Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.EuropeWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)AfricaCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Europe, EasternMiddle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.IndiaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.ScandinaviaPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.PakistanPacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)United StatesAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.South AmericaIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.BrazilHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Great BritainGross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.MexicoSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Central AmericaPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Sri LankaSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.USSRNorth AmericaPeruJapanArgentinaRussiaHealth Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)ItalyGermanyBenchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.VietnamSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IsraelTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.BangladeshDisease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.PhilippinesBiomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.IranSwedenChileGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.UruguayBoliviaUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.TurkeyPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)GuatemalaWestern World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)NepalEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)IcelandSwitzerlandSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.HungaryHealth Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.PolandTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.ColombiaNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.LebanonMeasles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.FinlandHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)BelgiumProgram Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)BulgariaMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Australasia: Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)EcuadorCambodiaHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.PortugalEstoniaMaternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.

*  The World Factbook

PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the ... so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures ... Country name. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used ... Country map. Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information ...

*  Least Developed Countries - Wikipedia

Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries, "less developed countries", "lesser developed ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Also a landlocked developing country ... United Nations, "LDCs: Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries, and Small Island Developing States" ... "Least Developed Countries. UN-OHRLLS. Retrieved 2014-01-24.. *^ "Least Developed Countries". UN-Department of Economic and ...

*  Developed country - Wikipedia

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a ... Terms similar to developed country include "advanced country", "industrialized country", "'more developed country" (MDC), "more ... economically developed country" (MEDC), "Global North country", "first world country", and "post-industrial country". The term ... "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. And it notes that: The designations "developed" and "developing" ...

*  Landlocked developing countries - Wikipedia

Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States. (2005). Landlocked Developing Countries. Retrieved from ... Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages ... The United Nations has an Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries ... In August, 2003, the International Ministerial Conference of Landlocked and Transit Developing Countries and Donor Countries on ...

*  G33 (developing countries) - Wikipedia

The G33 (or the Friends of Special Products in agriculture) is a coalition of developing countries, established prior to the ... The group has advocated the creation of a "special products" exemption, which would allow developing countries to exempt ... and seeks to limit the degree of market opening required of developing countries. ...

*  Developing country - Wikipedia

... also developing country) countries that were less-developed, and are about the same (developing country) countries that were ... least developed country or least economically developed country. Criteria for what is not a developed country can be obtained ... developing country. The term implies inferiority of a developing country or undeveloped country compared with a developed ... "developing country". The term implies inferiority of a "developing country" or "undeveloped country" compared with a "developed ...

*  Debt of developing countries - Wikipedia

The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in ... Some of the major risk factors which increase the probability of the external debt crises in developing countries include high ... Moreover, investors could stop lending to developing countries entirely. An example of debt playing a role in economic crisis ... By the time the Paris Club met in January 2005, its 19 member-countries had pledged $3.4 billion in aid to the countries ...

*  Developing Countries on Flipboard

Developing Countries, a Flipboard topic with the latest stories powered by top publications and the best from the Flipboard ... Developing Countries. Justin Yifu Lin calls for green fund for developing countries - Xinhua. BEIJING, Dec. 10 (Xinhua) -- ... Wealthy countries are falling well short of their pledge to provide $100 billion a year to developing countries by 2020 as part ... Developing Countries Win Concessions on Early Climate Action at UN Talks. Moroccan diplomats, who were charged with brokering a ...

*  Developed Countries | Pew Research Center

... focusing on the theme of divergent demographics in developed and developing nations. ...

*  Water issues in developing countries - Wikipedia

Water quality in developing countries is often hampered by lack of or limited enforcement of: emission standards water quality ... The absence or low enforcement of the following policy and market mechanisms in developing countries can also be detrimental to ... By reducing the number of daily trips needed to collect water, the WaterWheel allows women and children in developing countries ... These problems are more severe and widespread in the developing countries due to their long standing exploitation by the ...

*  Book preservation in developing countries - Wikipedia

Book preservation in developing countries is a growing concern among preservation and conservation librarians[citation needed ... Munoz-Sola also points out that many developing countries are in tropical climates, and thus face these problems. Conservators ... This is especially difficult as print materials in developing countries are often created using fragile, non-lasting paper ... Jeevan, V. K. "Digital library development: identifying sources of content for developing countries with special reference to ...

*  Land Reform in Developing Countries - Wikipedia

Land reforms by country The Case for Redistributional Land Reform in Developing Countries - review essay of the book - Albert ... Land Reform in Developing Countries: Property Rights and Property Wrongs is a 2009 book by the Leontief Prize-winning economist ... Land Reform in Developing Countries: Property Rights and Property Wrongs - a review - Keijiro Otsuka, EH.Net 2012 Land Reform ... It is the first comprehensive and up to date review of land reform issues in the developing countries in many years. In my ...

