Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of CARBOHYDRATES. This is in distinction to a regular DIET.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Ketogenic Diet: A course of food intake that is high in FATS and low in CARBOHYDRATES. This diet provides sufficient PROTEINS for growth but insufficient amount of carbohydrates for the energy needs of the body. A ketogenic diet generates 80-90% of caloric requirements from fats and the remainder from proteins.Mice, Inbred C57BLInsulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.TriglyceridesInsulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Diet, Mediterranean: A diet typical of the Mediterranean region characterized by a pattern high in fruits and vegetables, EDIBLE GRAIN and bread, potatoes, poultry, beans, nuts, olive oil and fish while low in red meat and dairy and moderate in alcohol consumption.Diet, Protein-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of protein. It is prescribed in some cases to slow the progression of renal failure. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Diet Fads: Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diabetic Diet: A diet prescribed in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, usually limited in the amount of sugar or readily available carbohydrate. (Dorland, 27th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Diet, Gluten-Free: A diet which is devoid of GLUTENS from WHEAT; BARLEY; RYE; and other wheat-related varieties. The diet is designed to reduce exposure to those proteins in gluten that trigger INFLAMMATION of the small intestinal mucosa in patients with CELIAC DISEASE.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Bronchomalacia: A congenital or acquired condition of underdeveloped or degeneration of CARTILAGE in the BRONCHI. This results in a floppy bronchial wall making patency difficult to maintain. It is characterized by wheezing and difficult breathing.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Rats, Inbred F344Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Calorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.AutobiographyIntestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Safflower Oil: An oily liquid extracted from the seeds of the safflower, Carthamus tinctorius. It is used as a dietary supplement in the management of HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. It is used also in cooking, as a salad oil, and as a vehicle for medicines, paints, varnishes, etc. (Dorland, 28th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Fatty Acids, Omega-6: FATTY ACIDS which have the first unsaturated bond in the sixth position from the omega carbon. A typical American diet tends to contain substantially more omega-6 than OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Protein Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of proteins in the diet, characterized by adaptive enzyme changes in the liver, increase in amino acid synthetases, and diminution of urea formation, thus conserving nitrogen and reducing its loss in the urine. Growth, immune response, repair, and production of enzymes and hormones are all impaired in severe protein deficiency. Protein deficiency may also arise in the face of adequate protein intake if the protein is of poor quality (i.e., the content of one or more amino acids is inadequate and thus becomes the limiting factor in protein utilization). (From Merck Manual, 16th ed; Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p406)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Swine, Miniature: Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.Diet, Macrobiotic: An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Lipotropic Agents: Endogenous factors or drugs that increase the transport and metabolism of LIPIDS including the synthesis of LIPOPROTEINS by the LIVER and their uptake by extrahepatic tissues.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Insulin-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.Cholates: Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Azoxymethane: A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Juglans: A plant genus of the family JUGLANDACEAE that provides the familiar walnut.Carnitine O-Palmitoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the conversion of palmitoyl-CoA to palmitoylcarnitine in the inner mitochondrial membrane. EC 2.3.1.21.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.

*  Study Proves High-Fat Diet Promotes Health and Longevity

Large-scale study proves high intakes of healthy fats, especially saturated fats boosts health and longevity. ... The Benefits of a Cyclical Ketogenic Diet The MMT diet is a CYCLICAL or targeted ketogenic diet, high in healthy fats and fiber ... A ketogenic diet - which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats - is key for boosting mitochondrial function ... Large-Scale Study Proves High-Fat Diet Promotes Health and Longevity Previous Article Next Article ...
https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/09/11/amp/ketogenic-promotes-health-longevity.aspx

*  Study Proves High-Fat Diet Promotes Health and Longevity

Large-scale study proves high intakes of healthy fats, especially saturated fats boosts health and longevity. ... The Benefits of a Cyclical Ketogenic Diet The MMT diet is a CYCLICAL or targeted ketogenic diet, high in healthy fats and fiber ... A ketogenic diet - which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats - is key for boosting mitochondrial function ... Low-Fructose Diet Significantly Reduces Liver Fat in Mere Days In related news, another recent study found a reduced-sugar diet ...
articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/09/11/ketogenic-promotes-health-longevity.aspx

