Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Sertraline: A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of depression.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant: Failure to respond to two or more trials of antidepressant monotherapy or failure to respond to four or more trials of different antidepressant therapies. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Electroconvulsive Therapy: Electrically induced CONVULSIONS primarily used in the treatment of severe AFFECTIVE DISORDERS and SCHIZOPHRENIA.Suicidal Ideation: A risk factor for suicide attempts and completions, it is the most common of all suicidal behavior, but only a minority of ideators engage in overt self-harm.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.United StatesSuicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mianserin: A tetracyclic compound with antidepressant effects. It may cause drowsiness and hematological problems. Its mechanism of therapeutic action is not well understood, although it apparently blocks alpha-adrenergic, histamine H1, and some types of serotonin receptors.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geriatric Psychiatry: A subspecialty of psychiatry concerned with the mental health of the aged.Nortriptyline: A metabolite of AMITRIPTYLINE that is also used as an antidepressive agent. Nortriptyline is used in major depression, dysthymia, and atypical depressions.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Psychotherapy, Brief: Any form of psychotherapy designed to produce therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time, generally not more than 20 sessions.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seasonal Affective Disorder: A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Resilience, Psychological: The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Apathy: Lack of emotion or emotional expression; a disorder of motivation that persists over time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A: A serotonin receptor subtype found distributed through the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM where they are involved in neuroendocrine regulation of ACTH secretion. The fact that this serotonin receptor subtype is particularly sensitive to SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS such as BUSPIRONE suggests its role in the modulation of ANXIETY and DEPRESSION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.WashingtonAging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Religion and Psychology: The interrelationship of psychology and religion.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Abstract 2425: Severity Of Depressive Symptoms Is Related To Hospital Admission In Patients With Heart Failure | CirculationBackground: Depression is known to be prevalent in heart failure (HF) patients. However, little is known about the consequences ... Depressive symptoms were measured at baseline by means of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cox ...
DepressionPosted in Anxiety, Depression, Kava, St John's Wort , Comments Off on St John's Wort and Kava: Depression and Anxiety ... Posted in Depression , Comments Off on More on Poverty, Nutrition and Its Effects: Depression ... Posted in Anxiety, Depression, Vitamin C , Comments Off on Vitamin C To Treat Depression and Anxiety? ... Posted in 25-hydroxyvitamin D, Depression, Vitamin D , Comments Off on Vitamin D To Treat Depression ...
Depression and cardiovascular disease: a clinical review.Patients with CVD have more depression than the general population. Persons with depression are more likely to even.. ... Patients with CVD have more depression than the general population. Persons with depression are more likely to eventually ... a causal relationship with either CVD causing more depression or depression causing more CVD and a worse prognosis for CVD is ... It is possible that depression is only a marker for more severe CVD which so far cannot be detected using our currently ...
Clinical Trials of Two Non-drug Treatments for Chronic Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govMood Disorders Depressive Disorders Depression Chronic Depression Device: Bright light box Device: High-output negative ion ... depression, but their effectiveness in treating chronic depression has not been explored. ... Light and Negative Ion Treatment for Chronic Depression. Further study details as provided by New York State Psychiatric ... A controlled trial of timed bright light and negative air ionization for treatment of winter depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. ...
Effects of befriending on depressive symptoms and distress: systematic review and meta-analysis | The British Journal of...HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PND, postnatal depression; EPDS, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; LBW, low ... Long-term effects of befriending v. usual care on depression outcomes.. HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PSE, ... epidemic of depression'.46 Depression is a leading cause of long-term sickness absence in the UK,47 and all high-income ... Beck Depression Inventory; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale, MI, myocardial infarction. ...
Stereotypes Contribute to Older Men Seeking, Receiving Depression Care Less FrequentlyA man s stereotypical self-image and the stigma of depression are major reasons why older men are less likely than women to be ... Holistic Management for Depression. Depression is a common disorder and many worldwide suffer from depression. Early ... One depression care manager cited stigma to explain the greater tendency of men to express their depression in physical rather ... Because depression is one of the most important suicide risk factors, elucidating gender-specific aspects of depression care ...
NewYork-Presbyterian/Queens - Major DepressionWhat is major depression?. Major depression, also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression, is classified as a type ... Major Depression. Overview of Depression Depression is a mood disorder that involves a child's body, mood, and thoughts. It can ... There are three primary types of depression, including major depression (clinical depression); bipolar disorder (manic ... Depression in youth may also predict more severe illness in adulthood.. *There is an increased incidence of depression in ...
The potential biological mechanisms of obesity effects on depression: A systematic review of the literature and knowledge mining... we explore a potential biological mechanism of obesity effects on depression. Bioactivators in the body of obesity including ... Depression and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) have been recognized as major public health issues worldwide. Although they have ... adiponectin, leptin and its receptors, ghrelin, endocannabinoids and orexin receptors may contribute to depression by the ... Depression and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) have been recognized as major public health issues worldwide. Although they have ...
Depression - PostsTreatments and Tools for Depression. Find Depression information, treatments for Depression and Depression symptoms. ... Depression - MedHelp's Depression Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ...
The Medical Treatment of Depression, 1991-1996: Productive Inefficiency, Expected Outcome Variations, and Price Indexes by...We examine the price of treating episodes of acute phase major depression over the 1991-1996 time period. We combine data from ... We examine the price of treating episodes of acute phase major depression over the 1991-1996 time period. We combine data from ... An implication of this is that, since expenditures on depression are thought to be increasing since at least 1991, the source ... We find that in general the incremental cost of successfully treating an episode of acute phase major depression has generally ...
