Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Rare, chronic, papulo-vesicular disease characterized by an intensely pruritic eruption consisting of various combinations of symmetrical, erythematous, papular, vesicular, or bullous lesions. The disease is strongly associated with the presence of HLA-B8 and HLA-DR3 antigens. A variety of different autoantibodies has been detected in small numbers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.Dermatitis, Occupational: A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.Dermatitis, Irritant: A non-allergic contact dermatitis caused by prolonged exposure to irritants and not explained by delayed hypersensitivity mechanisms.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Patch Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.Dermatitis, Perioral: A papular eruption of unknown etiology that progresses to residual papular erythema and scaling usually confined to the area of the mouth, and almost exclusively occurring in young women. It may also be localized or extend to involve the eyelids and adjacent glabella area of the forehead (periocular dermatitis). (Dorland, 28th ed)Dermatitis, Exfoliative: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Facial DermatosesImmunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Hand DermatosesDigital Dermatitis: Highly contagious infectious dermatitis with lesions near the interdigital spaces usually in cattle. It causes discomfort and often severe lameness (LAMENESS, ANIMAL). Lesions can be either erosive or proliferative and wart-like with papillary growths and hypertrophied hairs. DICHELOBACTER NODOSUS and TREPONEMA are the most commonly associated causative agents for this mixed bacterial infection disease.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Skin Diseases, Parasitic: Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.Dermatitis, Photoallergic: A delayed hypersensitivity involving the reaction between sunlight or other radiant energy source and a chemical substance to which the individual has been previously exposed and sensitized. It manifests as a papulovesicular, eczematous, or exudative dermatitis occurring chiefly on the light-exposed areas of the skin.Diaper Rash: A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Schistosomatidae: A family of blood flukes of the class Trematoda which is found in animals and man. It Includes the genera Heterobilharzia, Schistosomatium, Schistosoma, Ornithobilharzia, Bilharziella, Trichobilharzia, Pseudobilharzia, and Austrobilharzia.Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Dermatitis, Toxicodendron: An allergic contact dermatitis caused by exposure to plants of the genus Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus). These include poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac, all plants that contain the substance urushiol, a potent skin sensitizing agent. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Skin Cream: A water-soluble medicinal preparation applied to the skin.Skin DiseasesOxazolone: Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.Antipruritics: Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Kaposi Varicelliform Eruption: A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).Water Loss, Insensible: Loss of water by diffusion through the skin and by evaporation from the respiratory tract.Rosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Dinitrofluorobenzene: Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Ear, External: The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.Factitious Disorders: Disorders characterized by physical or psychological symptoms that are not real, genuine, or natural.Picryl Chloride: A hapten that generates suppressor cells capable of down-regulating the efferent phase of trinitrophenol-specific contact hypersensitivity. (Arthritis Rheum 1991 Feb;34(2):180).Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Skin Diseases, Vesiculobullous: Skin diseases characterized by local or general distributions of blisters. They are classified according to the site and mode of blister formation. Lesions can appear spontaneously or be precipitated by infection, trauma, or sunlight. Etiologies include immunologic and genetic factors. (From Scientific American Medicine, 1990)Intertrigo: A superficial dermatitis occurring on skin surfaces in contact with each other, such as the axillae, neck creases, intergluteal fold, between the toes, etc. Obesity is a predisposing factor. The condition is caused by moisture and friction and is characterized by erythema, maceration, burning, and exudation.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Skin Diseases, Infectious: Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Dermatology: A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.PhenylenediaminesHypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Jewelry: Objects of precious metal usually containing gems and worn to enhance personal appearance. Health concerns include possible contamination from lead content or bacteria.Skin Diseases, Viral: Skin diseases caused by viruses.Skin UlcerAnti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Petrolatum: A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Tacrolimus: A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Foot Dermatoses: Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.Chemokine CCL27: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR10 RECEPTORS. It is constitutively expressed in the skin and may play a role in T-CELL trafficking during cutaneous INFLAMMATION.Dapsone: A sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the SULFONAMIDES which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with PYRIMETHAMINE in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Leg Dermatoses: A nonspecific term used to denote any cutaneous lesion or group of lesions, or eruptions of any type on the leg. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Fluocinonide: A topical glucocorticoid used in the treatment of ECZEMA.Scalp DermatosesMites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Folliculitis: Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.Lichen Planus: An inflammatory, pruritic disease of the skin and mucous membranes, which can be either generalized or localized. It is characterized by distinctive purplish, flat-topped papules having a predilection for the trunk and flexor surfaces. The lesions may be discrete or coalesce to form plaques. Histologically, there is a "saw-tooth" pattern of epidermal hyperplasia and vacuolar alteration of the basal layer of the epidermis along with an intense upper dermal inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of T-cells. Etiology is unknown.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Molluscum Contagiosum: A common, benign, usually self-limited viral infection of the skin and occasionally the conjunctivae by a poxvirus (MOLLUSCUM CONTAGIOSUM VIRUS). (Dorland, 27th ed)Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Chemokine CCL17: A CC-type chemokine that is found at high levels in the THYMUS and has specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It is synthesized by DENDRITIC CELLS; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; KERATINOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Ichthyosis Vulgaris: Most common form of ICHTHYOSIS characterized by prominent scaling especially on the exterior surfaces of the extremities. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Adrenal Cortex HormonesHaptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Pellagra: A disease due to deficiency of NIACIN, a B-complex vitamin, or its precursor TRYPTOPHAN. It is characterized by scaly DERMATITIS which is often associated with DIARRHEA and DEMENTIA (the three D's).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Skin Diseases, Papulosquamous: A group of dermatoses with distinct morphologic features. The primary lesion is most commonly a papule, usually erythematous, with a variable degree of scaling on the surface. Plaques form through the coalescing of primary lesions.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Calendula: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain CAROTENOIDS, essential oils (OILS, VOLATILE), flavonoids, mucilage, SAPONINS, and STEROLS. The plants are used both topically and internally. The common name of Marigold is also used for TAGETES.Photosensitivity Disorders: Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Rhabditida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Diapers, Adult: Absorbent pads designed to be worn as underpants or pants liners by adults.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Galactosylgalactosylglucosylceramidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a ceramidetrihexoside to a ceramidedihexoside plus galactose.Hyperpigmentation: Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.Dermatitis, Phototoxic: A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.Lichenoid Eruptions: Conditions in which there is histological damage to the lower epidermis along with a grouped chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the papillary dermis disturbing the interface between the epidermis and dermis. LICHEN PLANUS is the prototype of all lichenoid eruptions. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p398)Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.Receptors, CCR4: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL17 and CHEMOKINE CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; MAST CELLS; DENDRITIC CELLS; and NK CELLS.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Lawsonia Plant: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that is the source of henna and has cytotoxic activity.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.Langerhans Cells: Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Egg Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.Superantigens: Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.Acneiform Eruptions: Visible efflorescent lesions of the skin caused by acne or resembling acne. (Dorland, 28th ed, p18, 575)Laughter Therapy: Therapeutic use of humor and laughter to improve emotional well being and health.Flurandrenolone: A corticosteroid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream or an ointment, and is also used as a polyethylene tape with an adhesive. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p733)Sebum: The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Croton Oil: Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.TextilesVulvar Diseases: Pathological processes of the VULVA.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Diarylheptanoids: A group of compounds consisting of two aromatic rings separated by seven carbons (HEPTANES) and having various substituents. The best known member is CURCUMIN.Mice, Inbred BALB CTattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Hypopigmentation: A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.Beauty CultureChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Keratosis: Any horny growth such as a wart or callus.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Neurodermatitis: An extremely variable eczematous skin disease that is presumed to be a response to prolonged vigorous scratching, rubbing, or pinching to relieve intense pruritus. It varies in intensity, severity, course, and morphologic expression in different individuals. Neurodermatitis is believed by some to be psychogenic. The circumscribed or localized form is often referred to as lichen simplex chronicus.Perfume: A substance, extract, or preparation for diffusing or imparting an agreeable or attractive smell, especially a fluid containing fragrant natural oils extracted from flowers, woods, etc., or similar synthetic oils. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Local Lymph Node Assay: The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Milk Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.Betamethasone: A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Hydroxyzine: A histamine H1 receptor antagonist that is effective in the treatment of chronic urticaria, dermatitis, and histamine-mediated pruritus. Unlike its major metabolite CETIRIZINE, it does cause drowsiness. It is also effective as an antiemetic, for relief of anxiety and tension, and as a sedative.PrintingDermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Pyoderma: Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed).Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Chemokine CCL22: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR4 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards TH2 CELLS and TC2 CELLS.Incontinence Pads: Absorbent pads used for URINARY INCONTINENCE and usually worn as underpants or pants liners by the ELDERLY.Scabies: A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Construction Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of building.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.