*  UCLA Study Finds Link Between High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet And Pancreas Cancer - Redorbit

Mice fed the normal diet had mostly normal pancreases with very few scattered lesions. Mice fed the high-fat, high-calorie diet ... The research team also set parameters to assess the impact of the high-fat, high-calorie diet on mouse pancreas tissue, such as ... Mice that ate the high-fat, high-calorie diet gained an average of 15.9 grams (plus or minus 3.2 grams). ... Researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that mice made obese by high-calorie, high-fat diets ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1112964741/ucla-study-finds-link-between-high-fat-high-calorie-diet-and-pancreas-cancer/

*  Low fat-high fruit diet may reduce prostate cancer risk - Thaindian News

A diet low in fat and red meat and high in fruits and vegetables may prove beneficial in preventing and treating prostate ... The researchers found that a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruit, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, ... Low fat-high fruit diet may reduce prostate cancer risk. June 4th, 2009 - 1:16 pm ICT by ANI Tweet. ... Washington, June 4 (ANI): A diet low in fat and red meat and high in fruits and vegetables may prove beneficial in preventing ...
thaindian.com/newsportal/health/low-fat-high-fruit-diet-may-reduce-prostate-cancer-risk_100200610.html

*  high fat diet

... high-fat and yo-yo diet groups. The mice that were placed on the yo-yo diet alternated between a low-fat and high-fat diet. ... Tag Archives: high fat diet. High-Fat Diets Cause Brain Inflammation. by Kelsey Murray ... The mice on the yo-yo diet were healthy when they followed a low-fat diet and had higher body fat, blood sugar and body weight ... High-Fat Diets Actually Help the Heart, Study Finds. File this one in the "goes against everything we've been told" file. ...
dietsinreview.com/diet_column/tag/high-fat-diet/

*  Prometic's PBI-4050 Shown to Reduce Liver Damage and Fibrosis in High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity and

Prometic's PBI-4050 Shown to Reduce Liver Damage and Fibrosis in High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Mouse ... Prometic's PBI-4050 Shown to Reduce Liver Damage and Fibrosis in High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Mouse ... Prometic's PBI-4050 Shown to Reduce Liver Damage and Fibrosis in High-Fat Diet Induced Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Mouse ... PBI-4050 reduces liver damage and fibrosis in a High-Fat diet mouse model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/prometics-pbi-4050-shown-to-reduce-liver-damage-and-fibrosis-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-mouse-model-619939153.html

*  New Link Between High Fat Western Diet and Atherosclerosis Identified Columbia University Medical Center Study

A diet high in saturated fat raises levels of endothelial lipase , an enzyme associated with the development of atherosclerosis ... New Link Between High-Fat "Western" Diet and Atherosclerosis Identified, Columbia University Medical Center Study ... Washington: A diet high in saturated fat raises levels of endothelial lipase (EL), an enzyme associated with the development of ... Conversely their study, conducted in mice, found that a diet high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fat lowers levels of this enzyme. ...
biospace.com/News/new-link-between-high-fat-western-diet-and/275613/source=Featured

*  High-Fat Diet-Induced Alterations in the Feeding Suppression of Low-Dose Nisoxetine, a Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake...

High-Fat Diet-Induced Alterations in the Feeding Suppression of Low-Dose Nisoxetine, a Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake ... Nicholas T. Bello, Amy L. Walters, Jessica L. Verpeut, and Priscila P. Cunha, "High-Fat Diet-Induced Alterations in the Feeding ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2013/457047/cta/

*  The Antiobesity Effect of Polygonum aviculare L. Ethanol Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice : Figure 7

Figure 7: The effect of PAE on serum MDA levels in HFD-induced obese mice. Values are expressed as means ± SEM ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/626397/fig7/

*  Hi! Lurker speaking up.. - 3 Fat Chicks on a Diet Weight Loss Community

Hi. I've been lurking for awhile.. just thought I would say hello I had a quick question.. does anyone have some pointers to ... 3 Fat Chicks on a Diet Weight Loss Community , Support Forum , Support Groups , 20-Somethings ... Hi! Lurker speaking up... Hi. I've been lurking for awhile.. just thought I would say hello I had a quick question.. does ... Hi Tanya!. The weight range for someone that is 5'8' is 131-158, so it's not as bad as you think! Just work on getting into ...
3fatchicks.com/forum/20-somethings/15445-hi-lurker-speaking-up.html

