Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.United StatesDietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Diet Fads: Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.TriglyceridesMeat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Great BritainGastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)JapanAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.EnglandDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Diet, Macrobiotic: An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Europe6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Mice, Inbred C57BLZinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.CaliforniaFamily Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)IndiaFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Rats, Inbred F344Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.BrazilLipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Nuts: Botanically, a type of single-seeded fruit in which the pericarp enclosing the seed is a hard woody shell. In common usage the term is used loosely for any hard, oil-rich kernel. Of those commonly eaten, only hazel, filbert, and chestnut are strictly nuts. Walnuts, pecans, almonds, and coconuts are really drupes. Brazil nuts, pistachios, macadamias, and cashews are really seeds with a hard shell derived from the testa rather than the pericarp.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid is a nutrition guide that was developed by Oldways, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the World Health Organization in 1993. It summarizes the Mediterranean Diet pattern of eating, suggesting the types and frequency of foods that should be enjoyed every day.Animal fatVegetarian cuisine: Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal derived rennet). For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted.Low-protein diet: A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. A low-protein diet is prescribed for those with inherited metabolic disorders, such as Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used by people with kidney or liver disease.Cyclic ketogenic diet: A cyclic ketogenic diet (or carb-cycling) is a low-carbohydrate diet with intermittent periods of high or moderate carbohydrate consumption. This is a form of the general Ketogenic diet that is used as a way to maximize fat loss while maintaining the ability to perform high-intensity exercise.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.South Beach Diet: The South Beach Diet is a popular fad diet developed by Arthur Agatston and promoted in a best-selling 2003 book.Sandra Bastin for University of Kentucky Extension Service.Complete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Low sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietDiabetic diet: Diabetic diet refers to the diet that is recommended for people with diabetes mellitus, or high blood glucose. There is much disagreement regarding what this diet should consist of.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.CholesterolTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNitrogen deficiencyGeneral Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsGluten-free diet: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that excludes gluten, a protein composite found in wheat, barley, rye, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). The inclusion of oats in gluten-free diet remains controversial.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.TriglycerideWhite meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Vegetable juiceNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Heptadecanoic acidCasein: Casein ( or , from Latin caseus, "cheese") is the name for a family of related phosphoproteins (αS1, αS2, β, κ). These proteins are commonly found in mammalian milk, making up 80% of the proteins in cow milk and between 20% and 45% of the proteins in human milk.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Samuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Niigata UniversityLipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Short-chain fatty acid: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),"Role of Volatile Fatty Acids in Development of the Cecal Microflora in Broiler Chickens during Growth" at asm.org are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail of less than six carbon atoms.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).List of minerals (complete): Mineralogy is an active science in which minerals are discovered or recognised on a regular basis. Use of old mineral names is also discontinued, for example when a name is no longer considered valid.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.
(1/1424) Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study.
Free iron has been implicated in lipid peroxidation and ischemic myocardial damage, and it has been suggested that iron is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. The authors investigated whether dietary iron is associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study, a community-based prospective cohort study of 7,983 elderly subjects in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The study sample consisted of 4,802 participants who at baseline had no known history of myocardial infarction and for whom dietary data were available. From 1990 to 1996, 124 subjects had a myocardial infarction. No association was observed between total iron intake and risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for age and sex (relative risk for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.45, p for trend = 0.640). Heme iron intake was positively associated with risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake = 1.83, 95% CI 1.16-2.91, p for trend = 0.008) after adjustment for age and sex, and this association persisted after multivariate adjustment (relative risk = 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.09, p for trend = 0.010). A distinction between fatal and nonfatal cases of myocardial infarction indicated that the association of heme iron with myocardial infarction was more pronounced in fatal cases. The results suggest that a high dietary heme iron intake is related to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and that it may specifically affect the rate of fatality from myocardial infarction. (+info)
(2/1424) Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women.
BACKGROUND: Short-term experimental studies suggest that dietary variety may influence body fatness but no long-term human studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary variety within food groups influences energy intake and body fatness. DESIGN: Seventy-one healthy men and women (aged 20-80 y), who provided accurate reports of dietary intake and completed a body-composition assessment, were studied. RESULTS: Dietary variety was positively associated with energy intake within each of 10 food groups (r = 0.27-0.56, P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis with age and sex controlled for, dietary variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates (as a group) was positively associated with body fatness (partial r = 0.38, P = 0.001) whereas variety from vegetables was negatively associated (partial r = -0.31, P = 0.01) (R2 = 0.46, P < 0.0001). In separate models, both a variety ratio (variety of vegetables/variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates) and percentage dietary fat were significant predictors of body fatness (controlled for age and sex, partial r = -0.39 and 0.31, respectively, P < 0.01). However, dietary fat was no longer significantly associated with body fatness when the variety ratio and dietary fat were included in the same model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, coupled with those of previous short-term studies, suggest that a high variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates coupled with a low variety of vegetables promotes long-term increases in energy intake and body fatness. These findings may help explain the rising prevalence of obesity. (+info)
(3/1424) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study.