*  Impact of preventive strategies on trend of occupational skin disease in hairdressers: population based register study | The BMJ

The prognosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Occup Med 1994; 9: 53-58. ... The hairdressers with a stated occupational skin disease had a median age of 20 (Q1 18, Q3 22) years and a median occupational ... Of the 997 initial reports of occupational skin disease in hairdressers, 856 (85.9%) cases had a confirmed occupational cause. ... Occupational skin diseases in Northern Bavaria between 1990 and 1999: a population-based study. Br J Dermatol 2001; 145: 453- ...
bmj.com/content/324/7351/1422

*  CDC - Skin- Occupational Dermatoses - NIOSH Workplace Safety and Health Topic

Dermal exposure to hazardous agents can result in a variety of occupational diseases and disorders, including occupational skin ... Slide 19 - Contact Dermatitis, Subacute. Slide 20 - Contact Dermatitis, Chronic. Slide 21 - Occupational Acne. Acute, Oil ... Slide 129 - Shoe Dermatitis. Slide 130 - Clothing Dermatitis. Slide 131 - Elastic Dermatitis (allergy to bleached rubber). ... Index of Occupational Dermatoses Slides. Slide 1 - NIOSH Introduction. Slide 2 - Occupational Dermatoses Title. Slide 3 - ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin/occderm-slides/ocderm.html

*  Prevalence of dermatoses and skin sensitisation associated with use of pesticides in fruit farmers of southern Taiwan. | Base...

Objectives-Agricultural workers are known to have occupational skin diseases. The prevalence and pattern of skin diseases are ... Mots-cl s Pascal anglais : Dermatitis, Occupational exposure, Pesticides, Toxicity, Agriculture, Fruit tree, Sensitization, ... Department of Environmental and Occupational Health. TWN. Objectives-Agricultural workers are known to have occupational skin ... OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, vol. 53, n 6, 1996, pages 427-432 (5 p.), 15 r f., ISSN 1351-0711, GBR ...
bdsp.ehesp.fr/Base/124628/

*  Occupational dermatitis in New Zealand cleaners » Centre for Public Health Research

Occupational dermatitis in New Zealand cleaners. The aims of this project are:. *To assess the prevalence of work-related ... To assess which factors increase the probability of a favourable prognosis after the diagnosis of occupational dermatitis; ... To assess what proportion of work-related dermatitis is new onset or incident dermatitis (as opposed to exacerbation of pre- ... Occupational dermatitis in New Zealand cleaners. Study report for the Department of Labour. Centre for Public Health Research, ...
publichealth.massey.ac.nz/home/research/research-projects/occupational-dermatitis-in-new-zealand-cleaners/

*  Occupational contact dermatitis - Robert M. Adams - Google Books

... dermatitis.html?id=AsprAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareOccupational contact dermatitis. ... acetate acid acrylic agents alcohol allergic contact dermatitis allergic sensitization aluminum ammonium aniline antioxidants ... 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Occupational_contact_dermatitis.html?id=AsprAAAAMAAJ ... castor oil catalyst cause cement cent chemical chloride Cleaners Coatings cobalt compounds contact allergens contact dermatitis ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=AsprAAAAMAAJ&q=workers&dq=related:ISBN0889780471&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

