Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Community Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.Adolescent Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Preventive Psychiatry: A discipline concerned with the prevention of mental illness and the promotion of mental health.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Military Psychiatry: Branch of psychiatry concerned with problems related to the prevention, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of mental or emotional disorders of Armed Forces personnel.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Neuropsychiatry: A subfield of psychiatry that emphasizes the somatic substructure on which mental operations and emotions are based, and the functional or organic disturbances of the central nervous system that give rise to, contribute to, or are associated with mental and emotional disorders. (From Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Commitment of Mentally Ill: Legal process required for the institutionalization of a patient with severe mental problems.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Literature, ModernHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Dangerous Behavior: Actions which have a high risk of being harmful or injurious to oneself or others.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Philosophy, MedicalHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Emergency Services, Psychiatric: Organized services to provide immediate psychiatric care to patients with acute psychological disturbances.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Secularism: Indifference to, or rejection of, RELIGION or religious considerations. (From Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Deinstitutionalization: The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual's family, the community, and the health care system.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.United StatesFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Great BritainCountertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Nursing Diagnosis: Conclusions derived from the nursing assessment that establish a health status profile for the patient and from which nursing interventions may be ordered.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Communism: A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Freudian Theory: Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.Biography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Holocaust: A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.Famous PersonsEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.IsraelInterprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.USSRPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Videoconferencing: Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.HistoryPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Reactive Attachment Disorder: Markedly disturbed and developmentally inappropriate social relatedness that begins before age 5 and is associated with grossly pathological child care. The child may persistently fail to initiate and respond to social interactions in a developmentally appropriate way (inhibited type) or there may be a pattern of diffuse attachments with nondiscriminate sociability (disinhibited type). (From DSM-V)Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Jurisprudence: The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Cross-cultural psychiatry: Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the prevalence and form of disorders in different cultures or countries; the study of migrant populations and ethnic diversity within countries; and analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product.Peter Riederer: Peter Riederer (born 1942) is a German neuroscientist with several thousands of citations and around 950 scientific writings. He has published more than 620 scientific papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals that are indexed in the most referent biomedical scientific database Medline.Alejandro Rodriguez (psychiatrist): Alejandro Rodriguez (February 1918 – January 20, 2012) was a Venezuelan-American pediatrician and psychiatrist, known for his pioneering work in child psychiatry. He was the director of the division of child psychiatry at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and conducted pivotal studies on autism and other developmental disorders in children.Graham Young: Graham Fredrick Young (7 September 1947 – 1 August 1990) was an English serial killer who used poison to kill his victims. He was sent to Broadmoor Hospital in 1962 after poisoning several members of his family, killing his stepmother.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric psychiatry. It is published by Elsevier and is the official journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.Abbreviated mental test score: The abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 rapidly to assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. Its uses in medicine have become somewhat wider, e.InsanityKarl Abraham: Karl Abraham (; 3 May 1877 – 25 December 1925) was an early important and influential German psychoanalyst, and a collaborator of Sigmund Freud, who called him his 'best pupil'.Freud Museum at www.Mental disorderBernard Glueck, Jr.: Bernard Charles Glueck, Jr. (August 26, 1914 – July 24, 1999) was an American psychiatrist.Amager HospitalInternational Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project: The International Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project (IPAP) is a non-profit corporation whose purpose is to "enable, enhance, and propagate" use of algorithms for the treatment of some Axis I psychiatric disorders.UCL Institute of NeurologyTwo Rivers Psychiatric Hospital: Two Rivers Behavioral Health System is a psychiatric hospital located in Kansas City, Missouri.List of birds of Serbia: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Serbia. The avifauna of Serbia include a total of 381 species, one of which has been introduced by humans.Cognitive neuropsychiatry: Cognitive neuropsychiatry is a growing multidisciplinary field arising out of cognitive psychology and neuropsychiatry that aims to understand mental illness and psychopathology in terms of models of normal psychological function. A concern with the neural substrates ofInvoluntary commitment: Involuntary commitment or civil commitment is a legal process through which an individual with symptoms of severe mental illness is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).Jonathan AllynNewington Green Unitarian ChurchThe Thrill Killers: The Thrill Killers is a horror/thriller film released in 1964 and directed by low-budget film-maker Ray Dennis Steckler. It stars Cash Flagg (Steckler under a nom de plume) and Liz Renay.Prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal diagnosis or prenatal screening (note that prenatal diagnosis and prenatal screening refer to two different types of tests) is testing for diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. The aim is to detect birth defects such as neural tube defects, Down syndrome, chromosome abnormalities, genetic disorders and other conditions, such as spina bifida, cleft palate, Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, Muscular dystrophy, and fragile X syndrome.