Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.EuropeWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)AfricaCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Europe, EasternMiddle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.IndiaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.ScandinaviaPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.PakistanPacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)United StatesAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.South AmericaIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.BrazilHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Great BritainGross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.MexicoSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Central AmericaPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Sri LankaSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.USSRNorth AmericaPeruJapanArgentinaRussiaHealth Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)ItalyGermanyBenchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.VietnamSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IsraelTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.BangladeshDisease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Yugoslavia: Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.PhilippinesBiomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.IranSwedenChileGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.UruguayBoliviaUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.TurkeyPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)GuatemalaWestern World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)NepalEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Foreign Professional Personnel: Persons who have acquired academic or specialized training in countries other than that in which they are working. The concept excludes physicians for which FOREIGN MEDICAL GRADUATES is the likely heading.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Somalia: Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Asia, Western: The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)IcelandSwitzerlandSeasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.HungaryHealth Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.PolandTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.ColombiaNetherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.LebanonMeasles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Medical Tourism: Travel to another country for the purpose of medical treatment.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.FinlandHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)BelgiumProgram Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)BulgariaMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Australasia: Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)EcuadorCambodiaHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Morocco: A country located in north Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, with a southern border with Western Sahara, eastern border with Algeria. The capital is Rabat.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.PortugalEstoniaMaternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.

*  The World Factbook

PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the ... so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures ... Country name. This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used ... Country map. Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information ...

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Springer initiatives in developing countries Springer recognizes the need to invest in education and scientific research in ... These initiatives, in partnership with other publishers, are designed to be 'help for self-help' for developing countries. ... Information flow between countries. International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications ... a concerted effort to ensure that the knowledge we manage is accessible in those parts of the world that are still developing. ...

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... and create campaigns about developing countries on Causes.com, the world's largest community for doing good. ... Assemble prosthetic hands for developing countries.. The Helping Hands program allows children in developing nations who have ...

*  Tuberculosis in Developing Countries | The BMJ

Tuberculosis in Developing Countries. Br Med J 1964; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5393.1313 (Published 16 May 1964) ...

*  Developing countries in ISO by region

Developing countries in ISO. The ISO list of developing countries is approved by ISO Council. The list is based on the UN list ... ISO groups developing countries by region for practical reasons when carrying out training programmes. ISO's grouping of ... Find out how we develop and publish international standards by bringing together more than 160 members and more than 45,000 ... countries does not reflect an opinion (political or otherwise) of any kind, including about the legal status of any country, ...

*  Equity in Developing Countries - Education Week

Equity in Developing Countries "A View Inside Primary Schools: A World Education Indicators Cross-National Study" ... As developing countries make headway in providing universal primary education, the quality of that schooling is coming under ... The survey of teachers and officials was conducted in 11 countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, India, Malaysia, Paraguay, Peru, ... Quality of education in developing countries questioned. ... Published in Print: June 4, 2008, as Equity in Developing ...

*  Marital Status and Earnings in Developed Countries

Keywords: DEVELOPED COUNTRIES; DEMOGRAPHY; MARIAGE; Other versions of this item:. * Schoeni, Robert F, 1995. "Marital Status ... and Earnings in Developed Countries," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol ...

*  Developed Countries Minefield Quiz - By Holadude19507

Can you name the developed countries, according to the UNDP's 2011 list? Test your knowledge on this geography quiz to see how ... Geography Quiz / Developed Countries Minefield. Random Geography or Country Quiz Can you name the developed countries, ... Tags:Country Quiz, Minefield Quiz, 2011, developed, score. Top Quizzes Today. Top Quizzes Today in Geography. *30 in 60: World ...

*  Most Developed Country Survivor

This is a survivor of the countries that were said to have 'very high human development' in the Human Development Index. Round ...

*  Trade and Developing Countries (Hardback) - Routledge

... is an introduction to contemporary trading positions and problems of developing countries. The authors examine the main export ... options of Third World countries and consider the roles of the key international… ... The authors complete their review with an examination of the way in which numbers of developing countries have tried to ... among developing countries and the increase processing of raw materials as potential for the wider participation of developing ...

*  Developed Countries See Slowing Inflation - Real Time Economics - WSJ

The annual rate of inflation across developed economies fell sharply in August, a development that if sustained would make ... While there is no agreed level of inflation that all central banks are content with, most that operate in developed economies ... The annual rate of inflation across developed economies fell sharply in August, a development that if sustained would make ... by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development on Tuesday showed consumer prices in its 34 member countries rose ...