*  Prevention of Occupational Contact Dermatitis

... Sultan T Al-Otaibi* Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of ... Occupational skin diseases, most of which are contact dermatitis arising from exposure to a culpable agent, constitute more ... Failure to follow the outlined preventive programs will lead to high rates of occupational contact dermatitis. ... Citation: Al-Otaibi ST (2016) Prevention of Occupational Contact Dermatitis. J Ergonomics 6:165. doi:10.4172/2165-7556.1000165 ...
https://omicsonline.org/peer-reviewed/prevention-of-occupational-contact-dermatitis-73550.html

*  Occupational contact dermatitis: clinical and chemical aspects - Jean Foussereau, Claude Benezra, Howard I. Maibach - Google...

... dermatitis.html?id=KXA4AQAAIAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareOccupational contact dermatitis. ... Occupational contact dermatitis: clinical and chemical aspects. Jean Foussereau,Claude Benezra,Howard I. Maibach. Snippet view ... acid acrylic Acta derm alcohol allergens Allergens Test Allergic contact dermatitis allergic dermatitis allergy amines ... Meneghini mercaptobenzothiazole metal methacrylate methyl Newsl nickel Occupational Allergy occupational dermatitis orange ...
https://books.google.com/books?id=KXA4AQAAIAAJ&q=Allergens Test&dq=related:ISBN0889780471&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en

*  Occupational (Contact) Dermatitis

An occupational dermatitis is one where the inflammatory reaction is caused entirely by occupational contact factors or where ... Management of Occupational Dermatitis Assessment Understanding the patient s job is necessary. A job title is not sufficient ... Exogenous dermatitis or contact dermatitis may be caused by irritant or allergic contact reactions or both. Dermatitis often ... Contact dermatitis accounts for at least 60% of occupational skin disease, which, in turn, account for 40-70 % of ...
allergyclinic.co.nz/contact_dermatitis.aspx

*  Insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of measures to prevent occupational irritant hand dermatitis | Evidence...

Interventions for preventing occupational irritant hand dermatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;6:CD004414.. ... Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. It is an ... Insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of measures to prevent occupational irritant hand dermatitis ... Insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of measures to prevent occupational irritant hand dermatitis ...
ebn.bmj.com/content/14/1/21?cited-by=yes&legid=ebnurs;14/1/21

*  Occupational diseases - RIDDOR - HSE

... and self-employed people are required to report cases of certain diagnosed reportable diseases linked with occupational ... Occupational dermatitis. Dermatitis is reportable when associated with work-related exposure to any chemical or biological ... Occupational dermatitis: where the person's work involves significant or regular exposure to a known skin sensitiser or ... enzymes and wood can all cause dermatitis. Corrosive and irritating chemicals also lead to dermatitis. Construction work, ...
hse.gov.uk/RIDDOR/occupational-diseases.htm

*  Morphological and immunohistochemical study of immediate contact dermatitis of the hands due to foods.

This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows ... Dermatitis, Contact / pathology*. Dermatitis, Occupational / pathology*. Female. Food Handling*. Hand Dermatoses / pathology*. ... Previous Document: Allergic contact dermatitis from diphenylthiourea in Vulkan heat retainers.. Next Document: The irritancy of ... Title: Contact dermatitis Volume: 22 ISSN: 0105-1873 ISO Abbreviation: Contact Derm. Publication Date: 1990 Feb ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Morphological-immunohistochemical-study-immediate-contact/2138971.html

*  Other Dermatitis Conditions - Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA

Contact Dermatitis & Occupational Dermatology Clinic The Massachusetts General Hospital Contact Dermatitis & Occupational ... localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. ... Other Dermatitis Conditions. The following are some of the other common dermatitis conditions:. Condition ... Other Dermatitis Conditions. The following are some of the other common dermatitis conditions: ...
massgeneral.org/conditions/condition.aspx?id=339

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20022737 - Dermal disposition of triazine in cutting fluid mixtures.

... but biocides such as triazine which have been implicated in occupational contact irritant dermatitis (OCID). Little is known ... Metal-industry; Biocides; Preservatives; Occupational-dermatitis; Occupational-exposure; Irritants; Dermatitis; Workers; In- ... but biocides such as triazine which have been implicated in occupational contact irritant dermatitis (OCID). Little is known ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20022737.html

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20039047 - Efficacy of predictive modeling as a scientific criterion in dermal hazard...

This study evaluated the efficacy of a predictive model utilized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ... Occupational-dermatitis; Qualitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Skin-absorption; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; ... This study evaluated the efficacy of a predictive model utilized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ... Chen-Peng Chen, China Medical University, Department of Occupational Safety and Health, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402 ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20039047.html

*  Contact Dermatitis Care at Tufts Medical Center

... nurses and a full support staff at Tufts Medical Center in Boston treat Contact Dermatitis. ... Contact Dermatitis and Occupational Dermatology Unit. The experienced and skilled team of the Contact Dermatitis and ... Contact dermatitis is a type of skin rash caused after touching an irritant or something you are allergic to. It causes redness ... Occupational Dermatology Unit at Tufts MC diagnoses and treats all forms of skin inflammation. More information about programs ...
https://tuftsmedicalcenter.org/patient-care-services/Conditions-We-Treat/C/Contact-Dermatitis.aspx

*  Chemical leucoderma: a clinico-aetiological study of 864 cases in the perspective of a developing country.

Dermatitis, Occupational / epidemiology, etiology, pathology*. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Household Products / adverse ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Chemical-leucoderma-clinico-aetiological-study/18782317.html

*  CDC - NIOSH Publications and Products - Carcinogenicity of Acetaldehyde and Malonaldehyde, and Mutagenicity of Related Low...