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Paul Ferdinand Schilder: Paul Ferdinand Schilder (February 15, 1886, Vienna – December 7, 1940, New York City) was an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, researcher and author of numerous scientific publications. He was a pupil of Sigmund Freud.The Flash ChroniclesBecky JamesZbigniew J. LipowskiSandra Sully (songwriter): Sandra Sully is a songwriter who co-wrote Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now". BMI Website, Songwriter Sandra Sully In 2006 she was credited as a co-writer of Mariah Carey's Grammy Award–winning song "We Belong Together" which incorporated part of "If You're Think You're Lonely Now".NeurogeneticsEmergency psychiatryNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law: The Narcotics and Psychotropics Control Law (麻薬及び向精神薬取締法 Mayaki oyobi kousei shin'yaku torishimari hou) is a law enacted in Japan in 1953 to control most narcotic and psychotropic drugs.Richard Bromfield: Richard Bromfield, Ph.D.Reproductive coercion: Reproductive coercion (also called coerced reproduction) are threats or acts of violence against a partner's reproductive health or reproductive decision-making and is a collection of behaviors intended to pressure or coerce a partner into becoming a parent or ending a pregnancy. Reproductive coercion is a form of domestic violence, also known as intimate partner violence, where behavior concerning reproductive health is used to maintain power, control, and domination within a relationship and over a partner through an unwanted pregnancy.Hysteria: Hysteria, in its colloquial use, describes unmanageable emotional excesses. Generally, modern medical professionals have given up the use of "hysteria" as a diagnostic category, replacing it with more precisely defined categories such as somatization disorder.Martin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerReligion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Leiden International Medical Student ConferencePrescription cascade: Prescription cascade refers to the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions. This may lead to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.UNICEF Tap Project: The UNICEF Tap Project is a nationwide campaign that provides children in impoverished nations with access to safe, clean water. The campaign culminates during World Water Week, celebrating the United Nations’ World Water Day, March 22.Computer-aided diagnosis: In radiology, computer-aided detection (CADe), also called computer-aided diagnosis (CADx), are procedures in medicine that assist doctors in the interpretation of medical images. Imaging techniques in X-ray, MRI, and Ultrasound diagnostics yield a great deal of information, which the radiologist has to analyze and evaluate comprehensively in a short time.Psychodermatology: Psychodermatology is the treatment of skin disorders using psychological and psychiatric techniques. It is a subspecialty of dermatology.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDevelopmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.Indignation (novel): Indignation is a novel by Philip Roth, released by Houghton Mifflin on September 16, 2008. It is his twenty-ninth book.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Role suction: Role suction is a term introduced in the United States by Fritz Redl in the mid-20th century to describe the power of a social group to allocate roles willy-nilly to its members. W.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Brain biopsyMark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.HyperintensityThirteen Steps To Mentalism: Thirteen Steps to Mentalism is a book on mentalism by Tony Corinda. It was originally published as thirteen smaller booklets as a course in mentalism, and was later, in 1961, republished as a book.Bipolar disorderSchizophreniaRavindra Nanda: Ravindra Nanda (born 19 February 1943) is the professor and Head of Craniofacial Department and Chair of the Division of Orthodontics at the University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine.Expert elicitation: In science, engineering, and research, expert elicitation is the synthesis of opinions of authorities of a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data or when such data is unattainable because of physical constraints or lack of resources. Expert elicitation is essentially a scientific consensus methodology.Communism and homosexuality: The attitude of the communist movement and historical communist states regarding homosexuality has been varied. Views from various communists and communist states have ranged from acceptance to apathy, and even to condemnation.Atypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.Reduplicative paramnesia: Reduplicative paramnesia is the delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been 'relocated' to another site. It is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes and, although rare, is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and to both frontal lobes.Nathan Raw: Lieutenant-Colonel Nathan Raw C.M.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Biography Work: Biography Work based on Anthroposophy views the human circle of life on one hand as being embedded in the rhythms of nature and the cosmos on the other hand shaped by the individual power of creativity in everyone’s Self.Libertarian perspectives on political alliances: Libertarian perspectives on political alliances vary greatly, with controversies among libertarians as to which alliances are acceptable or useful to the movement.Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Fantasy prone personality: Fantasy prone personality (FPP) is a disposition or personality trait in which a person experiences a lifelong extensive and deep involvement in fantasy. This disposition is an attempt, at least in part, to better describe "overactive imagination" or "living in a dream world".Yury VerlinskyEugenics in the United States: Eugenics, the set of beliefs and practices which aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population played a significant role in the history and culture of the United States prior to its involvement in World War II.Bibliography of The Holocaust: This is a selected bibliography and other resources for The Holocaust.