*  Pictures of tubewells in developing country

Slide 35 of 41. ...

*  First World Telemedicine Symposium for Developing Countries

... Year: Cascais (Portugal),. 30.06.97-04.07.97. Persistent link: ... Second World Telemedicine Symposium for Developing Countries - Final Report > Cascais (Portugal),. 30.06.97-04.07.97 ...

*  economic development - Developing countries and debt | Britannica.com

After World War II it was thought that developing countries would require foreign aid in their early stages of development. ... First, the level of per capita product in the present-day developing countries is much lower than in the developed countries in ... as the circle of the developed countries widens, they are bound to exert an increasing upward pull on the developing countries. ... Countries such as South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore are rapidly approaching developed-country status, and the circle is ...

*  Egypt: Economically Developing Countries by Alasdair Tenquist | Scholastic

This book provides a thorough survey of the history, geography, economy, culture, modern social conditions, and future prospects of Egypt, one of the oldest con

*  Researchers Propose $12 Computer for Developing Countries - ABC News

12 Computer for Developing Countries. As the prices of educational laptops for children in developing countries creep upward, a ...

*  World Bank Says Developing Countries To Drive Growth

Developing countries will be the major driving force behind global economic growth in the next 25 years. ... Developing countries are likely to grow from about a fifth of the global economy to a third of the global economy, depending on ... An Afghan woman shops for shoes in Kabul (file photo) (AFP) December 13, 2006 (RFE/RL) -- Developing countries will be the ... However, the report goes on to warn that the gap between rich and poor could widen in many countries. ...

*  Rethinking foreign infrastructure investment in developing countries

... that the climate for FDI in developing countries had changed fundamentally in the 1990s; and (5) that host developing countries ... Our overall assessment is that infrastructure FDI in developing countries will stabilize in the future at a lower, more ... Second, such investments are even riskier when made in developing countries, which are characterized by weak institutions and ... in infrastructure sectors in developing countries, which was surprising for at least two reasons. First, infrastructure sectors ...

*  Adjustment policies in developing countries: A reassessment

"Introduction to 'Developing Country Debt and the World Economy'," NBER Chapters,in: Developing Country Debt and the World ... Developing Country Debt and Economic Performance, Volume 1: The International Financial System'," NBER Chapters,in: Developing ... "Real exchange rates and economic growth in developing countries: Is devaluation contractionary?," Kiel Working Papers 405, Kiel ... "Adjustment policies and economic growth in developing countries: is devaluation contractionary?," Open Access Publications from ...

*  Cancer in Developing Countries - Facing the Challenge | IAEA

It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you to the 2010 IAEA Scientific Forum, devoted to cancer in developing countries. I am ... I raised the issue of cancer in developing countries in my first meeting with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and have ... I believe it is essential that cancer in developing countries should be given the recognition it deserves as a vital part of ... I therefore resolved to make cancer in developing countries a priority issue for my first year. On my very first overseas trip ...

*  Tax Administration in Developing Countries : An Economic Perspective

This paper examines the role of tax administration in developing countries from an economic perspective. The traditional ... Sign up to receive free e-mail notices when new series and/or country items are posted on the IMF website. ... separation of tax policy and tax administration in the literature is shown to break down in developing countries, where tax ...

*  Basics of Microfinancing: Investing in Developing Countries

... microfinance allows poor and developing nations to build a stronger economy through microcredit. It also is a great way to ... This money can be used to start a business or develop a project that will raise the status of the person or community. The ... While the return may not be as large as other investment options, the fact that the financing of a business in the developing ...

*  Can India ever be a developed country?

... and are ranked so low in the list of developing countries), how can we ever become a developed nation? If we haven't achieved ... The realistic answer to 'Can India ever be a developed country?' is a bitter NO. Just as the answer to the other big question ... Somewhere, deep down, I still have a faint hope that India will become a developed nation -- and win a gold medal in athletics ... uniform industrial development spread across the country? How are we going to control the ticking bomb of population? What are ...

*  Small Durable Solar Panels Provide Energy In Developing Countries | HuffPost

For decades, governments and non-governmental organizations have been trying to bring electricity to the world's poorest and most isolated regions throug...

*  The Food Processing Industry, Globalization and Developing Countries

The internal transformations of the food processing sector of developing countries under the combined impact of imports and FDI ... There follows a discussion of the importance of non-traditional food processing exports by developing countries and the ... We conclude with a discussion of the heterogeneous dynamic of food processing in developing countries and the different ... a discussion of the main trends identifiable in the food processing industries of the three regional blocs of the developed ...

Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}GA²LENInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Miss Asia Pacific 2005MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Liliana Rojas-Suarez: Liliana Rojas-Suarez is a Peruvian-born economist, specializing in financial regulatory policy and the impact of global capital flows on development, especially in Latin American countries. She is currently a senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and serves as the chair of the Latin-American Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee (CLAAF).Anna Reid: Anna Reid (born 1965) is a journalist and author whose work focuses primarily on the history of Eastern Europe.Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories: Water supply and sanitation in the Palestinian territories are characterized by severe water shortage and are highly influenced by the Israeli occupation. 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In it, states recognised that it is the common purpose of all nations to eliminate hunger and malnutrition.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.GuksiProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Microhyla berdmoreiCarte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Global Health Delivery ProjectClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Australian National BL classAga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Pacific Islands Families Study: The Pacific Islands Families Study is a long-running, cohort study of 1398 children (and their parents) of Pacific Islands origin born in Auckland, New Zealand during the year 2000.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Utiaritichthys: Utiaritichthys is a genus of serrasalmid found in the Amazon and Orinoco basins in tropical South America.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.List of rivers in Western Sahara: This is a list of rivers in Western Sahara. This list is arranged north to south by drainage basin, with respective tributaries indented under each larger stream's name.McCloskey critique: The McCloskey critique refers to a critique of post-1940s "official modernist" methodology in economics, inherited from logical positivism in philosophy. The critique maintains that the methodology neglects how economics can be done, is done, and should be done to advance the subject.University of CampinasManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. 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The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Inequality within immigrant families in the United States: Inequality within immigrant families refers to instances in which members of the same family have differing access to resources. 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(1/736) Epidemiology and prevention of group A streptococcal infections: acute respiratory tract infections, skin infections, and their sequelae at the close of the twentieth century.

Infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin due to group A Streptococcus are common, and the organism is highly transmissible. In industrialized countries and to some extent in developing countries, control efforts continue to emphasize that group A streptococcal pharyngitis should be properly diagnosed and appropriately treated. In developing countries and in indigenous populations where the burden of group A streptococcal diseases appears greatest, the epidemiology is less completely defined and may differ from that in industrialized countries. There is a need for accurately collected epidemiological data from developing countries, which may also further clarify the pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections and their sequelae. While proper treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis continues to be essential in all populations, it may be appropriate in developing countries to consider additional strategies to reduce rates of pyoderma.  (+info)

(2/736) Preventing the spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial respiratory pathogens in industrialized countries: the case for judicious antimicrobial use.

The spread of antimicrobial resistance is an important emerging health threat in developed countries. Widespread outpatient antimicrobial use leads to the spread of resistance among community-acquired pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partner organizations have initiated a national campaign promoting more judicious antimicrobial use to decrease the spread of resistance. The initial focus is to improve management of respiratory tract infections, which account for most outpatient antimicrobial use. Survey and focus group results indicate that patient pressure and suboptimal diagnosis and treatment contribute to antibiotic overuse. To educate physicians, a series of "principles of judicious antibiotic use" have been developed that identify optimal approaches to management of common respiratory infections. Patient education materials and strategies to improve doctor-patient communication also have been developed. Several studies currently under way will evaluate the impact of intervention on antibiotic use practices and resistant carriage or infection.  (+info)

(3/736) International trends in rates of hypospadias and cryptorchidism.

Researchers from seven European nations and the United States have published reports of increasing rates of hypospadias during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. Reports of increasing rates of cryptorchidism have come primarily from England. In recent years, these reports have become one focus of the debate over endocrine disruption. This study examines more recent data from a larger number of countries participating in the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) to address the questions of whether such increases are worldwide and continuing and whether there are geographic patterns to any observed increases. The ICBDMS headquarters and individual systems provided the data. Systems were categorized into five groups based on gross domestic product in 1984. Hypospadias increases were most marked in two American systems and in Scandinavia and Japan. The increases leveled off in many systems after 1985. Increases were not seen in less affluent nations. Cryptorchidism rates were available for 10 systems. Clear increases in this anomaly were seen in two U.S. systems and in the South American system, but not elsewhere. Since 1985, rates declined in most systems. Numerous artifacts may contribute to or cause upward trends in hypospadias. Possible "real" causes include demographic changes and endocrine disruption, among others.  (+info)

(4/736) Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a randomly selected population in a developed country.