*  50k-food health: Ridicule of paper - "High-Fat Diet Cause Type 2 Diabetes? | Mark's Daily Apple

So what can we learn from all this? Does this study - or rodent research in general - have much relevance for those of us who lack tails, fuzzy ears, and adorable pink noses?. The answer is an equivocal "yes and no." One reason mice are a favored lab animal is that they share so many genes with humans - 15,187 of them, to be exact. Heck, it was only 90 million years ago that we split from a common ancestor. I've met Okinawans older than that!. But that doesn't mean gene expression always works the same, or that the causes and progression of disease are identical across species. Even when high-fat diets catapult mice towards diabetes, for instance, their markers for disease don't always resemble ours. Unlike metabolically damaged humans, who tend to have rock-bottom HDL cholesterol and rising triglycerides, some mice experience higher HDL and unchanged (or reduced!) triglycerides when eating the diets that make them diseased ...
50kzone.blogspot.com/2011/08/ridicule-of-paper-high-fat-diet-cause.html

*  brain Healthy high-fat diet protects the brain from aging

Healthy high-fat diet protects the brain from aging NaturalNews) A diet high in healthy fats may actually slow the aging process, including stemming off the br
chemtrailawareness.forumotion.co.uk/t5821-brain-healthy-high-fat-diet-protects-the-brain-from-aging

*  Low-Carb High-Fat Diet Reader Survey | Low Carb High Fat Diet

I've been doing a lot of writing here for a while now, and I get a little feedback from folks occasionally about what they enjoy reading and what they would like to see more of. It's always great to hear from you!. It's also great to track the statistics and see what articles are the most popular (my recipe for Low-Carb High-Fat Almond Shortbread Cookies) and what search terms most people use to find this site ("low carb" which is no surprise).. But I wanted to give you an opportunity to voice your interests directly. It would be great if you could take this quick three-question survey and let me know what you want to see more of. ...
lowcarbhighfatdiet.com/2014/07/329/

*  High-fat and Sugary Diet Severely Damage Liver and Other Vital Organs ( A new study has shown the severe reperc...)

Health,A new study has shown the severe repercussions of high-fat food combin...The study was conducted by a team of researchers led by Brent Te...As part of the study researchers examined mice for 16 weeks to ...The mice were not forced to eat rather they were able to eat w...Researchers found that fructose actually suppressed the fullness...,High-fat,and,Sugary,Diet,Severely,Damage,Liver,and,Other,Vital,Organs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news/High-fat-and-Sugary-Diet-Severely-Damage-Liver-and-Other-Vital-Organs-21418-1/

Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Animal fatDieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Carbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Dry matter: The dry matter (or otherwise known as dry weight) is a measurement of the mass of something when completely dried.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Cyclic ketogenic diet: A cyclic ketogenic diet (or carb-cycling) is a low-carbohydrate diet with intermittent periods of high or moderate carbohydrate consumption. This is a form of the general Ketogenic diet that is used as a way to maximize fat loss while maintaining the ability to perform high-intensity exercise.Adipose tissue macrophages: Adipose tissue macrophages (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue.TriglycerideInsulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid is a nutrition guide that was developed by Oldways, the Harvard School of Public Health, and the World Health Organization in 1993. It summarizes the Mediterranean Diet pattern of eating, suggesting the types and frequency of foods that should be enjoyed every day.Low-protein diet: A low-protein diet is a diet in which people reduce their intake of protein. A low-protein diet is prescribed for those with inherited metabolic disorders, such as Phenylketonuria and Homocystinuria and reduced protein levels have been used by people with kidney or liver disease.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Vegetarian cuisine: Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal derived rennet). For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted.Fatty liverLipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.LeptinHeptadecanoic acidCholesterolComplete Wheat Bran Flakes: Kellogg's Complete Wheat Bran Flakes is a breakfast cereal containing 100% of the United States' Recommended Dietary Allowance of eleven vitamins and minerals, including vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, E, and Iron, Riboflavin, Folic Acid, and Zinc. One 3/4 cup serving contains 3 grams of protein, 5 grams of dietary fiber and 90 calories, 5 of which come from fat.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIAnti-obesity medication: Anti-obesity medication or weight loss drugs are all pharmacological agents that reduce or control weight. These drugs alter one of the fundamental processes of the human body, weight regulation, by altering either appetite, or absorption of calories.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.South Beach Diet: The South Beach Diet is a popular fad diet developed by Arthur Agatston and promoted in a best-selling 2003 book.Sandra Bastin for University of Kentucky Extension Service.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Myokine: A myokine is one of several hundred cytokines or other small proteins (~5–20 kDa) and proteoglycan peptides that are produced and released by muscle cells (myocytes) in response to muscular contractions.Bente Klarlund Pedersen , Thorbjörn C.Low sodium diet: A low sodium diet is a diet that includes no more than 1,500 to 2,400 mg of sodium per day.Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium dietGlucose transporterDiabetic diet: Diabetic diet refers to the diet that is recommended for people with diabetes mellitus, or high blood glucose. There is much disagreement regarding what this diet should consist of.Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Management of obesity: The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower calorie diet a permanent part of an individual's lifestyle.Nitrogen deficiencyProtein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Adiponectin: Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.Corn (medicine): A corn (or clavus, plural clavi or clavuses) is a distinctively shaped callus of dead skin that usually occurs on thin or glabrous (hairless and smooth) skin surfaces, especially on the dorsal surface of toes or fingers. They can sometimes occur on the thicker palmar or plantar skin surfaces.Lipokine: A lipokine is a lipid-controlling hormone. The term "lipokine" was first used by Haiming Cao in 2008 to classify fatty acids which modulate lipid metabolism by what he called a "chaperone effect".Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Gluten-free diet: A gluten-free diet (GFD) is a diet that excludes gluten, a protein composite found in wheat, barley, rye, and all their species and hybrids (such as spelt, kamut, and triticale). The inclusion of oats in gluten-free diet remains controversial.Starch gelatinization: Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water. This irreversibly dissolves the starch granule in water.BronchomalaciaGeneral Mills monster-themed breakfast cereals

(1/1310) Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant on hepatic mitochondrial function in rats fed a high-fat diet.

 (+info)

(2/1310) Fetal liver X receptor activation acutely induces lipogenesis but does not affect plasma lipid response to a high-fat diet in adult mice.

 (+info)

(3/1310) Quantification of plaque neovascularization using contrast ultrasound: a histologic validation.

 (+info)

(4/1310) Changes in cortical bone response to high-fat diet from adolescence to adulthood in mice.

 (+info)

(5/1310) Reduced cardioprotective action of adiponectin in high-fat diet-induced type II diabetic mice and its underlying mechanisms.

 (+info)

(6/1310) Monitoring of arterial wall remodelling in atherosclerotic rabbits with a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent binding to matrix metalloproteinases.

 (+info)

(7/1310) The effect of exercise on the skeletal muscle phospholipidome of rats fed a high-fat diet.

 (+info)

(8/1310) Bioactives from bitter melon enhance insulin signaling and modulate acyl carnitine content in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed mice.

 (+info)



Healthy


  • High intakes of healthy fats - especially saturated fats - boost health and longevity. (mercola.com)
  • A ketogenic diet - which is very low in net carbohydrates and high in healthy fats - is key for boosting mitochondrial function. (mercola.com)
  • Healthy fats also play an important role in maintaining your body's electrical system . (mercola.com)
  • 3 While the book was peer-reviewed by over a dozen health experts and scientists, a new large-scale international study (known as the international Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology, or PURE, study 4 , 5 ) adds further weight to the premise that high intakes of healthy fats - especially saturated fats - boost health and longevity. (mercola.com)
  • Mice fed the high-fat, high-calorie diet had significantly more lesions and had fewer healthy pancreases. (redorbit.com)
  • The mice on the yo-yo diet were healthy when they followed a low-fat diet and had higher body fat, blood sugar and body weight when they were on their high-fat rotation. (dietsinreview.com)
  • Notice what wasn't on that list of a healthy diet? (dietsinreview.com)
  • Even if we take the offspring, after they're weaned from their mothers, and put them back onto a normal, healthy diet, their susceptibility to stress and anxiety still remains," said researcher Kevin Grove. (dietsinreview.com)
  • I didn't start eating in a low-carb high-fat way just because I thought it was going to be healthy for me. (lowcarbhighfatdiet.com)