(1/428) Risk-adjusted outcome models for public mental health outpatient programs.
OBJECTIVE: To develop and test risk-adjustment outcome models in publicly funded mental health outpatient settings. We developed prospective risk models that used demographic and diagnostic variables; client-reported functioning, satisfaction, and quality of life; and case manager clinical ratings to predict subsequent client functional status, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction with services. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Data collected from 289 adult clients at five- and ten-month intervals, from six community mental health agencies in Washington state located primarily in suburban and rural areas. Data sources included client self-report, case manager ratings, and management information system data. STUDY DESIGN: Model specifications were tested using prospective linear regression analyses. Models were validated in a separate sample and comparative agency performance examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Presence of severe diagnoses, substance abuse, client age, and baseline functional status and quality of life were predictive of mental health outcomes. Unadjusted versus risk-adjusted scores resulted in differently ranked agency performance. CONCLUSIONS: Risk-adjusted functional status and patient satisfaction outcome models can be developed for public mental health outpatient programs. Research is needed to improve the predictive accuracy of the outcome models developed in this study, and to develop techniques for use in applied settings. The finding that risk adjustment changes comparative agency performance has important consequences for quality monitoring and improvement. Issues in public mental health risk adjustment are discussed, including static versus dynamic risk models, utilization versus outcome models, choice and timing of measures, and access and quality improvement incentives. (+info)
(2/428) Predicting posttreatment cocaine abstinence for first-time admissions and treatment repeaters.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined client and program characteristics that predict posttreatment cocaine abstinence among cocaine abusers with different treatment histories. METHODS: Cocaine abusers (n = 507) treated in 18 residential programs were interviewed at intake and 1-year follow-up as part of the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS). Program directors provided the program-level data in a mail survey. We applied the hierarchical linear modeling approach for the analysis. RESULTS: No prior treatment and longer retention in DATOS programs were positive predictors of posttreatment abstinence. The interactive effect of these 2 variables was also significantly positive. Program that offered legal services and included recovering staff increased their clients' likelihood of cocaine abstinence. Crack use at both the client and program level predicted negative impact. None of the program variables assessed differentially affected the outcomes of first-timers and repeaters. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment repeaters were relatively difficult to treat, their likelihood of achieving abstinence was similar to that of first-timers if they were retained in treatment for a sufficient time. First-timers and repeaters responded similarly to the treatment program characteristics examined. The treatment and policy implications of these findings are discussed. (+info)
(3/428) Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. (+info)
(4/428) Psychosocial approaches to dual diagnosis.
Recent research elucidates many aspects of the problem of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) in patients with severe mental illness, which is often termed dual diagnosis. This paper provides a brief overview of current research on the epidemiology, adverse consequences, and phenomenology of dual diagnosis, followed by a more extensive review of current approaches to services, assessment, and treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that comorbid SUD is quite common among individuals with severe mental illness and that these individuals suffer serious adverse consequences of SUD. The research further suggests that traditional, separate services for individuals with dual disorders are ineffective, and that integrated treatment programs, which combine mental health and substance abuse interventions, offer more promise. In addition to a comprehensive integration of services, successful programs include assessment, assertive case management, motivational interventions for patients who do not recognize the need for substance abuse treatment, behavioral interventions for those who are trying to attain or maintain abstinence, family interventions, housing, rehabilitation, and psychopharmacology. Further research is needed on the organization and financing of dual-diagnosis services and on specific components of the integrated treatment model, such as group treatments, family interventions, and housing approaches. (+info)
(5/428) Substance use disorder in hospitalized severely mentally ill psychiatric patients: prevalence, correlates, and subgroups.