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk. METHODS: The study included 38,740 Iowa women, aged 55 to 69 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain data on grain intake. RESULTS: Median whole grain intake quintiles ranged from a median of 0.2 to more than 3 servings per day. Women with higher intakes had healthier lifestyles and less baseline disease. The total death rate decreased in increasing quintiles, and the pattern repeated for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes combined. Adjusted for lifestyle and baseline disease, the relative hazard rate ratio for total death was about 0.85 in daily consumers of whole grain. Findings persisted in strata of baseline healthy and diseased and were not explained by dietary fiber. Rates of total mortality, but not cardiovascular disease mortality, were higher among frequent consumers of refined grain. CONCLUSIONS: Total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States. (+info)
(4/1424) Genetic effects on weight change and food intake in Swedish adult twins.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, synergistic effects of genes and environments may be important in the development of obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test for genetic effects on food consumption frequency, food preferences, and their interaction with subsequent weight gain. DESIGN: Complete data on the frequencies of consumption of 11 foods typical of the Swedish diet were available for 98 monozygotic and 176 dizygotic twin pairs aged 25-59 y who are part of the Swedish Twin Registry. The data were collected in 1973 as part of a questionnaire study. Body mass index was measured in 1973 and again in 1984. RESULTS: There was some evidence that genetic effects influenced the frequency of intake of some foods. Similarity among monozygotic twins exceeded that among dizygotic twins for intake of flour and grain products and fruit in men and women, intake of milk in men, and intake of vegetables and rice in women, suggesting that genes influence preferences for these foods. Analyses conducted for twins reared together and apart also suggested greater monozygotic than dizygotic correlations, but cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were all insignificant, suggesting that the genes that affect consumption frequencies are not responsible for mediating the relation between the frequency of intake and weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic effects and the frequency of intake are independently related to change in body mass index. However, there was no suggestion of differential genetic effects on weight gain that were dependent on the consumption frequency of the foods studied. (+info)
(5/1424) Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and related fractures will be growing public health problems as the population ages. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary components contributing to an alkaline environment (dietary potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Dietary intake measures were associated with both cross-sectional (baseline) and 4-y longitudinal change in BMD among surviving members of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD was measured at 3 hip sites and 1 forearm site. RESULTS: Greater potassium intake was significantly associated with greater BMD at all 4 sites for men and at 3 sites for women (P < 0.05). Magnesium intake was associated with greater BMD at one hip site for both men and women and in the forearm for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with BMD at 3 sites for men and 2 for women. Greater intakes of potassium and magnesium were also each associated with less decline in BMD at 2 hip sites, and greater fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less decline at 1 hip site, in men. There were no significant associations between baseline diet and subsequent bone loss in women. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that alkaline-producing dietary components, specifically, potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables, contribute to maintenance of BMD. (+info)
(6/1424) Underreporting of habitual food intake is explained by undereating in highly motivated lean women.
Underreporting of habitual food intake can be explained by underrecording and/or undereating. This study was designed to discriminate between the two errors mentioned, by measuring energy and water balance. Twenty-four lean female dieticians were recruited as subjects. Energy intake and water intake were measured for 1 wk with a weighed dietary record. Energy expenditure was estimated from measurements of resting metabolic rate, and measured physical activity with a triaxial accelerometer for movement registration. Water loss was estimated with deuterium-labeled water. Energy balance was determined by measuring the change in body mass over a nonrecording week (preceding the recording week) and over the recording week. Mean energy and water intake were 8.5 +/- 1.0 MJ/d and 2.3 +/- 0.5 L/d. The change in body mass in the nonrecording week was 0.1 +/- 0.6 kg and in the recording week -0.6 +/- 0.8 kg (paired t test; P = 0.02), indicating 16% undereating. Recorded water intake plus calculated metabolic water closely matched measured water loss (r = 0.93; P = 0.0001), which indicated a high recording precision. In conclusion, in the studied group of highly motivated lean women, there was 16% underreporting of habitual food intake, which could be explained by undereating. (+info)
(7/1424) Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men.
BACKGROUND: Studies in animals have shown that the frequency of urination is inversely associated with the level of potential carcinogens in the urothelium. In humans, an increase in total fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and urothelium by diluting urinary metabolites and increasing the frequency of voiding. The data on fluid intake in relation to the risk of bladder cancer are inconclusive. METHODS: We examined the relation between total fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer over a period of 10 years among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. There were 252 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer during the follow-up period. Information on total fluid intake was derived from the reported frequency of consumption of the 22 types of beverages on the food-frequency questionnaire, which was completed by each of the 47,909 participants who were free of cancer in 1986. Logistic-regression analyses were performed to adjust for known and suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. RESULTS: Total daily fluid intake was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer; the multivariate relative risk was 0.51 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.80) for the highest quintile of total daily fluid intake (>2531 ml per day) as compared with the lowest quintile (<1290 ml per day). The consumption of water contributed to a lower risk (relative risk, 0.49 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.86] for > or =1440 ml [6 cups] per day vs. <240 ml [1 cup] per day), as did the consumption of other fluids (relative risk, 0.63 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.99] for >1831 ml per day vs. <735 ml per day). CONCLUSIONS: A high fluid intake is associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in men. (+info)
(8/1424) Foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol in middle-aged Japanese.
On the basis of 351 one-day weighed diet records, we selected foods/recipes contributing to nutrients of interest for a data-based food frequency questionnaire by contribution analysis and multiple regression analysis. Total fat was largely of animal and vegetable origin, irrespective of analytic methods. Saturated fatty acid was mostly from animal and vegetable sources according to contribution analysis, and that of animal origin was the main contributor by multiple regression analysis. Mono-unsaturated fatty acid was substantially supplied by animal and vegetable products by either analytic method. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid, n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid were found to be of vegetable origin and chicken egg according to contribution analysis; while vegetable oil and mayonnaise were the major contributors to variance in intake. Arachidonic acid was, however, mostly provided by animal sources including chicken egg and fish, irrespective of analytic methods. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid were of vegetable and marine origin. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were particularly from marine products, irrespective of analytic methods, except for chicken egg in docosahexaenoic acid by contribution analysis. Cholesterol was of animal and marine origin by either analytic method. Thus, foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol differed considerably. (+info)