inflammation


  • The research team also set parameters to assess the impact of the high-fat, high-calorie diet on mouse pancreas tissue, such as increased inflammation and other biological signs that indicate pancreas problems. (redorbit.com)
  • The study showed that the mice fed a diet high in fats and calories gained significantly more weight, had abnormalities in their metabolism and increased insulin levels, and displayed marked pancreas tissue inflammation and development of pancreas intraepithelial neoplasias. (redorbit.com)
  • These observations strongly suggest that such a diet leads to weight gain and metabolism disturbances, can cause pancreas inflammation, and promotes pancreas lesions that are precursors to cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Although it takes weeks or months for inflammation from high-fat diets to occur in other parts, it only takes a few hours for the same thing to happen in the brain. (dietsinreview.com)
  • A subgroup of NAFLD patients displays liver cell injury and inflammation in addition to excessive fat (steatohepatitis). (prnewswire.com)

Trans


  • If you're like most people, you're probably confused about trans fats. (medicinenet.com)
  • Manufacturers will probably begin reducing the amount of trans fats in packaged foods during the next few years, so this information may change. (medicinenet.com)
  • Margarine is a twisted sister -- it's loaded with trans fats and saturated fats, both of which can lead to heart disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Stick margarine has 2.8 grams of trans fat per tablespoon, and 2.1 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tub margarine has 0.6 grams of trans fat per tablespoon, and 1.2 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Shortening has 4.2 grams of trans fat per tablespoon, and 3.4 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Butter has 0.3 grams of trans fat per tablespoon, and 7.2 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Tip: Look for soft-tub margarine, because it is less likely to have trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Important note: When you cook with margarine or shortening, you will not increase the amount of trans fat in food, says Moore. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cake mixes, Bisquick, and other mixes all have several grams of trans fat per serving. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ramen noodles and soup cups contain very high levels of trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even if the chains use liquid oil, fries are sometimes partially fried in trans fat before they're shipped to the restaurant. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pancakes and grilled sandwiches also have some trans fat, from margarine slathered on the grill. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even if the label says it's low-fat, it still has trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Mrs. Smith's Apple Pie has 4 grams trans fat in every delicious slice. (medicinenet.com)
  • Swanson Potato Topped Chicken Pot Pie has 1 gram trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Banquet Chicken Pot Pie has no trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • they likely have trans fat in the dough. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pot pies are often loaded with too much saturated fat, even if they have no trans fat, so forget about it. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even worse news -- more trans fats are used in commercially baked products than any other foods. (medicinenet.com)
  • Doughnuts contain shortening in the dough and are cooked in trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cookies and cakes (with shortening-based frostings) from supermarket bakeries have plenty of trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some higher-quality baked goods use butter instead of margarine, so they contain less trans fat, but more saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Donuts have about 5 grams of trans fat apiece, and nearly 5 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cream-filled cookies have 1.9 grams of trans fat, and 1.2 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Pound cake has 4.3 grams of trans fat per slice, and 3.4 grams of saturated fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even "reduced fat" brands can still have trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • Anything fried (like potato chips and corn chips) or buttery crackers have trans fat. (medicinenet.com)
  • A small bag of potato chips has 3.2 grams of trans fat. (medicinenet.com)

fructose


  • And we find that fatty liver is reversed by removing added fructose from our diet. (mercola.com)
  • A new study has shown the severe repercussions of high-fat food combined with sugar-sweetened high fructose corn syrup diet and a sedentary lifestyle, on liver and other vital organs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As part of the study, researchers examined mice for 16 weeks to see the effects of a diet that was 40 percent fat and replete with high fructose corn syrup, a sweetener common in soda and some fruit juices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We wanted to mirror the kind of diet many Americans subsist on, so the high fat content is about the same you'd find in a typical McDonald's meal, and the high fructose corn syrup translates to about eight cans of soda a day in a human diet, which is not far off with what some people consume, which can lead to cirrhosis and, ultimately, death. (bio-medicine.org)