The prevalence and demographic and clinical correlates of lifetime substance use disorders were examined in a cohort of 325 recently hospitalized psychiatric patients (53% schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder). Alcohol use was the most common type of substance use disorder, followed by cannabis and cocaine use. Univariate analyses indicated that gender (male), age (younger), education (less), history of time in jail, conduct disorder symptoms, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms were predictive of substance use disorders. Lifetime cannabis use disorder was uniquely predicted by marital status (never married) and fewer psychiatric hospitalizations during the previous 6 months. Optimal classification tree analysis, an exploratory, nonlinear method of identifying patient subgroups, was successful in predicting 74 percent to 86 percent of the alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine use disorders. The implications of this method for identifying specific patient subgroups and service needs are discussed. (+info)
(6/428) Substance misuse, psychiatric disorder and violent and disturbed behaviour.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest schizophrenia and substance misuse to be associated with a higher rate of violence and crime. AIMS: The literature was evaluated to assess whether people with schizophrenia who use substances have an increased risk for violence and disturbed behaviour. METHOD: A detailed Medline analysis was performed and relevant studies were reviewed. RESULTS: A large number of studies have linked substance misuse in schizophrenia with male gender, high incidence of homelessness, more pronounced psychotic symptoms, non-adherence with medication, poor prognosis, violence and aggression. The latter has been proved by clinical, epidemiological and longitudinal prospective studies of unselected birth cohorts. The increased risk for aggression and violent acts cannot be interpreted only as a result of poor social integration. Male gender, more severe psychopathology, a primary antisocial personality, repeated intoxications and non-adherence with treatment are important confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Substance misuse has been shown consistently to be a significant risk factor for violence and disturbed behaviour. Future research should try to evaluate possible pharmacological and psychosocial treatment approaches. (+info)
(7/428) Psychiatric comorbidity and the long-term care of people with AIDS.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of comorbid psychiatric disorders with admission and discharge characteristics for patients residing at a long-term care facility designated for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained by systematic chart review for all patients (N = 180) admitted to the facility from its opening in October 1995 through December 1999. Lifetime history of severe and persistent psychiatric disorders (major depression, bipolar and psychotic disorders) was determined by current diagnosis on baseline clinical evaluation or a documented past history. RESULTS: Forty-five patients (25%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. At admission, patients with comorbidity were more likely to be ambulatory (80% vs. 62%, P = .03) and had fewer deficits in activities of daily living (27% vs. 43%, P = .05). After controlling for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity, patients with comorbidity had significantly lower discharge rates (relative risk = 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.23-0.78, P = .0001) and death rates (relative risk = 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.68, P = .009). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AIDS and comorbid psychiatric disorders at this facility had more favorable admission characteristics and were less likely to be discharged or to die. They may have been admitted earlier in their disease course for reasons not exclusively due to HIV infection. Once admitted, community-based residential alternatives may be unavailable as a discharge option. These findings are unlikely to be an anomaly and may become more pronounced with prolonged survival due to further therapeutic improvements in HIV care. Health services planners must anticipate rising demands on the costs of care for an increasing number of patients who may require long-term care and expanded discharge options for the comanagement of HIV disease and chronic psychiatric disorders. (+info)
(8/428) Support, mutual aid and recovery from dual diagnosis.
Recovery from substance abuse and mental health disorders (dual-diagnosis) requires time, hard work and a broad array of coping skills. Empirical evidence has demonstrated the buffering role of social support in stressful situations. This paper investigates the associations among social support (including dual-recovery mutual aid), recovery status and personal well-being in dually-diagnosed individuals (N = 310) using cross-sectional self-report data. Persons with higher levels of support and greater participation in dual-recovery mutual aid reported less substance use and mental health distress and higher levels of well-being. Participation in mutual aid was indirectly associated with recovery through perceived levels of support. The association between mutual aid and recovery held for dual-recovery groups but not for traditional, single-focus self-help groups. The important role of specialized mutual aid groups in the dual recovery process is discussed. (+info)