Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Systems Biology: Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Argasidae: A family of softbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include ARGAS and ORNITHODOROS among others.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Awards and PrizesGenetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.PortugalSocieties, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Organizers, Embryonic: Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).Imaginal Discs: Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.WingEvolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Embryonic Induction: The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Michael K. Denk: Michael K. Denk (or Karl Michael Denk) is a Professor of chemistry at the University of Guelph, Ontario.Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990: The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It created the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority which is in charge of human embryo research, along with monitoring and licensing fertility clinics in the United Kingdom.The Flash ChroniclesList of systems biology conferences: Systems biology is a biological study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactions in biological systems, thus using a new perspective (integration instead of reduction) to study them. Particularly from year 2000 onwards, the term is used widely in the biosciences.David James (cell biologist): David Ernest James (born Sydney 1958) is a cell biologist who discovered the glucose transporter GLUT4. He has also been responsible for the molecular dissection of the intracellular trafficking pathways that regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, the topological mapping of the insulin signal transduction pathway, the creation of a method for studying in vivo metabolism in small animals, and the use of this method to gain insights into whole-animal fuel metabolism and homeostasis.Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Multiple patterning: Multiple patterning (or multi-patterning) is a class of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs), developed for photolithography to enhance the feature density. The simplest case of multiple patterning is double patterning, where a conventional lithography process is enhanced to produce double the expected number of features.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchDda (DNA-dependent ATPase): Dda (short for DNA-dependent ATPase; also known as Dda helicase and Dda DNA helicase) is the 439-amino acid 49,897-atomic mass unit protein coded by the Dda gene of the bacteriophage T4 phage, a virus that infects enterobacteria.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Tim CantorMorphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.Lamellibrachia: Lamellibrachia is a genus of tube worms related to the giant tube worm, Riftia pachyptila. It lives at deep-sea cold seeps where hydrocarbons (oil and methane) are leaking out of the seafloor.Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano: Francisco de Paula del Villar y Lozano, (Murcia, 1828–Barcelona, 1901) was a Spanish architect.Lineage markers: The lineage markers are characteristic molecules for cell lineages, e.g.Lasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).Walter Reed Army Institute of ResearchRevegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Ladies Open of Portugal: The Ladies Open of Portugal was a women's professional golf tournament on the Ladies European Tour that took place Portugal.The Gentlemen's Alliance CrossPSI Protein Classifier: PSI Protein Classifier is a program generalizing the results of both successive and independent iterations of the PSI-BLAST program. PSI Protein Classifier determines belonging of the found by PSI-BLAST proteins to the known families.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Christoph MangoldAndrew Dickson WhiteBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine: The Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine (SCRM) is a stem cell research centre at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, dedicated to the study and development of new regenerative treatments for human diseases. The £54 million facility is part of a total £600 million joint investment in stem cell biology and medicine by the Scottish Government and the University of Edinburgh.Renal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Regeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.Microcotyle: Microcotyle is a genus which belongs to the phylum Platyhelminthes and class Monogenea. It is an ectoparasite that affects its host by attaching itself as a larva on the gills of the fish and grows into adult stage.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesOntario Genomics Institute: The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a not-for-profit organization that manages cutting-edge genomics research projects and platforms.The Ontario Genomics Institute OGI also helps scientists find paths to the marketplace for their discoveries and the products to which they lead, and it works through diverse outreach and educational activities to raise awareness and facilitate informed public dialogue about genomics and its social impacts.Infrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Homeotic gene: Homeotic genes are genes which regulate the development of anatomical structures in various organisms such as insects, mammals, and plants. This regulation is done via the programming of various transcription factors by the homeotic genes, and these factors affect genes through regulatory genetic pathways.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Biological network: A biological network is any network that applies to biological systems. A network is any system with sub-units that are linked into a whole, such as species units linked into a whole food web.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Wing walkingMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Synthetic genomics: Synthetic genomics is a nascent field of synthetic biology that uses aspects of genetic modification on pre-existing life forms with the intent of producing some product or desired behavior on the part of the life form so created.BrachiopodHuman embryonic stem cells clinical trials: ==Human Embryonic Stem Cell Clinical Trials==Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Phallusia nigraHistory of research on Caenorhabditis elegans: The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans was first studied in the laboratory by Victor Nigon and Ellsworth Dougherty in the 1940s, but came to prominence after being adopted by Sydney Brenner in 1963 as a model organism for the study of developmental biology using genetics. In 1974, Brenner published the results of his first genetic screen, which isolated hundreds of mutants with morphological phenotypes.Antenor Orrego Private University
(1/486) Developmental bioinformatics: linking genetic data to virtual embryos.
This paper discusses current efforts to produce databases of gene expression for the major model embryos used in developmental biology. The efforts to build these resources were motivated by the need for immediate internet access to all types of research data, and the production of these databases is a major and new challenge for bioinformatics. Thus far bioinformatics has mainly been concerned with textually oriented resources and data, much of it concerned with gene and protein sequences. Because the genetic basis of developmental biology is integrated with developmental anatomy, these databases require the use of images to link molecular data with spatial information. In order to standardise database formats, digital atlases of some model systems are being produced that include integrated anatomical descriptions and these are being linked to appropriate genetic data. Integrating such image-based, searchable data into databases makes new demands on the field of bioinformatics and we consider here the imaging modalities that are used to obtain information and we discuss in particular the production of 3D images from serial sections. Next, we consider how to integrate textual and spatial descriptions of gene expression and the key tool needed to make this possible, i.e. anatomical nomenclature. A short review of internet resources on developmental biology is also given and future prospects for the development of these databases are discussed. (+info)
(2/486) Developmental biology and the redirection or replacement of cells.