*  Renewable energy in developing countries - Wikipedia

... was higher in developing countries, with $156 billion invested, mainly in China, India, and Brazil. Most developing countries ... By developing such energy sources developing countries can reduce their dependence on oil and natural gas, creating energy ... Renewable energy doesn't always have to come from a developing country. The Developing Areas Study Group session is a group of ... The government aim is to make the country the world's first carbon neutral country. In March 2015 the whole country was running ...

*  German Doctors for Developing Countries - Wikipedia

German Doctors e.V. is a humanitarian aid organization which operates in third world countries, especially in slums and rural ... The idea was to create a charity organisation with German doctors, who work without remuneration in the third world countries. ... Currently, German Doctors operates 8 medical projects, based in 5 countries. The projects are mostly funded with donations. ... German Doctors also support 66 partner projects in 23 countries. A board of trustees acts as a control instance with the ...

*  The World Factbook list of developed countries - Wikipedia

... high-income countries, the North, industrial countries; The CIA notes that these countries generally have a per capita GDP in ... In an appendix to the CIA The World Factbook, there is an entry identifying developed countries (DCs). This list of DCs is ... The CIA notes that the DCs form the top group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former ... and less developed countries (LDCs); The CIA argues that this list includes the market-oriented economies of the mainly ...

*  Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries - Wikipedia

BIO was formed in 2001 to fund investment projects in developing countries with a view to help those economies attain some of ... Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries (BIO), is a private company, based in Brussels, Belgium. BIO works to ... Website of Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries (BIO) Website of SBI-BMI. ... The company is present in over 70 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Africa, where most of the funding activities of ...

*  Women migrant workers from developing countries - Wikipedia

... migration between developing countries) is generally more substantial than migration from developing to high-income countries, ... more prevalent in developing countries than developed countries. Many of these positions require that women remain with the ... Since the late 20th century, substantial labour migration from developing countries to high-income countries has occurred. This ... working as nannies in high-income countries in their home countries create a shift of gender roles in developing countries as ...

*  L.69 Group of Developing Countries - Wikipedia

The L.69 Group of Developing Countries is a cross regional grouping of 42 developing countries from Africa, Latin America and ... The L.69 Group of Developing countries would also like to place on record our appreciation to the Chair of the IGN, H.E ... The L.69 Group is a group of developing countries from Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific. They form ... President, I have the honour to take the floor today on behalf of a diverse group of 42 developing countries from Africa, Latin ...

*  Journal of Infection in Developing Countries - Wikipedia

The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries is a monthly peer-reviewed open-access medical journal that covers the ... especially in developing countries. Topics covered include immunology, microbiology, infectious disease, virology, bacteriology ...

*  Civil service reform in developing countries - Wikipedia

Important differences between developing countries and developed countries require that civil service and other reforms first ... rolled out in developed countries be carefully adapted to local conditions in developing countries. Rao, S. 2013. Civil service ... Changing Role of Government The Reform of Public Services in Developing Countries. Basingstoke Hampshire (UK): Palgrave ... Why most developing countries should not try New Zealand's reforms', The World Bank Research Observer, 13(1):123-31. http:// ...

*  Evidence-based pharmacy in developing countries - Wikipedia

Free to developing countries. Developing Pharmacy Practice: a Focus on Patient Care - 2006, 97 pages, World Health Organization ... It covers most of the drug supply processes and is built up from research and experience in many developing countries. There a ... The plan was to develop essential drugs lists based on the local health needs of each country and to periodically update these ... In: Bennett S, McPake B, Mills A (eds) Private Health Providers in Developing Countries: serving the public interest? Zed Books ...

*  Tobacco Still Widespread In Developing Countries; New Owls

... tobacco use still hugely prevalent in developing world; microthrusters pack macro power; panfried meat linked to prostate ... The high smoking rate in many low-income countries "demonstrates an urgent need for policy change in low- and middle-income ... Studying tobacco use in developing nations. At this point, the fact that smoking causes cancer and other serious health ... But the statistic that approximately half of men in various developing nations smoke is. The World Health Organization's new ...

*  Medical training in developing countries | The BMJ

Medical training in developing countries. Br Med J 1976; 1 doi: (Published 03 January ...

*  Current Developed Countries May Be Underdeveloped, After All

... civilized countries mostly found in the northern hemisphere. These are the images and statuses that inform their gluttony, ... They are known as developed, industrialized, civilized countries mostly found in the northern hemisphere. These are the images ... Consequently, the developed may become underdeveloped after all.. Austin Aneke is the author of Technology and Corruption and ... The latest EU serviced country to be in trouble is Cyprus, following Italy, Greece, Portugal, Ireland, and Spain and so on. ...