This cross-sectional study of 400 sera from a randomly selected adult population in Northern Ireland, using a microimmunofluorescence assay, demonstrated high overall seropositivity (70%) for IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in developed populations. Seropositivity was shown to be unrelated to gender, age or smoking but there was an inverse trend between infection and educational level achieved as a measure of socio-economic status. IgG levels were also higher during the winter months suggesting seasonal variation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The high prevalence of evidence of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae as described in this study may have implications for prevention of cardiovascular disease if further evidence conclusively determines that infection with this organism is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(5/736) Using perinatal audit to promote change: a review.

Close to half of all infant deaths world-wide now occur in the first week of life, almost all in developing countries, and the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) is used as an indicator of the quality of health service delivery. Clinical audit aims to improve quality of care through the systematic assessment of practice against a defined standard, with a view to recommending and implementing measures to address specific deficiencies in care. Perinatal outcome audit evaluates crude or cause-specific PNMRs, reviewing secular trends over several years or comparing rates between similar institutions. However, the PNMR may not be a valid, reliable and sensitive indicator of quality of care at the institutional level in developing countries because of variations in the presenting case-mix, various confounding non-health service factors and the small number of deaths which occur. Process audit compares actual practice with standard (best) practice, based on the evidence of research or expert consensus. Databases reviewing the management of reproductive health problems in developing countries are currently being prepared so as to provide clinicians and health service managers with up-to-date information to support the provision of evidence-based care. Standard practice should be adapted and defined in explicit management guidelines, taking into account local resources and circumstances. Forms of process audit include the review of care procedures in cases which have resulted in a pre-defined adverse outcome, know as 'sentinel event audit'; and the review of all cases where a particular care activity was received or indicated, known as 'topic audit'. These are complementary and each depends on the quality of recorded data. The forum for comparing observed practice with the standard may be external, utilising an 'expert committee', or internal, in which care providers audit their own activities. Local internal audit is more likely to result in improvements in care if it is conducted in a structured and culturally sensitive way, and if all levels of staff are involved in reviewing activities and in formulating recommendations. However, further research is needed to identify the factors which determine the effectiveness and sustainability of perinatal audit in different developing country settings.  (+info)

(6/736) Environment, development and health: ideological metaphors of post-traditional societies?

Environment and health have become nearly interchangeable concepts in post-traditional societies. We are able to observe almost an obsession with them, as if individual changes in ways of life--important for the individual and significant for the culture though they may be--possessed the power to overthrow a system of economic relations that aims at growth in numerical terms rather than at development, enabling society to sustain its specific modes of private and public interaction.  (+info)

(7/736) Complications of varicella in a defined central European population.

AIMS: To describe complications of varicella requiring hospitalisation in a defined population (canton of Bern) and to compare the hospitalisation rates for varicella with published data. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of hospital records of patients less than 16 years of age admitted with complications of varicella to the hospitals serving this population (University Children's Hospital of Bern and the Wildermeth Children's Hospital of Biel, Switzerland), and calculation of hospitalisation rates for varicella and its complications based on birth rates and varicella antibody prevalence rates. RESULTS: From 1986 to 1996, 113 cases (median age, 5.6 years) were identified. Younger siblings were overrepresented (odds ratio (OR), 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09 to 1.84). Central nervous system (CNS) complications (26 patients; 23%) were found predominantly in previously healthy children (relative risk, 7.1; 95% CI, 1.01 to 49.86). Group A beta haemolytic streptococci were recovered from only one of 35 patients with bacterial complications. The hospitalisation rates for primary varicella (9.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 7.4 to 11/10(4), skin infections (2.0/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9/10(4), and pneumonia (0.8/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.3/10(4)) were significantly lower than reported previously. The CNS complication rate (2.2/10(4) cases; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.1/10(4) was among the highest rates reported. CONCLUSIONS: The low hospitalisation rate in comparison with studies from elsewhere indicates that there is a large regional variability in complications associated with varicella. Such data should be taken into consideration when local varicella immunisation strategies are developed.  (+info)

(8/736) Biotechnology: enhancing human nutrition in developing and developed worlds.