calories


  • Among the PURE participants, those with the highest intake of dietary fat (35 percent of daily calories) were 23 percent less likely to have died during the study period than those with the lowest fat intake (10 percent of calories). (mercola.com)
  • PURE participants with the highest carbohydrate intake (77 percent of daily calories) were 28 percent more likely to have died than those with the lowest carbohydrate intake (46 percent of calories). (mercola.com)

mice that ate


  • The mice that ate a normal diet gained an average of 7.2 grams (plus or minus approximately 2.8 grams) over 14 months. (redorbit.com)
  • Mice that ate the high-fat, high-calorie diet gained an average of 15.9 grams (plus or minus 3.2 grams). (redorbit.com)
  • The other study found that mice that ate a high-fat diet were slower to replace the old, non-functioning neurons. (dietsinreview.com)

obesity


  • Eibl and his colleagues set out to model diet-induced obesity and the development of pancreas cancer in a set of mice and then compare them to genetically identical mice that had not been given a high-fat, high-calorie diet. (redorbit.com)
  • PBI-4050 reduces liver damage and fibrosis in a High-Fat diet mouse model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. (prnewswire.com)

NAFLD


  • NAFLD is a condition defined by excessive fat accumulation in the form of triglycerides (steatosis) in the liver. (prnewswire.com)

highly processed


  • Even the consumption of highly processed or charcoaled meats, dairy products, and fats was apparently linked to prostate cancer. (thaindian.com)
  • In fact, a balanced diet that includes mono- and polyunsaturated fats, and which replaces simple sugars and highly processed foods with complex carbs , are most beneficial for damaged hearts. (dietsinreview.com)

health


  • Its research team recorded the eating habits of 135,000 adults in 18 countries - including high-income, medium-income, and low-income nations - and followed the participants' health for more than seven years on average. (mercola.com)
  • You've also heard that losing weight and gaining it back continually through fad diets or any other means just isn't good for your health. (dietsinreview.com)
  • According to the study which was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the Case Center for Imaging Research, all fats are not created equal. (dietsinreview.com)
  • New research from the Oregon National Primate Research Center, presented at the Society for Neuroscience annual conference in San Diego, may have expectant and nursing mothers re-thinking the fat content of their diets and how it will permanently affect their children's behavior and level of anxiety , not just their long-term health. (dietsinreview.com)
  • We all know that eating a diet high in fat will have an adverse affect on our own health, causing weight problems, heart attacks, diabetes and a myriad of other issues. (dietsinreview.com)
  • In addition to talking about some of the very specific effects of following a low-carb high-fat diet, he touches on a few of the issues that we don't address enough, Including dealing with muscle cramps, and the effect of salt on our health. (lowcarbhighfatdiet.com)
  • It our genetically powerful adaptability that makes it difficult for people to choose one way eating or another, especially when there're so many significant health implications being touted for one diet or another. (lowcarbhighfatdiet.com)
  • If you haven't been listening to his network of podcasts, you're missing out on some wonderful and broad perspectives on why low-carb high-fat diets are the way to go for health and lifestyle. (lowcarbhighfatdiet.com)

accumulation


  • While Cpt1b+/- mice maintained a slower weight gain with less fat mass than WT mice, accumulation of lipid intermediates became evident in the muscle of Cpt1b+/- but not WT mice after 7 months of HFD feeding. (omicsonline.org)

raises


  • Washington: A diet high in saturated fat raises levels of endothelial lipase (EL), an enzyme associated with the development of atherosclerosis, according to Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers. (biospace.com)

researchers


  • Researchers at UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that mice made obese by high-calorie, high-fat diets develop abnormally high numbers of lesions known to be precursors to pancreas cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • In the review, the researchers analysed if certain modifications in diet could be beneficial in preventing prostate cancer. (thaindian.com)
  • The researchers found that a diet low in fat, high in vegetables and fruit, and avoiding high energy intake, excessive meat, and excessive dairy products and calcium intake might be helpful in preventing prostate cancer, and for patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. (thaindian.com)
  • According to Live Science , researchers created a high-fat diet based on what the typical American ingests for pregnant monkeys in the experimental group. (dietsinreview.com)