*  Spring eczema in calves - eczema shield review 40

Babies can develop psoriasis in the nappy area of an infant to cause a bright red, weeping rash or more typical psoriasis ... Nosocomial yeast infections have significantly increased during the past two decades in industrialized countries including ... Up to one in five children develop eczema at some point, and half of them get this inflammatory skin condition as babies. ...

Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}GA²LENInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Miss Asia Pacific 2005MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Liliana Rojas-Suarez: Liliana Rojas-Suarez is a Peruvian-born economist, specializing in financial regulatory policy and the impact of global capital flows on development, especially in Latin American countries. She is currently a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and serves as the chair of the Latin-American Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF).Anna Reid: Anna Reid (born 1965) is a journalist and author whose work focuses primarily on the history of Eastern Europe.Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. The water resources of Palestine are fully controlled by Israel and the division of groundwater is subject to provisions in the Oslo II Accord.European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition: The Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition was adopted by governments attending the 1974 World Food Conference. In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.GuksiProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Microhyla berdmoreiCarte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Global Health Delivery ProjectClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Australian National BL classAga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Pacific Islands Families Study: The Pacific Islands Families Study is a long-running, cohort study of 1398 children (and their parents) of Pacific Islands origin born in Auckland, New Zealand during the year 2000.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.McCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.University of CampinasManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. 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This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Wat Chiang ManOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Natural Park of El FondoCaribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983PoliomyelitisAthletics at the 2002 Central American and Caribbean GamesOpinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Inequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. 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He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Private healthcareRoll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.Yevgeny Vesnik: Yevgeny Yakovlevich Vesnik (; January 15, 1923 — April 10, 2009) was a Russian and Soviet stage and a film actor. The son of Yakov Vesnik, the first director of the Kryvorizhstal plant, he fought the Germans in the Second World War.American Medical Student AssociationIllegal drug trade in Peru: The illegal drug trade in Peru includes the growing of coca and the shipment of cocaine to the United States. In an example of the balloon effect, dramatic falls in coca cultivation in the late 1990s saw cultivation move to Colombia.Niigata UniversityMarcos Paz, Buenos AiresPulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. 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This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.

(1/736) Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century.

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

(2/736) Preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial respiratory pathogens in industrialized countries: the case for judicious antimicrobial use.

The spread of antimicrobial resistance is an important emerging health threat in developed countries. Widespread outpatient antimicrobial use leads to the spread of resistance among community-acquired pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partner organizations have initiated a national campaign promoting more judicious antimicrobial use to decrease the spread of resistance. The initial focus is to improve management of respiratory tract infections, which account for most outpatient antimicrobial use. Survey and focus group results indicate that patient pressure and suboptimal diagnosis and treatment contribute to antibiotic overuse. To educate physicians, a series of "principles of judicious antibiotic use" have been developed that identify optimal approaches to management of common respiratory infections. Patient education materials and strategies to improve doctor-patient communication also have been developed. Several studies currently under way will evaluate the impact of intervention on antibiotic use practices and resistant carriage or infection.  (+info)

(3/736) International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism.

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

(4/736) Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a randomly selected population in a developed country.

This cross-sectional study of 400 sera from a randomly selected adult population in Northern Ireland, using a microimmunofluorescence assay, demonstrated high overall seropositivity (70%) for IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in developed populations. Seropositivity was shown to be unrelated to gender, age or smoking but there was an inverse trend between infection and educational level achieved as a measure of socio-economic status. IgG levels were also higher during the winter months suggesting seasonal variation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The high prevalence of evidence of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae as described in this study may have implications for prevention of cardiovascular disease if further evidence conclusively determines that infection with this organism is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(5/736) Using perinatal audit to promote change: a review.

Close to half of all infant deaths world-wide now occur in the first week of life, almost all in developing countries, and the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) is used as an indicator of the quality of health service delivery. Clinical audit aims to improve quality of care through the systematic assessment of practice against a defined standard, with a view to recommending and implementing measures to address specific deficiencies in care. Perinatal outcome audit evaluates crude or cause-specific PNMRs, reviewing secular trends over several years or comparing rates between similar institutions. However, the PNMR may not be a valid, reliable and sensitive indicator of quality of care at the institutional level in developing countries because of variations in the presenting case-mix, various confounding non-health service factors and the small number of deaths which occur. Process audit compares actual practice with standard (best) practice, based on the evidence of research or expert consensus. Databases reviewing the management of reproductive health problems in developing countries are currently being prepared so as to provide clinicians and health service managers with up-to-date information to support the provision of evidence-based care. Standard practice should be adapted and defined in explicit management guidelines, taking into account local resources and circumstances. Forms of process audit include the review of care procedures in cases which have resulted in a pre-defined adverse outcome, know as 'sentinel event audit'; and the review of all cases where a particular care activity was received or indicated, known as 'topic audit'. These are complementary and each depends on the quality of recorded data. The forum for comparing observed practice with the standard may be external, utilising an 'expert committee', or internal, in which care providers audit their own activities. Local internal audit is more likely to result in improvements in care if it is conducted in a structured and culturally sensitive way, and if all levels of staff are involved in reviewing activities and in formulating recommendations. However, further research is needed to identify the factors which determine the effectiveness and sustainability of perinatal audit in different developing country settings.  (+info)

(6/736) Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies?

Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction.  (+info)

(7/736) Complications of varicella in a defined central European population.

AIMS: To describe complications of varicella requiring hospitalisation in a defined population (canton of Bern) and to compare the hospitalisation rates for varicella with published data. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital records of patients less than 16 years of age admitted with complications of varicella to the hospitals serving this population (University Children's Hospital of Bern and the Wildermeth Children's Hospital of Biel, Switzerland), and calculation of hospitalisation rates for varicella and its complications based on birth rates and varicella antibody prevalence rates. RESULTS: From 1986 to 1996, 113 cases (median age, 5.6 years) were identified. Younger siblings were overrepresented (odds ratio (OR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.84). Central nervous system (CNS) complications (26 patients; 23%) were found predominantly in previously healthy children (relative risk, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.01 to 49.86). Group A beta haemolytic streptococci were recovered from only one of 35 patients with bacterial complications. The hospitalisation rates for primary varicella (9.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 7.4 to 11/10(4), skin infections (2.0/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9/10(4), and pneumonia (0.8/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.3/10(4)) were significantly lower than reported previously. The CNS complication rate (2.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1/10(4) was among the highest rates reported. CONCLUSIONS: The low hospitalisation rate in comparison with studies from elsewhere indicates that there is a large regional variability in complications associated with varicella. Such data should be taken into consideration when local varicella immunisation strategies are developed.  (+info)

(8/736) Biotechnology: enhancing human nutrition in developing and developed worlds.

While the last 50 years of agriculture have focused on meeting the food, feed, and fiber needs of humans, the challenges for the next 50 years go far beyond simply addressing the needs of an ever-growing global population. In addition to producing more food, agriculture will have to deal with declining resources like water and arable land, need to enhance nutrient density of crops, and achieve these and other goals in a way that does not degrade the environment. Biotechnology and other emerging life sciences technologies offer valuable tools to help meet these multidimensional challenges. This paper explores the possibilities afforded through biotechnology in providing improved agronomic "input" traits, differentiated crops that impart more desirable "output" traits, and using plants as green factories to fortify foods with valuable nutrients naturally rather than externally during food processing. The concept of leveraging agriculture as green factories is expected to have tremendous positive implications for harnessing solar energy to meet fiber and fuel needs as well. Widespread adaptation of biotech-derived products of agriculture should lay the foundation for transformation of our society from a production-driven system to a quality and utility-enhanced system.  (+info)


  • As of 2015 [update] a country must have GNI per capita less than US $ 1,035 to be included on the list, and over $1,242 to graduate from it. (
  • During a United Nations review in 2009, the UN defined LDCs as countries meeting three criteria, one of which was a three-year average estimate of gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $905. (
  • A country is classified among the Least Developed Countries if it meets three criteria: Poverty - adjustable criterion based on GNI per capita averaged over three years. (
  • countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. (
  • There are no universally agreed-upon criteria for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories, although there are general reference points such as a nation's GDP per capita compared with other nations. (
  • Economies were divided according to 2016 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income: Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$1,025 or less. (
  • Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$1,026 and US$4,035. (
  • Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$4,036 and US$12,236. (
  • High income countries had GNI per capita above US$12,237. (
  • countries that were more less-developed, and are less less-developed (also developing country) countries that were less-developed, and are about the same (developing country) countries that were less less-developed, and are more less-developed (developing country) The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person), (gross domestic product) per capita, life expectancy, the rate of literacy, freedom index and others. (
  • As of 2012, four members of the OECD have a GDP per capita of less than $15,000 in nominal terms (Poland, Hungary, Turkey and Mexico) and, as of 2011, only four OPEC countries have a GDP per capita that is higher than $20,000 (Qatar, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia). (
  • 3 Countries with per capita GDP that are well under $5,000-such as Pakistan and Nigeria-annually face significant risks from obesity and high cholesterol leading to heart disease. (
  • Using another sample of sixty-two developing countries, we find that purchasing power parity per capita income linearly depends on the total fertility rate, labor force participation, child illness and malnutrition, gross capital formation, and access to natural resources and the global economy as proxied by per capita arable and permanent cropland and by external balance of goods and services as a percentage of GDP. (