Occupational dermatitis. Humans. Skin. Nethercott and Holness [1988]. Occupational dermatitis, respiratory tract irritation, ... Hansen KS [1983b]. Glutaraldehyde occupational dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 9:81-82.. Hawley GG, ed. [1977]. The condensed ... Hansen KS [1983a]. Occupational dermatoses in hospital cleaning women. Contact Dermatitis 9:343-351. ... Occupational Safety and Health. Centers for Disease Control. Abstract. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/docs/91-112/

*  Editorial Board : Dermatitis

Atopic Dermatitis. Eric Simpson, MD. Susan T. Nedorost, MD Occupational Dermatitis. D. Linn Holness, MD ... International Contact Dermatitis Research Group North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Editor-in-Chief Ponciano D. Cruz Jr, ... Dermatitis. 2011 Cedar Springs Road #607. Dallas, Texas, USA 75201. Tel: 214-633-1858. Fax: 214-648-5556. Jo.Urquhart@ ... Contact Dermatitis. Jacob P. Thyssen, MD, PhD. Matthew J. Zirwas, MD. ...
journals.lww.com/dermatitis/pages/editorialboard.aspx

*  PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD

Sagher, F. and SHANON, J. Sabra dermatitis; an occupational dermatitis due to prickly pear handling stimulating scabies. AMA. ... Shanon, Y. and Sagher, F. [Sabra dermatitis. Occupational dermatitis caused by contact with the prickly pear which resembles ... Whiting, D. A. and Bristow, J. H. Dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis caused by a prickly pear (Opuntia microdasys). S.Afr.Med ...
https://webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-880-Nopal PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS

*  Bee Propolis | Medical City Dallas

Melli MC, Giorgini S, Sertoli A. Occupational dermatitis in a bee-keeper. Contact Dermatitis . 1983;9:427-428. ... Allergic contact dermatitis from a beeswax nipple-protective. Contact Dermatitis . 1995;33:440-441. ... Pincelli C, Motolese A, Pincelli L. Contact dermatitis from propolis. Contact Dermatitis . 1984;11:49. ... Wanscher B. Contact dermatitis from propolis. Br J Dermatol . 1976;94:451-455. ...
medicalcityhospital.com/hl/?/21542/Bee-propolis&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  Clinical features and diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis

The words dermatitis and eczema are often used interchangeably to describe a pattern of inflammation of th ... Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the classic presentation of a T-cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity response to ... Management of occupational dermatitis. Dermatol Clin 2009; 27:365.. *Meyer JD, Chen Y, Holt DL, et al. Occupational contact ... Occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life. Contact Dermatitis 2001; 45:17. ...
https://uptodate.com/contents/clinical-features-and-diagnosis-of-allergic-contact-dermatitis

*  Mercury, inorganic (EHC 118, 1991)

RUDZKI, E. (1979) Occupational dermatitis among health service workers. Derm. Beruf Umwelt, 27(4): 112. SAPIN, C., DRUET, E ... Occupational exposure during manufacture, formulation, and use Occupational exposure to mercury in chloralkali plants and in ... NORTH AMERICAN CONTACT DERMATITIS GROUP (1973) Epidemiology of contact dermatitis in North America, 1972. Arch. Dermatol., 108 ... and the occu- pational exposure of the participants. Although the extent of occupational exposure could be evaluated from ...
inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc118.htm

*  Poison ivy rash Causes - Mayo Clinic

Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, occupational dermatoses and dermatoses due to plants. In: Dermatology Essentials. ... Contact dermatitis. In: Fitzpatrick's Color Atlas and Synopsis of Clinical Dermatology. 7th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill ... Poison ivy rash is a type of allergic contact dermatitis caused by an oily resin called urushiol. It's found in the leaves, ... Contact dermatitis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. ...
mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/poison-ivy/basics/causes/con-20025866?p=1

*  January/February 2010 - Volume 21 - Issue 1 : Dermatitis

Occupational Allergic Contact Dermatitis Due to Thioureas. Kohli, Nita; Habbal, Souheil Kohli, Nita; Habbal, Souheil Less ... Propylene Glycol Dermatitis in the Printing Industry: The Fundamental Role of a Workplace Visit. Noiles, Kristin; Kudla, Irena ... Vulvar Allergic Contact Dermatitis from Clotrimazole. Pullen, Samantha K.; Warshaw, Erin M. ...
journals.lww.com/dermatitis/Citation/2010/01000/href

*  Cocos nucifera | SpringerLink

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis due to coconut diethanolamide (cocamide DEA). Contact Dermatitis 1993; 29(5): 262-265. ... Dentist's occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by coconut diethanolamide, N-ethyl-4-toluene sulfonamide, and 4- ... Allergic contact dermatitis from TEA-Coco hydrolyzed protein. Arch Dermatol 1976; 112(7): 1008-1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-59259-887-8_3

