose 65% above fasting values as early as 1 h after the onset of a 30-min high-carbohydrate meal, with a second activity peak 1 h later that was maintained for an additional 2 h. Soleus muscle LPL was decreased by 25% between 0.5 and 4 h after meal intake. The essential contribution of insulin to the LPL response to food intake was determined by preventing the full insulin response to meal intake by administration of diazoxide (150 mg/kg body wt, in the meal). The usual postprandial changes in adipose and muscle LPL did not occur in the absence of an increase in insulinemia. However, the early (60 min) increase in adipose tissue LPL was not prevented by the drug, likely because of the maintenance of the early centrally mediated phase of insulin secretion. In a subsequent study, rats chronically implanted with a gastric cannula were used to demonstrate that the postprandial rise in adipose LPL is independent of nutrient absorption and can be elicited by the cephalic (preabsorptive) phase of insulin secretion. Obese Zucker rats were used because of their strong cephalic insulin response. After an 8-h fast, rats were fed a liquid diet ad libitum (orally, cannula closed), sham fed (orally, cannula opened), or fed directly into the stomach via the cannula during 4 h. Insulinemia increased 10-fold over fasting levels in ad libitum- and intragastric-fed rats and threefold in sham-fed rats. Changes in adipose tissue LPL were proportional to the elevation in plasma insulin levels, demonstrating that the cephalic-mediated rise in insulinemia, in the absence of nutrient absorption, stimulates adipose LPL. These results demonstrate the central role of insulin in the postprandial response of tissue LPL, and they show that cephalically mediated insulin secretion is able to stimulate adipose LPL. (+info)