United Nations

  • The Least Developed Countries ( LDCs ) is a list of the countries that, according to the United Nations , exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development , with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world . (
  • The United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS) coordinates UN support and provides advocacy services for Least Developed Countries. (
  • According to the United Nations Statistics Division: There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system. (
  • They form a major bloc that is united by the common cause of achieving the lasting and comprehensive reform of the United Nations Security Council The group currently has 42 countries as its members. (


  • The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries least developed countries (LDC), with inhabitants of these countries occupying the bottom billion tier of the world's population in terms of poverty. (
  • These problems are more severe and widespread in the developing countries due to their long standing exploitation by the world's richness, industrialized ones. (
  • Extractives specialists Gary McMahon and Susana Moreira find that many, indeed most, of the world's fastest-growing countries since 2000 have been resource-rich. (


  • Developed countries have post-industrial economies, meaning the service sector provides more wealth than the industrial sector. (
  • BIO was formed in 2001 to fund investment projects in developing countries with a view to help those economies attain some of the Millennium Development Goals. (
  • Can you name top 25 Countries with the highest literacy rates that are not classified as IMF Advanced Economies? (


  • Going back to at least the year 2000, efforts have been made to establish a decision matrix and guidelines for preservation workers in developing countries to use in implementing preservation and conservation programs. (
  • However, ten new countries have joined the OECD since this list was created in the early 1990s: Mexico (1994), the Czech Republic (1995), South Korea (1996), Hungary (1996), Poland (1996), Slovakia (2000), Chile (2010), Slovenia (2010), Israel (2010) and Estonia (2010). (
  • About 80 percent of all cases of cardiovascular disease now occur in less developed countries, with 17 percent of deaths in poor countries in 2000 attributed to nutrition-related heart disease. (


  • Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked. (

South Africa

  • South Africa remains the only African country to have authorised the sale of GM crops. (


  • Dominated by India, the group has "defensive" concerns regarding agriculture in relation to World Trade Organisation negotiations, and seeks to limit the degree of market opening required of developing countries. (
  • The advancement of technology and IT professions in India has resulted in a large number of digital library projects across the country. (
  • He also finished his review with some further critiques, especially in relation to land reform in India: "Indian readers will find much information in the book about other countries that is not usually available, and a flavour of issues still current elsewhere. (
  • This erroneous view has persisted for many years, but 2015 was the first year when investment in non-hydro renewables, was higher in developing countries, with $156 billion invested, mainly in China, India, and Brazil. (
  • The Mission of India serves as the Secretariat for the meetings of the L.69 Group of Developing Countries. (
  • International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries is a peer-reviewed open-access journal published on behalf of the Research Society for the Study of Diabetes in India. (
  • Poor people and poor countries are the most vulnerable victims of the emerging epidemic of noncommunicable diseases related to obesity," says Dr. Srinath Reddy, director of cardiology for the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in New Delhi. (

reform in developin

  • Land Reform in Developing Countries: Property Rights and Property Wrongs is a 2009 book by the Leontief Prize-winning economist Michael Lipton. (
  • Lipton concludes that careful and recent work in Africa and elsewhere confirms that, "mainly due to the IR plus land scarcity, redistributive land reform in developing countries normally increases farm output. (


  • The term "less economically developed country" (LEDC) is also used today. (
  • A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. (
  • Just recently, it has been economically modeled that if the economic size of a transit country is increased by just 1%, a subsequent increase of at least 2% is experienced by the landlocked country, which shows that there is hope for LLDCs if the conditions of their transit neighbours are addressed. (
  • Terms used include less developed country or less economically developed country, and for the more extreme, least developed country or least economically developed country. (
  • Given that women are statistically better at saving their capital gains, they are becoming increasingly economically significant to the capital gains of their country of origin. (


  • At the UN's fourth conference on LDCs, which was held in May 2011, delegates endorsed a goal targeting the promotion of at least half the current LDC countries within the next ten years. (
  • In the process of increasing awareness towards the needs of the LDCs, the importance of the inputs and contributions of the members of the Civil Society were first acknowledged during the NGO Forum held in parallel to the third UN Conference on Least Developed Countries in Brussels in 2001. (


  • Their paper, The Contribution of the Mining Sector to Socioeconomic and Human Development , shows that low and middle-income mining countries grew by over one percent annually faster than similar non-mining countries from 2001 to 2011. (


  • Since the late 1990s developing countries tended to demonstrate higher growth rates than the developed ones. (
  • Lourdes Beneria, a feminist economist, argues that the demand for care work in Europe in the 1990s and 2000s has brought young Latinas to countries like Spain, in order to provide care work for the aging population. (

sovereign state

  • A developing country, also called a less developed country or an underdeveloped country, is a nation or a sovereign state with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. (