Atopic dermatitisInterstitial granulomatous dermatitis: Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a condition that most commonly presents with symmetrical round-to-oval erythematous or violaceous plaques on the flanks, axillae, inner thighs, and lower abdomen.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Contact dermatitisDermatitis herpetiformisSeborrhoeic dermatitisDefatting (medical): Defatting is the chemical dissolving of dermal lipids, from the skin, on contact with defatting agents. This can result in water loss from the affected area and cause the whitening and drying of the skin which may result in cracking, secondary infection and chemical irritant contact dermatitis.Iodopropynyl butylcarbamatePeriorificial dermatitis: Periorificial dermatitis is a cutaneous condition characterized by a combination of perioral dermatitis and periocular dermatitis.ErythrodermaUremic pruritus: Uremic pruritus (also known as uraemic pruritus or renal pruritus) is caused by chronic kidney failure and is the most common internal systemic cause of itching.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Hapalonychia: Hapalonychia, also known as egg-shell nail, is a condition in which the top of a toe or finger nail becomes soft and thin, causing it to bend or break. This condition can manifest as a result of genetic discrepancy James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Dermal equivalent: The dermal equivalent is an in vitro model of the dermal layer of skin. It is constructed by seeding dermal fibroblasts into a collagen gel.Granuloma facialeAquaphor: Aquaphor is a brand of over the counter skin care ointments manufactured by Beiersdorf Inc., an affiliate of Beiersdorf AG.AlitretinoinBreast eczema: Breast eczema (also known as "Nipple eczema") may affect the nipples, areolae, or surrounding skin, with eczema of the nipples being of the moist type with oozing and crusting, in which painful fissuring is frequently seen, especially in nursing mothers.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).OxybenzoneIrritant diaper dermatitisTrichobilharzia regenti: Trichobilharzia regenti is a nasal parasite of birds that causes cercarial dermatitis in humans. The species was described in 1998 by Czech scientists P.Optimmune: Optimmune is an ophthalmic ointment with ciclosporin as the active ingredient for the treatment of pannus and chronic idiopathic keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs. It is a veterinary product produced by Intervet, which is part of Merck.Urushiol: Urushiol is an oily organic allergen found in plants of the family Anacardiaceae, especially Toxicodendron spp. (e.Psoriasis: (psora + -iasis)Throat irritation: Throat irritation can refer to a dry cough, a scratchy feeling at the back of the throat, or a sensation of a lumpy feeling or something stuck at the back of the throat.Allergen immunotherapy: Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies. It is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma.Calamine: Calamine is either a mixture of zinc oxide (ZnO) with about 0.5% ferric oxide (Fe2O3) or a zinc carbonate compound.C3H3NO2Antipruritic: Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.Elimination diet: An elimination diet is a method of identifying foods that an individual cannot consume without adverse effects. Adverse effects may be due to food allergy, food intolerance, other physiological mechanisms (such as metabolic or toxins), or a combination of these.Drug eruptionPrimary cutaneous aspergillosis: Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare skin condition most often occurring at the site of intravenous cannulas in immunosuppressed patients.Necrolytic acral erythema: Necrolytic acral erythema is a cutaneous condition that is a manifestation of hepatitis C viral infection or zinc deficiency.Eczema vaccinatumVetiver System: The Vetiver System (VS) is a system of soil and water conservation whose main component is the use of the vetiver plant in hedgerows. It is promoted by the Vetiver Network International (TVNI), an international non-governmental organization.Ocular rosacea: Ocular rosacea is a manifestation of rosacea that affects the eyes and eyelids. Signs and symptoms generally consist of redness, irritation or burning of the eyes.FluorobenzeneLumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.Keratinocyte: A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.Preauricular sinus and cystDavid Southall: David Southall is a British paediatrician who is an expert in international maternal and child hospital healthcare and in child protection including the diagnosis of the controversial Fabricated or Induced Illness (FII, also known as "Munchausen syndrome by proxy"), and who has performed significant research into sudden infant death syndrome.Gluten exorphin: Gluten exorphins are a group of opioid peptides formed during digestion of the gluten protein. It has been hypothesized that people with autism and schizophrenia have abnormal leakage from the gut of these compounds, which then pass into the brain and disrupt brain functionAutism and Schizophrenia: Intestinal Disorders, Cade, et al.Linear IgA bullous dermatosis: Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (also known as "Linear IgA dermatosis") is frequently associated with medication exposure, especially vancomycin, with men and women being equally affected.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Intertrigo: (ILDS L30.490))Hoof boot: A hoof boot is a device made primarily of polyurethane and is designed to cover the hooves of a horse as an alternative to, and occasionally in addition to, horseshoes. Hoof boots can also be used as a protective device when the animal has a hoof injury that requires protection of the sole of the hoof, or to aid in the application of medication.List of cosmetic ingredients: Ingredients of cosmetic products are listed following International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI).Besins HealthcareDermatopathology: Dermatopathology (from Greek , derma, "skin"; , pathos, "fate, harm"; and , -logia) is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level.RetigabineOsteoporosis circumscripta: Osteoporosis Circumscripta Cranii refers to a highly circumscribed (focal) lytic lesion of the skull bone as seen on X-ray in patients with Paget's disease of bones. This focal lesion can be fairly large.Jewelry designer: A jewelry designer or jewellery designer (see American and British English spelling differences) whose occupation is jewelry design. It is a person who renders original jewelry creations and usually constructs them as well.Ulcerative dermatitis: Ulcerative dermatitis is a skin disorder in rodents associated with bacterial growth often initiated by self-trauma due to a possible allergic response. Although other organisms can be involved, bacteria culture frequently shows Staphylococcus aureus.OxatomideOat sensitivity: Oat sensitivity represents a sensitivity to the proteins found in oats, Avena sativa. Sensitivity to oatsRelaxer: A relaxer is a type of lotion or cream generally used by people with tight curls or very curly hair which makes hair easier to straighten by chemically "relaxing" the natural curls. The active agent is usually a strong alkali, although some formulations are based on ammonium thioglycolate instead.AcariasisType I hypersensitivity: Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen. Type I is not to be confused with Type II, Type III, or Type IV hypersensitivities.Petroleum jelly: Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.Lars Larsen Forsæth: Lars Larsen Forsæth (baptized 9 December 1759 – 12 February 1839) was a Norwegian farmer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constituent Assembly. Tallak Lindstøl: Stortinget og Statsraadet, Kristiania, 1914.TacrolimusOld German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.CCL27: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 27 (CCL27) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family also known under the names IL-11 R-alpha-locus chemokine (ILC), Skinkine, ESkine and Cutaneous T-cell-attracting chemokine (CTACK). It is associated with homing of memory T lymphocytes to the skin, and plays a role in T cell-mediated inflammation of the skin.DapsoneUrticariaNickel electroplating: Nickel electroplating is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of nickel onto a metal object. The nickel layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, wear resistance, or used to build up worn or undersized parts for salvage purposes.Congenital cutaneous candidiasis: Congenital cutaneous candidiasis, previously known as Beck-Ibrahim disease, is a skin condition in newborn babies caused by premature rupture of membranes together with a birth canal infected with Candida albicans.Majocchi's disease: Majocchi's disease (also known as "Purpura annularis telangiectodes," and "Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi") is a skin condition characterized by bluish-red 1- to 3-cm annular patches composed of dark red telangiectases with petechiae.FluocinonideBeare–Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome: Beare–Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of certain bones of the skull, sometimes resulting in a characteristic 'cloverleaf skull'; further growth of the skull is prevented, and therefore the shape of the head and face is abnormal) and a specific skin abnormality, called cutis gyrata, characterized by a furrowed and wrinkled appearance (particularly in the face and on the palms and soles of the feet); thick, dark, velvety areas of skin (acanthosis nigricans) are sometimes found on the hands and feet and in the groin.http://ghr.Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.Crystal earpiece: A crystal earpiece, is a type of piezoelectric earphone, producing sound by using a piezoelectric crystal, a material that changes its shape when electricity is applied to it. It is usually designed to plug into the ear canal of the user.Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of infancy: Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis of infancy (also known as "Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis in infancy," "Infantile eosinophilic pustular folliculitis," and "Neonatal eosinophilic pustular folliculitis") is a cutaneous condition characterized by recurrent pruritic crops of follicular vesiculopustular lesions.Graham-Little syndrome: Graham-Little syndrome is a cutaneous condition characterized by lichen planus-like skin lesions.Freedberg, et al.Molluscum contagiosumUltraviolet light therapyCCL17: Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family is also known as thymus and activation regulated chemokine (TARC). CCL17 is expressed constitutively in thymus, but only transiently in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.Treponema carateum: Treponema carateum is a species of spirochete bacteria in the genus Treponema.Ichthyosis vulgaris