While the last 50 years of agriculture have focused on meeting the food, feed, and fiber needs of humans, the challenges for the next 50 years go far beyond simply addressing the needs of an ever-growing global population. In addition to producing more food, agriculture will have to deal with declining resources like water and arable land, need to enhance nutrient density of crops, and achieve these and other goals in a way that does not degrade the environment. Biotechnology and other emerging life sciences technologies offer valuable tools to help meet these multidimensional challenges. This paper explores the possibilities afforded through biotechnology in providing improved agronomic "input" traits, differentiated crops that impart more desirable "output" traits, and using plants as green factories to fortify foods with valuable nutrients naturally rather than externally during food processing. The concept of leveraging agriculture as green factories is expected to have tremendous positive implications for harnessing solar energy to meet fiber and fuel needs as well. Widespread adaptation of biotech-derived products of agriculture should lay the foundation for transformation of our society from a production-driven system to a quality and utility-enhanced system.  (+info)



sharply

  • The annual rate of inflation across developed economies fell sharply in August, a development that if sustained would make central banks more comfortable with keeping their monetary policies stimulative for an extended period of time. (wsj.com)
  • Balance-of-payments crises and debt-servicing difficulties had been experienced by a few countries in most years since the 1950s, but with the second oil price increase and the worldwide recession of the early 1980s, developing countries increased their borrowing and total indebtedness sharply until commercial banks virtually ceased voluntary lending after Mexico experienced difficulty meeting its obligations in 1982. (britannica.com)

Crisis

  • Conditionality, Debt Relief, and the Developing Country Debt Crisis ," NBER Working Papers 2644, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)
  • It is not an exaggeration to say that cancer represents an imminent crisis for developing countries. (iaea.org)

India

  • India : Country Framework Report for Private Participation in Infrastructure ," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15275, The World Bank. (repec.org)

participation

  • Contemporary economic difficulties and their impact upon the Third World is also discussed, with the authors displaying a guarded optimism about real changes in world economic relations, citing factors such as the spread of trade among developing countries and the increase processing of raw materials as potential for the wider participation of developing countries in international trade. (routledge.com)

debt

  • However, some other countries borrowed in order to offset higher oil prices and in order to maintain an excess of expenditures over consumption, without developing the highly profitable investments with which to finance the debt-servicing obligations they incurred. (britannica.com)
  • The result was that a large number of developing countries were unable to meet their debt obligations, as export earnings declined owing to the recession, interest rates were rising, and new money was not forthcoming. (britannica.com)
  • Introduction to 'Developing Country Debt and the World Economy' ," NBER Chapters ,in: Developing Country Debt and the World Economy, pages 1-34 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. (repec.org)

particularly

  • The authors complete their review with an examination of the way in which numbers of developing countries have tried to diversify their trade relations, particularly by creating Third World trading groups. (routledge.com)
  • Particularly sobering is the fact that in many low-income countries, there is not a single radiation therapy machine. (iaea.org)

programmes

  • ISO groups developing countries by region for practical reasons when carrying out training programmes. (iso.org)
  • The IAEA´s Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) works with the WHO and many other partners to help developing countries establish comprehensive national cancer control programmes. (iaea.org)

roles

  • The authors examine the main export options of Third World countries and consider the roles of the key international organisations - GATT, UNCTAD, etc - and those of national governments and foreign investors. (routledge.com)

international

  • In the 1950s almost all capital flows to developing countries were from official sources, in the form of foreign aid from developed countries or of resources from the multilateral institutions, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund . (britannica.com)
  • In the 1960s some of the export-oriented, rapidly growing countries began to rely on private international capital markets. (britannica.com)

economic growth

  • An Afghan woman shops for shoes in Kabul (file photo) (AFP) December 13, 2006 (RFE/RL) -- Developing countries will be the major driving force behind global economic growth in the next 25 years. (rferl.org)
  • Real exchange rates and economic growth in developing countries: Is devaluation contractionary? (repec.org)

among

  • Economic Co-operation and Trade Among Developing Countries 9. (routledge.com)
  • By the early 1970s about 34 percent of the total world population belonged to the developed countries, which among them had 87.5 percent of the total world GNP . (britannica.com)

make

  • We make a concerted effort to ensure that the knowledge we manage is accessible in those parts of the world that are still developing. (springer.com)
  • As developing countries make headway in providing universal primary education, the quality of that schooling is coming under scrutiny. (edweek.org)
  • I therefore resolved to make cancer in developing countries a priority issue for my first year. (iaea.org)