  • Statistical results of such empirical examination will assist governments in developing countries identify health care areas that need to be improved upon in order to alleviate poverty and foster economic development. (
  • Despite the growing support for market-oriented strategies, and for a greater role of private investment, empirical growth models for developing countries typically make no distinction between the private and public components af investment. (
  • Growth and export expansion in developing countries : Some empirical evidence ," Journal of Development Economics , Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 121-130, August. (

infectious diseases

  • The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries is a monthly peer-reviewed open-access medical journal that covers the biomedical area related to infectious diseases, especially in developing countries. (
  • But a silent epidemic of obesity-related diseases-among them, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and Type-2 diabetes-is also spreading rapidly across poor and middle-income countries, where such illnesses have been overshadowed by infectious diseases and undernutrition. (
  • Many poor countries also find their health budgets already stretched thin as they try to address primary health care needs and infectious diseases. (


  • Landlocked countries experience economic growth 6% less than their non-landlocked countries, holding other variables constant. (
  • To develop the national pharmaceutical potential towards the achievements of self-reliance in drugs and in support of national economic growth. (
  • An Afghan woman shops for shoes in Kabul (file photo) (AFP) December 13, 2006 (RFE/RL) -- Developing countries will be the major driving force behind global economic growth in the next 25 years. (
  • Since 1995, when Jeffrey Sachs and Andrew Warner published their influential study claiming that natural resource abundance has a strong negative impact on growth, the term "resource curse" has been associated with mineral wealth in developing countries. (
  • The study found that mineral wealth not only propelled economic growth, but it also translated into larger improvements in human development in these same mineral-rich countries, more so than in similar non-mining countries. (
  • This model is estimated for a cross-section sample of 24 developing countries, and the results support the notion that private investment has a larger direct effect on growth than does public investment. (
  • Theoretical Aspects of Growth in Developing Countries: External Debt Dynamics and the Role of Human Capital ," IMF Staff Papers , Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 36(2), pages 307-342, June. (
  • Sources of Growth in Less Developed Countries: A Cross-Section Study ," The Quarterly Journal of Economics , Oxford University Press, vol. 85(3), pages 391-408. (
  • Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Growth in Developing Countries ," World Bank Research Observer , World Bank Group, vol. 2(2), pages 189-217, July. (


  • The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay. (
  • Should governments in developing countries promote private ownership and deregulated prices in noncompetitive sectors? (


  • Kenya was the first African country to use geothermal power, and still has the largest installed capacity of geothermal power in Africa at 200 MW, with a potential of up to 10 GW. (
  • The company is present in over 70 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. (
  • The L.69 Group is a group of developing countries from Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific. (
  • The L.69 Group of Developing Countries is a cross regional grouping of 42 developing countries from Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia and the Pacific, that is focused on achieving lasting and comprehensive reforms of the UN Security Council. (


  • Approximately 71.230% of all illnesses in developing countries are caused by poor water and sanitation conditions. (

20th century

  • According to some economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century. (
  • Since the late 20th century, substantial labour migration from developing countries to high-income countries has occurred. (
  • But while all of these trends mimic similar progressions in developed countries at the turn of the 20th century, their development has been radically accelerated in less developed countries. (


  • The emphasis is on developing a logical approach, and it allows for clinicians to develop personal choices in medicines (a personal formulary) which they may use regularly. (


  • In addition, it recognizes the constraints on landlocked countries to be mainly physical, including lack of direct access to the sea, isolation from world markets and high transit costs due to physical distance. (
  • In developing countries, where budget constraints are tight, privatization and price liberalization may be optimal for low profitability industries but suboptimal for more profitable industries. (

middle income countries

  • The high smoking rate in many low-income countries "demonstrates an urgent need for policy change in low- and middle-income countries," according to lead researcher Gary Giovino. (
  • In the 21st century, the mining sector has been shown to make important contributions to development in many low and middle income countries. (
  • Since the global financial crisis in 2008, of the low and low-middle income countries, only mineral-dependent countries posted higher human development improvement rates than the world average. (
  • For example, the Human Development Index (HDI) health index increased at a 50% faster rate among mining low- and low-middle income countries than among their non-mining counterparts in 2007-2012. (


  • Barriers to addressing water problems in developing nations are focused mainly around issues of poverty, education, and poor governance. (
  • With 189 member countries, staff from more 170 countries, and offices in over 130 locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. (
  • This paper investigates the impact of health on the extent of poverty and on economic development in developing countries. (


  • The term industrialized country may be somewhat ambiguous, as industrialization is an ongoing process that is hard to define. (
  • This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. (


  • This organization, established in 1989, exists to promote rational drug use in developing countries. (