(1/162) Latex glove allergy among hospital employees: a study in the north-west of England.

The frequency of use and duration of wearing latex gloves among hospital employees has increased due to concerns about AIDS and hepatitis. In many countries there is increased consciousness about latex sensitization. In the UK, the Medical Device Agency has been monitoring latex allergy for a number of years but has not found any conclusive evidence of any significant problem. We report following a detailed questionnaire study in two hospitals in the north-west of England. A total of 1,827 members of staff were questioned about latex allergy at work. One hundred and twenty-four (7%) of these hospital employees had experienced symptoms strongly suggestive of latex allergy. Of this group, 56 had a-RAST test (IgE specific to latex), which was positive in seven (12.5%). There was a history of atopy in 31%, and a family history of atopy in 17% of the individuals. As a result of the study it was found that 17% (21 of the affected individuals) had already changed their working practice by using latex-free gloves. We were able to increase awareness of latex allergy within the hospitals. Both individuals and health care organizations need to be aware of the problem and hospital organizations should encourage staff to seek guidance to address the problem and, if necessary, to take appropriate measures to improve working practices. Practical guidelines are given with regard to identifying the problem and glove use for hospital staff.  (+info)

(2/162) Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments.

A physiotherapist working in hydrotherapy presented to occupational health with irritant contact dermatitis. Subsequent investigation revealed that the likely causative agent was 1-bromo 3-chloro 5,5 dimethylhydantoin which was used to disinfect the hydrotherapy pool. A COSHH risk assessment had been performed which failed to take full account of current knowledge and this agent had been introduced into the workplace. The development of adverse health effects among staff and other pool users lead to a review of this risk assessment and eventually a return to less hazardous chlorine-based disinfection. Had an evidence-based approach been combined with an appropriate COSHH assessment prior to and following changes in the workplace then unnecessary risk to employees would not have occurred.  (+info)

(3/162) Repeated hand urticaria due to contact with fishfood.

BACKGROUND: The etiology of urticaria is often difficult to determine. However, in case of repeated circumstance-connected urticaria, the reason may be easily clarifyable. CASE: A 51-year-old healthy woman repeatedly experienced occupational hand urticaria when handling fish food. An unexpected reason for the urticaria was found in that the fishfood contained histamine as a "contaminant". CONCLUSIONS: In fishfood batches, biological degradation can produce histamine and possibly other toxic substances that can lead to occupational health problems.  (+info)

(4/162) Is occupational dermatitis being taken seriously by UK industries?

Occupational dermatitis is a considerable burden but little is documented concerning industry response to this. A postal questionnaire survey of 1,100 UK companies was conducted to investigate skin care provision. The response rate was 51%. The person primarily responsible for health and safety had a professional qualification in only 34% of responding companies. In all, 75% of companies responded that they were required to conduct COSHH risk assessments and, of these, 71% mentioned skin hazards. Only 27% of companies had a skin care policy but 71% had procedures requiring glove use. Seventy-seven per cent of companies did not conduct regular skin checks. Twenty-six per cent had either been aware of a skin problem in the workforce in the last 12 months or had had to modify work practices. Improvement of skin care in UK industry could be facilitated by the establishment of a minimum recommended training qualification; assistance with compliance with COSHH legislation; and guidelines to design and implement a skin policy, provide worker protection and detect skin problems.  (+info)

(5/162) Occupational induction of hypersensitivity after an accidental exposure to chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (CMI/MI) in an industrial worker.

A process worker in a paper chemical plant developed an immediate local dermal irritation and delayed bullous dermatitis due to induction of hypersensitivity following an accidental exposure to chloromethylisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone (CMI/MI) biocide. Contact allergy to the isothiazolinone mixture was confirmed by skin patch testing. The dermatitis healed in four weeks, and the worker was advised to avoid all CMI/MI containing products. In a one-year follow-up he did not present with any further skin symptoms. Preventive measures are important for avoiding induction of hypersensitivity to concentrated CMI/MI solutions in industrial workers.  (+info)

(6/162) Risk of hand dermatitis among hairdressers versus office workers.