The aim of developmental biology is to understand how an egg converts itself into a complete organism through the processes of cell differentiation, morphogenesis and size regulation. The principles that have emerged over recent decades include the constancy of the genome in nearly all cells of an individual, the existence of stem cells in many organs and the overwhelming importance of signalling between cells for the determination of their fate. These and other characteristics of development are discussed here in relation to the prospect of achieving cell and tissue correction or replacement with the help of nuclear transplantation and signalling factors. Nuclear transplantation offers a one-step procedure for generating multipotent embryo cells from the cells of an adult tissue such as skin. It should be possible to proliferate the resulting cells as can be done for mouse embryonic stem cells. Embryo cells can be made to differentiate in many directions by exposing them to various agents or to different concentrations of a single factor such as the transforming growth factor beta class signalling molecule activin. The possibility of a cancerous condition being acquired during these experimental manipulations can be guarded against by transfecting cells with a conditional suicide gene. Thus it may be possible to generate replacement cells or tissues from an adult human for transplantation back to the original donor, without the disadvantage of any genetic incompatibility. (+info)
(3/486) The Cambrian "explosion": slow-fuse or megatonnage?
Clearly, the fossil record from the Cambrian period is an invaluable tool for deciphering animal evolution. Less clear, however, is how to integrate the paleontological information with molecular phylogeny and developmental biology data. Equally challenging is answering why the Cambrian period provided such a rich interval for the redeployment of genes that led to more complex body plans. (+info)
(4/486) Embracing complexity: organicism for the 21st century.
Organicism (materialistic holism) has provided the philosophical underpinnings for embryology since the time of Kant. It had influenced the founders of developmental mechanics, and the importance of organicism to embryology was explicitly recognized by such figures as O. Hertwig, H. Spemann, R. Harrison, A. M. Dalq, J. Needham, and C. H. Waddington. Many of the principles of organicism remain in contemporary developmental biology, but they are rarely defined as such. A combination of genetic reductionism and the adoption of holism by unscientific communities has led to the devaluation of organicism as a fruitful heuristic for research. This essay attempts to define organicism, provide a brief history of its importance to experimental embryology, outline some sociologically based reasons for its decline, and document its value in contemporary developmental biology. Based on principles or organicism, developmental biology should become a science of emerging complexity. However, this does mean that some of us will have to learn calculus. (+info)
(5/486) Comparative genetics: a third model nematode species.
Recent studies have introduced Oscheius sp. CEW1 as a third nematode species accessible to genetic analysis, joining the better known Caenorhabditis elegans and Pristionchus pacificus. A group of vulva-defective mutants in Oscheius has been identified, with defects not seen in C. elegans. (+info)
(6/486) Introducing the Spemann-Mangold organizer: experiments and insights that generated a key concept in developmental biology.
The "organizer paper", published by Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold in 1924, initiated a new epoch in developmental biology. Also it marked the climax of Spemann's life-long research which began at the end of the nineteenth century. This introduction retraces some of the steps by which Spemann arrived at the organizer concept: The problem of amphibian lens induction including the so-called lens controversy, the early constriction experiments creating double headed malformations, and the homeo- and heteroplastic transplantations during gastrula stages of the newt. Furthermore this paper will--based on historical documents--repudiate some objections raised to the contribution of Spemann and Hilde Mangold to the discovery and interpretation of the organizer effect. (+info)
(7/486) Developmental biology of amphibians after Hans Spemann in Germany.
After the Hans Spemann and Hilde Mangold discovery of the importance of the dorsal blastopore lip for axis formation in the early embryo (Nobelprize for Spemann, 1935), the scientific community tried in a goldrush-like manner to find the inducing factors responsible for the programming of early embyronic determination and differentiation. The slow progress towards a solution of this problem caused a fading of interest on behalf of most laboratories. This article describes the activities of a few laboratories in Finland, Japan and Germany, which continued their studies despite tremendous experimental difficulties. Finally only Heinz Tiedemann's group in Berlin was the first which could isolate a mesoderm/endoderm inducing factor in highly purified form, the so-called vegetalizing factor, now known as activin. Furthermore this article describes the identification of neuralizing factors like Chordin, Cerberus and Dickkopf in the zone of the Spemann-Mangold organizer. The finding that BMP-4 acts as an antagonist to these factors located on the dorsal side led to a new understanding of the mechanisms of action of inducing (neuralizing) factors and early embryonic pattern formation. Moreover, the observations that closely related genes and their products were also found in Drosophila, Zebrafish, Mice and Human were the basis for new concepts of evolutionary mechanisms (dorsal/ventral and anterior/posterior polarity or conserved processes in eye-development of all 7 animal phyla). (+info)
(8/486) Spemann's heritage in Finnish developmental biology.
The Finnish school of developmental biology can be considered a direct descendant of Spemann's school as both the original technology and the fundamental problems were introduced into Finland by Gunnar Ekman (1883-1937) who had worked for extended periods in Germany. After his early death, the work was continued by Sulo Toivonen (1909-1995), and until 1968 the group explored the mechanisms of primary induction and the subsequent segregation of the central nervous system. The extensive investigations led to the formulation of the "double-gradient" hypothesis and ultimately to its experimental vindication. (+info)
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