  • Countries with populations over 75 million are excluded. (
  • The potential cost from obesity and overweight populations to poor countries is enormous. (


  • It mainly holds the view that high transport costs due to distance and terrain result in the erosion of competitive edge for exports from landlocked countries. (


  • Countries may "graduate" out of the LDC classification when indicators exceed these criteria. (
  • Which criteria are to be used and which countries can be classified as being developed are subjects of debate. (


  • In fact, HDI levels decrease as one moves inland along the major transit route that runs from the coast of Kenya, across the country before going through Uganda, Rwanda and then finally Burundi. (


  • Since 2016 the World Bank no longer divide countries into two groups according to the out-dated concept of developed and developing Along with the current level of development, countries may be classified by how much this has changed over some amount of time. (


  • There is much debate about whether the richer countries should be asked for money which has to be repaid. (

Human Devel

  • Apart from Europe, there is not a single successful highly developed landlocked country as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI), and nine of the twelve countries with the lowest HDI scores are landlocked. (

World Bank

  • In the 2016 edition of its World Development Indicators, the World Bank made a decision to no longer distinguish between "developed" and "developing" countries in the presentation of its data. (
  • The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. (
  • Infrastructure and public utilities privatization in developing countries ," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3950, The World Bank. (
  • Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries ," World Bank Publications , The World Bank, number 7464, September. (


  • Due to a variety of economic, historic, environmental and political factors, libraries and archival repositories in developing countries face exceptional challenges in book and manuscript preservation. (
  • Gender and Modern Supply Chains in Developing Countries ," LICOS Discussion Papers 23109, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven. (


  • Health systems in less developed countries are not well equipped to treat large numbers of people suffering from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (


  • The classification (as of June 2017 [update] ) applies to 47 countries. (


  • The countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are generally treated as developing countries and countries of Central Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed. (


  • It is a comprehensive review of land reform issues in developing countries and focuses on the evidence of which land reforms have worked and which have not. (
  • Important differences between developing countries and developed countries require that civil service and other reforms first rolled out in developed countries be carefully adapted to local conditions in developing countries. (


  • The group has advocated the creation of a "special products" exemption, which would allow developing countries to exempt certain products from tariff reductions, and also a "special safeguard mechanism" which would permit tariff increases in response to import surges. (
  • The figure below shows the increases in rates of overweight people between 2002 and 2010 for selected countries representing a range of income levels. (


  • The major sites for female labor include GCC countries in Western Asia as well as Pacific Rim countries in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. (


  • Least developed countries can be distinguished from developing countries , "less developed countries", "lesser developed countries", or other terms for countries in the so-called Third World . (
  • Landlocked European countries are exceptions in terms of development outcomes due to their close integration with the regional European market. (
  • insist that though LLDCs vary across the board in terms of HDI index scores, LLDCs almost uniformly straddle at the bottom of HDI rankings in terms of region, suggesting a correlated dependency relationship of development for landlocked countries with their respective regions. (
  • Various terms are used for whatever is not a developed country. (


  • Next, the developing projects that some loans would support were often unwisely led and failed because of the lender's incompetence. (
  • Currently, German Doctors operates 8 medical projects, based in 5 countries. (
  • A study including 88 communities in 14 countries showed that projects where men and women from intended user households were included in selection of site facilities, and where water projects were initiated by user households, rather than by external agencies or local leaders, achieved a final higher access to services than those that did not. (


  • As well as producing training programs and publications, the group is undertaking research in a number of member countries, focused primarily on changing behavior to improve drug use. (
  • And the total number of obese or overweight people is projected to grow by 50 percent in the next 10 years, primarily in poor countries. (


  • The Developing Areas Study Group session is a group of speakers from all over the energy businesses discuss the potential ideas to get developing countries the renewable energy that they need. (


  • According to authors such as Walt Whitman Rostow developing countries are in transition from traditional lifestyles towards the modern lifestyle which began in the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. (
  • These countries are coping with the transition from being under Soviet rule to self-governing states. (
  • The rise in obesity and related diseases in less developed countries can be traced in large part to the rapid nutrition transition in these countries-the shift from a diet of simple and sometimes traditional foods with little variation to a diet more reliant on processed foods, animal-source foods, fat, and sugar. (
  • The nutritional transition poses new challenges to nutritionists and public health experts who have spent decades battling undernutrition in poor countries. (


  • In addition, where higher levels of fiscal revenues were used to build infrastructure and develop human capital, this in turn has been shown to lead to the development or expansion of other non-mining related industries. (
  • Infrastructure and public utilities privatization in developing countries ," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2180, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE). (
  • Infrastructure and Public Utilities Privatization in Developing Countries ," CEPR Discussion Papers 6018, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. (

people in developin

  • Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to clean water. (


  • Belgian Investment Company for Developing Countries (BIO), is a private company, based in Brussels, Belgium. (