Large

  • Second, the present-day developing countries have large population bases and are handicapped by much faster rates of population growth. (britannica.com)

policies

  • We provide equipment and training, deliver know-how and technical support and help developing countries establish cancer control policies and centres. (iaea.org)

children

  • As the prices of educational laptops for children in developing countries creep upward, a group of researchers attempts to create a new, even lower-tech computer that would cost as little as $12. (go.com)

help

  • These initiatives, in partnership with other publishers, are designed to be 'help for self-help' for developing countries. (springer.com)

name

  • Can you name the developed countries, according to the UNDP's 2011 list? (sporcle.com)

lower

  • First, the level of per capita product in the present-day developing countries is much lower than in the developed countries in their preindustrialization phase (with the exception of Japan). (britannica.com)
  • Our overall assessment is that infrastructure FDI in developing countries will stabilize in the future at a lower, more sustainable level. (repec.org)

List

  • The ISO list of developing countries is approved by ISO Council . (iso.org)
  • The list is based on the UN list of Member States of the Group of 77 (G77) plus ISO members in the UN Eastern European Group of countries that asked to be added. (iso.org)

Issue

  • I raised the issue of cancer in developing countries in my first meeting with UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon and have continued to do so in numerous meetings with world leaders. (iaea.org)

introduction

  • This reissue, initially published in 1977, is an introduction to contemporary trading positions and problems of developing countries. (routledge.com)

likely

  • Developing countries are likely to grow from about a fifth of the global economy to a third of the global economy, depending on how you measure it,' said Richard Newfarmer, the report's lead authoer. (rferl.org)

Member

  • Figures released by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development on Tuesday showed consumer prices in its 34 member countries rose by 1.7% in the 12 months to August, having risen by 2.0% in the 12 months to July. (wsj.com)

future

  • and future private lending to developing countries would need to be somewhat more discriminating as to the economic prospects of recipient countries. (britannica.com)

million

  • Almost 9 million of these deaths will be in developing countries. (iaea.org)
  • Since 1980, the IAEA has delivered over $220 million worth of cancer-related assistance to developing countries. (iaea.org)

report

  • However, the report goes on to warn that the gap between rich and poor could widen in many countries. (rferl.org)

increase

  • In the 1970s many oil-importing developing countries were able to turn to borrowing from private sources when their economies were hit by the severe oil price increase of 1973. (britannica.com)

perspective

  • This paper examines the role of tax administration in developing countries from an economic perspective. (imf.org)

late

  • Around 70 percent of cancers in developing countries are diagnosed too late for life-saving treatment. (iaea.org)

Second

  • Second, such investments are even riskier when made in developing countries, which are characterized by weak institutions and political instability. (repec.org)

development

  • After World War II it was thought that developing countries would require foreign aid in their early stages of development. (britannica.com)
  • What are the prospects of the still-to-develop countries of Asia, Latin America, and Africa joining this circle of economic development? (britannica.com)

reasons

  • The 1990s witnessed a boom in foreign direct investment (FDI) in infrastructure sectors in developing countries, which was surprising for at least two reasons. (repec.org)

rate

  • Investment yielded a very high rate of return in these countries, so additional foreign resources could be attracted and productively used. (britannica.com)

foreign

  • and (5) that host developing countries would not expropriate foreign-owned infrastructure assets as they had in the past. (repec.org)

resources

  • The lesson for all of us here is obvious: we too need to work together, to share our experience, expertise and knowledge with each other and to pool our resources to ensure that cancer patients in developing countries gain access to the best modern treatment and care. (iaea.org)

slow

  • For many heavily indebted developing countries, the consequence was a prolonged period of slow growth or even declines in outputs and incomes. (britannica.com)

global

  • I believe it is essential that cancer in developing countries should be given the recognition it deserves as a vital part of the global health agenda and that global funding for cancer control in developing countries should be increased. (iaea.org)

together

  • I decided to devote this IAEA Scientific Forum to the subject of cancer in developing countries in the hope that bringing together the people in this room would move us a step closer to that goal. (iaea.org)

political

  • ISO's grouping of countries does not reflect an opinion (political or otherwise) of any kind, including about the legal status of any country, territory, city, area, its authorities, or the drawing of its frontiers or boundaries. (iso.org)

pages

  • Marital Status and Earnings in Developed Countries ," Journal of Population Economics , Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 8(4), pages 351-359, November. (repec.org)

disease

  • Deaths from the disease disproportionately affect the poorest people in the poorest countries. (iaea.org)