excessive


  • Unfortunately, mitochondrial damage is more the norm than the exception these days, thanks to the prevalence of processed food diets, inactivity, lack of sun exposure and excessive exposure to toxins and non-native electromagnetic fields from cellphones , routers, cellular towers and more. (mercola.com)

beneficial


  • Washington, June 4 (ANI): A diet low in fat and red meat and high in fruits and vegetables may prove beneficial in preventing and treating prostate cancer, according to a new review. (thaindian.com)
  • A recent study published in American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology suggests that a high-fat diet is OK and even beneficial for the heart. (dietsinreview.com)

findings


  • The findings establish a "new" link between diet and atherosclerosis and suggest a novel way to prevent cardiovascular heart disease. (biospace.com)

found that a diet


  • Conversely their study, conducted in mice, found that a diet high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fat lowers levels of this enzyme. (biospace.com)

intake


  • The rates of various cardiovascular diseases were essentially the same across fat intake, while strokes were less common among those with a high fat intake. (mercola.com)

liver


  • When your body is able to burn fat for fuel, your liver creates water-soluble fats called ketones that burn far more efficiently than carbs, thereby creating fewer reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary free radicals. (mercola.com)
  • In related news, another recent study found a reduced-sugar diet lowered liver fat by more than 20 percent in just nine days - a reduction co-author Susan Noworolski called "unprecedented. (mercola.com)
  • According to lead author Jean-Marc Schwarz, "Our study clearly shows that sugar is turned into fat, which may explain the epidemic of fatty liver in children consuming soda and food with added sugar. (mercola.com)
  • According to Dr. Lyne Gagnon, Vice-President of R&D Pre-clinical of Prometic "This extensive preclinical study enabled us to further characterize the effects of PBI-4050 on metabolic regulation and white adipose tissue and liver fibrosis induced in a high fat diet model. (prnewswire.com)
  • High-fat and Sugary Diet Severely Damage Liver and Other Vital Organs ( A new study has shown the severe reperc. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A high-fat and sugar-sweetened diet compounded by a sedentary lifestyle will have severe repercussions for your liver and other vital organs. (bio-medicine.org)

news


  • The good news is that it is somewhat reversible but for some it will take major changes in diet and lifestyle, he added. (bio-medicine.org)

levels


  • 7 On the contrary, a high-fat, low-carb diet has been shown to improve both blood sugar levels and blood lipids. (mercola.com)

another


  • Another surprising detail of this study was that the yo-yo diet mice lived just as long as the mice that maintained a low-fat diet the entire time. (dietsinreview.com)

change


  • He also discusses the way that low-carb high-fat diets can change our perception of temperature, making us colder sooner. (lowcarbhighfatdiet.com)

normal


  • Mice fed the normal diet had mostly normal pancreases with very few scattered lesions. (redorbit.com)

shows


  • This study was done on mice, but it shows that yo-yo dieting isn't as bad as it was once believed to be. (dietsinreview.com)

months


  • This amounted to about six months longer than the mice that followed only a high-fat diet. (dietsinreview.com)
  • We recently reported that mice with muscle isoform CPT1b deficiency demonstrated improved insulin sensitivity when fed a High Fat-Diet (HFD) for up to 5 months. (omicsonline.org)

heart


  • The study, which looked at cardiac function in patients suffering from heart failure, found that that a high-fat diet improved the heart's ability to pump, along with boosting cardiac insulin resistance (which reduces the risk of diabetes ). (dietsinreview.com)
  • That eating too much fat is bad for the heart? (dietsinreview.com)

body


  • diabetic rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection (35 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal [i.p. (biomedsearch.com)

shown


  • A new study has shown the severe repercussions of high-fat food combin. (bio-medicine.org)

advice


  • Conventional advice recommends a low-fat diet for Type 2 diabetics, but this and other research refutes that strategy. (mercola.com)

benefits


  • The benefits of a cyclical ketogenic diet are detailed in my latest bestselling book, " Fat for Fuel . (mercola.com)

back


  • If you bake, use fat-substitute baking products, or just cut back on the bad ingredients, says Moore. (medicinenet.com)