OBJECTIVES: The risk of irritant skin damage associated with hairdressing was estimated with the individual occupational exposure and other relevant factors having been taken into consideration. METHODS: A cohort of 2352 hairdressing and 111 office apprentices was prospectively followed for the duration of their vocational training (3 years), 3 examinations having been made and 3 years of recruitment having been used [1992 (hairdressers only), 1993, 1994] in 15 vocational training schools in northwest Germany. The information of the final follow-up examination was used for the analysis. RESULTS: A multifactorial analysis taking several (constitutional) risk factors, which were unevenly distributed between the 2 groups, into account revealed a significantly increased risk for hairdressers when compared with office workers (odds ratio approximately 4.0) with a marked decline in the most recently recruited (1994) apprentice group. Other significant factors increasing the dermatitis risk were (i) low ambient absolute humidity, (ii) young age, and (iii) a certain higher range of "atopy score". If the individual profile of occupational exposure among hairdressers was also considered, unprotected wet work of more than 2 hours per day was found to be a significant risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: Good skin protection, as operationalized in the present study, can diminish, but not eliminate, the risk of occupational irritant hand dermatitis among hairdressers.  (+info)

(7/162) Exposure to preservatives used in the industrial pre-treatment of timber.

OBJECTIVE: The research was to survey potential dermal exposure and inhalation exposure of operators to preservative fluids used in industrial timber pre-treatment. RESULTS: Surveys in 1996-98 produced 64 data points. These were taken from 54 sites, and involved 57 timber pre-treatment process operators. Of the data, 38 related to copper chromium arsenic preservative used in vacuum-pressure processes, 19 to solvent-based preservative in double vacuum processes and 7 to water-based preservative in double vacuum processes. Treatment cycle times, preservative concentrations, treatment load sizes and quantities of preservative used per cubic metre of timber are reported. Preservative deposition patterns were similar for all treatments, with about 90% on the legs, and most of the remainder on the arms and chest. The results are quoted as mg preservative preparation (as opposed to active substance), expressed as mg per treatment cycle and mg per minute. Water-based products in vacuum-pressure processes (38 data) showed potential dermal exposure in the range 547-132,000 mg per cycle with a median value 3960 mg per cycle (median cycle time 3 h). Water-based products in double vacuum processes (7 data) showed a range 59-8750 mg per cycle with a median value 4260 mg per cycle; and solvent-based products in double vacuum processes (19 data) showed a range 7.5-449 mg per cycle with a median value 119 mg per cycle (median cycle time 1 h for double-vacuum processes). Contamination of work clothing occurred in nearly all surveys, with around 10% penetration of the preservative as estimated by a sampling patch mounted inside the operator's coveralls. Contamination was measured inside the operator's gloves in nearly all surveys. Wearing fresh gloves was found to reduce exposure to arsenic by 71% and to permethrin by 37%. Contamination on socks was measured and found to be less frequent for double vacuum than for vacuum-pressure processes. Exposure by inhalation for vacuum-pressure processes expressed as preservative, showed a range of 0.06-7.96 mg/m3, with a median value of 1.07 mg/m3, time-weighted average exposure over one or two treatment cycles. Exposure was detected in 68% of the vacuum-pressure process surveys. There was evidence for aerosol generation on transporting timber treated with water-based preservative. For double vacuum processes, two non-zero results only were found, both for water-based preservatives. Aerosols within treatment vessels were found to have dispersed 2.5 min after opening the door. Pilotstudy biological monitoring data for urinary chromium, arsenic, and permethrin metabolites are quoted with reference to creatinine. There are tentative conclusions relating to up take via the skin.  (+info)

(8/162) Biocompatibility of resin-modified filling materials.

Increasing numbers of resin-based dental restorations have been placed over the past decade. During this same period, the public interest in the local and especially systemic adverse effects caused by dental materials has increased significantly. It has been found that each resin-based material releases several components into the oral environment. In particular, the comonomer, triethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (TEGDMA), and the 'hydrophilic' monomer, 2-hydroxy-ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), are leached out from various composite resins and 'adhesive' materials (e.g., resin-modified glass-ionomer cements [GICs] and dentin adhesives) in considerable amounts during the first 24 hours after polymerization. Numerous unbound resin components may leach into saliva during the initial phase after polymerization, and later, due to degradation or erosion of the resinous restoration. Those substances may be systemically distributed and could potentially cause adverse systemic effects in patients. In addition, absorption of organic substances from unpolymerized material, through unprotected skin, due to manual contact may pose a special risk for dental personnel. This is borne out by the increasing numbers of dental nurses, technicians, and dentists who present with allergic reactions to one or more resin components, like HEMA, glutaraldehyde, ethyleneglycol di-methacrylate (EGDMA), and dibenzoyl peroxide (DPO). However, it must be emphasized that, except for conventional composite resins, data reported on the release of substances from resin-based materials are scarce. There is very little reliable information with respect to the biological interactions between resin components and various tissues. Those interactions may be either protective, like absorption to dentin, or detrimental, e.g., inflammatory reactions of soft tissues. Microbial effects have also been observed which may contribute indirectly to caries and irritation of the pulp. Therefore, it is critical, both for our patients and for the profession, that the biological effects of resin-based filling materials be clarified in the near future.  (+info)