  • Low-income mineral dependent countries scored substantially higher than non-mining countries. (


  • And it notes that: The designations "developed" and "developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process. (
  • In countries where this disease is present, the judgement should be in accordance with the current animal health requirements , and consisted with effective public health protection. (


  • Water supply schemes in developing nations have shown higher success when planned and run with full participation of women in the affected communities. (

Least Developed

  • The Least Developed Countries are shown in blue. (
  • Although many contemporary scholars argue that "Third World" is outdated, irrelevant or inaccurate, others may use the term "Fourth World" in reference to least developed countries (although Fourth World is also used to refer to stateless ethnic groups). (
  • The Fourth UN Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV) was held in Istanbul, Turkey, 9-13 May 2011. (
  • The conference endorsed the goal of raising half the existing Least developed countries out of the LDC category by 2022. (


  • Also the general term less-developed country should not be confused with the specific least developed country. (


  • In total, 114.3 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated worldwide, with 43 per cent of the global GM crop area in developing countries. (


  • Much of the country suffers from a severe arid climate, with only scarce few areas enjoying rain and access to water resources. (
  • Without proper resources and training, many countries around the world struggle to maintain books and manuscripts as part of their cultural history. (
  • Most developing countries have abundant renewable energy resources, including solar energy, wind power, geothermal energy, and biomass, as well as the ability to manufacture the relatively labor-intensive systems that harness these. (
  • Papers written by W. Morgan, R. Moss and P. Richard discuss the opportunities of renewable resources that lie within the developing country as well. (
  • Colonialism guaranteed exploitation and expropriation of resources from other countries into the northern hemisphere. (
  • Department of Water Management, Country Strategy on Integrated Water Resources Management, Section IV. (
  • Developing countries have limited resources, so it is particularly important to invest in health care that works. (


  • Book preservation in developing countries is a growing concern among preservation and conservation librarians[citation needed]. (


  • This is especially difficult as print materials in developing countries are often created using fragile, non-lasting paper product and ink. (
  • Women leaving their country of origin are often considered to be temporary migrants. (
  • Limited education can force[citation needed] those with a lack of skills to move to a foreign country to help support their family, but these situations often promote exploitation. (


  • The UN also notes, In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania and western Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. (
  • China's impact is clearest on East Asian countries: in other developing regions, it was swamped by other causes of structural change. (


  • German Doctors e.V. is a humanitarian aid organization which operates in third world countries, especially in slums and rural areas. (


  • As the first week of the Nov. 6-17 U.N. climate summit in Bonn, Germany, drew towards a close, the European Union, Switzerland and Canada reiterated their commitment to increase financial help to developing countries to US$100 billion per year by 2020. (


  • Technological awareness and/or consciousness are growing in these countries and this is creating deep hole in the coffers of western treasuries, as the emerging markets become producers and not mere consumers of processed goods from nations in the northern hemisphere. (


  • The Telecommunication Development Bureau (BDT) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has released the first version of a harmonized, efficient, automated technical administrative tool for spectrum management in developing countries under the brand name SMS4DC (Spectrum Management System for Developing Countries). (


  • Remittances by women migrant workers help bolster the GDPs of their countries of origin. (
  • Developing countries have led the way in generating approaches to ensure professional standards of behaviour through interventions such as producing guidelines and introducing essential drug programmes, and by producing reliable research summaries to help ensure that policies are based on good evidence. (
  • We provide a wide array of financial products and technical assistance, and we help countries share and apply innovative knowledge and solutions to the challenges they face. (


  • This description is based on an old version of the IMF's list and also erroneously implies that Mexico is on the CIA's Developed Country (DC) list. (


  • The term "developing" describes a currently observed situation and not a dynamic or expected direction of progress. (

high-income co

  • Studies on women migrant workers in high-income countries tend to focus on their employment in domestic work and care work for dual-income families. (


  • This partnership aims to seek out, select and support entrepreneurs who need financing in the ACP countries. (


  • This may be by absolute numbers or country ranking. (
  • Why Are Increasing Numbers in Poor Countries Becoming Obese? (


  • Has China de-industrialised other developing countries? (


  • Anecdotal evidence suggests that expenditure on health and education in mineral-rich countries increased at least proportionately with income rises, leading to large gains in various well-being measures. (


  • Collectively, developing countries have more than half of global renewable power capacity. (
  • Developing countries are likely to grow from about a fifth of the global economy to a third of the global economy, depending on how you measure it,' said Richard Newfarmer, the report's lead authoer. (
  • Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries ," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12228, Iowa State University, Department of Economics. (