contact dermatitis


  • Al-Otaibi ST (2016) Prevention of Occupational Contact Dermatitis. (omicsonline.org)
  • This article reviews the scientific research concerning occupational contact dermatitis and the related methods of prevention. (omicsonline.org)
  • Occupational skin diseases , most of which are contact dermatitis arising from exposure to a culpable agent, constitute more than 35% of all work-related disorders. (omicsonline.org)
  • Contact dermatitis can be classified as either the irritant or the unfavorably allergic type. (omicsonline.org)
  • Once the hazardous elements that cause work-related contact dermatitis are identified, the dermatitis can be controlled in some patients. (omicsonline.org)
  • Failure to follow the outlined preventive programs will lead to high rates of occupational contact dermatitis . (omicsonline.org)
  • Exogenous dermatitis or contact dermatitis may be caused by irritant or allergic contact reactions or both. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Contact dermatitis accounts for at least 60% of occupational skin disease, which, in turn, account for 40-70 % of occupationally acquired illness. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Approximately 75% of contact dermatitis is due to irritants. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Irritant contact dermatitis with synonym toxic, traumiterative, or housewives eczema and non-allergic contact dermatitis is the most common variant with a point prevalence of 1-2% in the healthy population. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • The most common predisposing factor for this type of contact dermatitis is the presence of an atopic predisposition. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis is the clinical expression of contact allergy. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Contact urticaria deviates from regular contact dermatitis in the type of clinical reaction, its time sequence, the causal agents, and the pathogenic mechanism. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Morphological and immunohistochemical study of immediate contact dermatitis of the hands due to foods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This histological and immunohistochemical study of 6 food handlers affected by immediate contact dermatitis due to foods shows that apparently normal skin of patients with this condition presents several histological and immunohistochemical abnormalities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis from diphenylthiourea in Vulkan heat retainers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Massachusetts General Hospital Contact Dermatitis & Occupational Dermatology Clinic is a referral-based specialty clinic with over 30 years of experience diagnosing and treating allergic reactions of the skin. (massgeneral.org)
  • Contact dermatitis is a type of skin rash caused after touching an irritant or something you are allergic to. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • The experienced and skilled team of the Contact Dermatitis and Occupational Dermatology Unit at Tufts MC diagnoses and treats all forms of skin inflammation. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is the classic presentation of a T-cell-mediated, delayed-type hypersensitivity response to exogenous agents [ 1,2 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Basic mechanisms and pathophysiology of allergic contact dermatitis' and 'Patch testing' and 'Management of allergic contact dermatitis' . (uptodate.com)
  • Irritant and contact dermatitis account for more than 90 percent of cases [ 5 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Surveillance studies have reported an annual incidence of contact dermatitis (including irritant and ACD) of 13 to 34 cases per 100,000 workers [ 6-8 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Information on the main allergens responsible for contact dermatitis in the general population is derived from retrospective studies of patch testing referral centers. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Common allergens in allergic contact dermatitis' . (uptodate.com)

exposure


  • Regulation 8 requires employers and self-employed people to report cases of certain diagnosed reportable diseases which are linked with occupational exposure to specified hazards. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Dermatitis is reportable when associated with work-related exposure to any chemical or biological irritant or sensitising agent. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Dermatitis can be caused by exposure to a range of common agents found outside the workplace. (hse.gov.uk)
  • Thus NIOSH is also concerned about occupational exposure to these nine aldehydes because they (in addition to acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde) may be used as substitutes for formaldehyde, a regulated carcinogen [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.1048 ]. (cdc.gov)

Exogenous


  • Dermatitis may be entirely endogenous (constitutional) or be entirely exogenous (contact). (allergyclinic.co.nz)

eczema


  • In current terminology " dermatitis " is used synonymously with " eczema " to describe inflammatory reactions in the skin, which are typically characterized by itching and redness but may vary from slight thickening of the outermost layer of the skin with small fissures to extensive redness, swelling and oozing. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • The words 'dermatitis' and 'eczema' are often used interchangeably to describe a pattern of inflammation of the skin characterized acutely by erythema, vesiculation, and pruritus. (uptodate.com)

clinical


  • The clinical consequences are dryness, scaling and fissuring, progressing to eczematous dermatitis. (allergyclinic.co.nz)

NIOSH


  • Current Intelligence Bulletins (CIBs) are issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, to disseminate new scientific information about occupational hazards. (cdc.gov)
  • NIOSH therefore considers acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde to be potential occupational carcinogens and recommends that exposures to each be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has determined that acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde are potentially carcinogenic to occupationally exposed workers. (cdc.gov)

exposures


  • The potential for acetaldehyde or malonaldehyde to produce cancer in humans has not been determined, but reducing occupational exposures to these chemicals should lower the risk. (cdc.gov)

incidence


  • The incidence rate of hand dermatitis was 5.5 cases/1000 persons-years (women = 9.6 and men = 4.0). (bmj.com)

chemicals


  • Corrosive and irritating chemicals also lead to dermatitis. (hse.gov.uk)

workers


  • Workers involved in metal machining are not only exposed to components in these cutting fluids, but biocides such as triazine which have been implicated in occupational contact irritant dermatitis (OCID). (cdc.gov)

skin


  • The dermatitis develops at the site of skin contact with the allergen. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Therefore, a precedent damage to the skin barrier e.g. discrete irritant dermatitis, would be a prerequisite. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • In industrialized nations, up to 30 percent of all occupational diseases involve the skin. (uptodate.com)

affects


  • In most cases occupationally related dermatitis affects the hands alone, though they may spread onto the forearms. (allergyclinic.co.nz)

Common


  • The following are some of the other common dermatitis conditions: localized scratch dermatitis, nummular dermatitis, perioral dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis. (massgeneral.org)

Health


  • This study evaluated the efficacy of a predictive model utilized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to identify dermal hazards based on potential of systemic absorption compared to hazard assignments based on dermal lethal dose 50% or logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient. (cdc.gov)
  • Acetaldehyde and malonaldehyde both meet the criteria of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for classifying substances as potential occupational carcinogens [ Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1990 ]. (cdc.gov)

cause


  • Occupational irritant hand dermatitis (OIHD) is an important cause of discomfort in the working population. (bmj.com)

often


  • Dermatitis often has a multifactorial aetiology and may be aggravated by the presence of bacterial pathogens such as staph. (allergyclinic.co.nz)
  • Data are often extrapolated from surveillance studies on occupational dermatitis. (uptodate.com)