Girls at much greater depression risk when experimenting with alcohol, drugs and sex | Drugs-Forumto experience depression, and those who used IV drugs were nearly 18 times as likely to suffer from. depression compared to ... My depression definitely came first,' followed by cocaine and heroin, an 18-year-old said. 'I was diagnosed with depression ... depression, which has generally been assumed," she said. "At puberty, we see that the prevalence of. depression starts to ... In Teen Girls, Depression And Risky Behavior Might Go by Nancy Webb, For the State Journal, (05 Jul 2006) Wisconsin State ...
The effect of MELatOnin on Depression, anxietY, cognitive function and sleep disturbances in patients with breast cancer. The...Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on ... moderate to severe depression'. An acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of depression according to ICD-10 ... 14 The questions cover the 10 ICD-10 questions for depression, and the symptoms are identical with the DSM-IV major depression ... Depression as a predictor of disease progression and mortality in cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Cancer 2009;115:5349-61. ...
Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression Inexpensive brand medicines!... is it safe to take Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression. ... Can i take Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression if i ... Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression. Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression Inexpensive brand medicines!. ... Respiratory Depression cla What race drug is tramadol Xanax from russia Depression Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression ... Depression loss Depression xanax drug Adipex hypothyroidism Valium schedule drug La Tramadol Composition Respiratory Depression ...
Depression and 18-Month Prognosis After Myocardial Infarction | CirculationHowever, depression was not measured. Our results linking elevated BDI scores with living alone and linking depression with ... 22 23 24 25 The observed links between depression and low education and between depression and prognosis suggest that one of ... the lack of a relation between depression and PVCs does not mean that PVCs are not involved in the relation between depression ... the potential importance of the interaction between PVCs and depression as a mechanism linking depression with outcome led us ...
Major depression in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults: prevalence and 2- and 4-year follow-up symptoms |...Major depression in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults: prevalence and 2- and 4-year follow-up symptoms - Volume ... Depression Among Older Adults: A 20-Year Update on Five Common Myths and Misconceptions. The American Journal of Geriatric ... Depression symptom trends and health domains among lung cancer patients in the CanCORS study. Lung Cancer, Vol. 100, p. 102. ... Major depression in community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults: prevalence and 2- and 4-year follow-up symptoms. * RAMIN ...
Diagnosis of depression in elderly patients | BJPsych AdvancesDepression and dementia. Community studies show cases of depression to be much more common than dementia. Depression may be the ... Remick, R. A., Sadovnick, A. D., Lam, R. W., et al (1996) Major depression, minor depression, and double depression: are they ... What is depression?. It is important not to rely on categorical definitions of types of depression, as these do not fit well ... Murphy, E. (1989) Depression in the elderly. In Depression: An Integrative Approach (eds K. Herbst & E. Paykel). Oxford: ...
Drug Therapy to Treat Minor Depression - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govMinor Depression symptoms for at least 6 months. *Endorse one of the DSM-IV 'A' criteria for MDD and at least one other symptom ... Minor depression is highly prevalent, causes substantial morbidity and disability, presents a serious risk factor for the ... John's Wort in the management of minor depression. If the proposed study demonstrates the efficacy of St. John's Wort and/or ... Depression. Depressive Disorder. Behavioral Symptoms. Mood Disorders. Mental Disorders. Citalopram. Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors ...
Relationship Between Culture and Mental Health … | EssayYet, depression which directly impacts so many lives is hardly covered by mainstream media. This startling observation may ... The kind of village life in Africa, where depression rates are low, can be compared to suburban life in, say, Cincinnati, where ... For example, in Africa depression accounts for little more than 1% of the burden of disease, while in wealthy first-world ... But what of other mental health diseases? Major depression is the fourth most widespread "contributor to the global burden of ...
Attitudes of young people towards depression and mania - Wolkenstein - 2008 - Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research...While depression is still associated with negative attitudes, this first study looking at manic symptoms as well finds that ... People were faced either with a case vignette describing a man with current symptoms of depression or mania. Randomly people (N ... Attitudes of young people towards depression and mania. Authors. *. Larissa Wolkenstein,. Corresponding author. * Department of ... Trevor M Cook, JianLi Wang, Descriptive epidemiology of stigma against depression in a general population sample in Alberta, ...
World Health Day 2017 - "Depression: Let's Talk"... overcome the fear of stigma and seek treatment for depression. ... The World Health Day raises awareness on depression, ... Health Risks Associated with Depression. Depression is linked to other non-communicable diseases and disorders. Depression can ... Thus, the goal of the theme "Depression: Let's talk" is to get people with depression to seek help. Dr Margaret Chan, WHO ... Depression After Heart Disease Diagnosis Increases Risk of Death. Heart disease and depression to have a two-way relationship, ...
How is depression treated? | Reference.comPatients with depression may require one or more of these treatments to... ... depression can be treated with antidepressant medications, psychotherapy or brain stimulation treatments. ... What are a couple of good treatments for depression?. A: Some good treatments for depression are therapy and medications, ... What are some effective treatments for anxiety and depression?. A: Effective treatments for anxiety and depression include ...
NIMH » DepressionExamples of depressive disorders include persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression (PPD), and seasonal affective ... also known as depressive disorder or clinical depression), including signs and symptoms, treatment, research and statistics, ... Depression. Overview. Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression in Teenagers Join a Research Study: Enrolling nationally ... Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the U.S. Current research suggests that depression is caused by a ...
postpartum depression : NPRpostpartum depression
Keyword: depressionPolitics-Related Depression: Is It Real?. 03/04/2017 9:30:18 AM PST · by EveningStar · 20 replies National Review ^ , March 3, ... How Googling depression could get you mental health help. 08/26/2017 8:31:27 AM PDT · by BenLurkin · 20 replies marketwatch.com ... Even Monetary Authorities Think We're In a Depression 09/09/2016 3:55:45 AM PDT · by expat_panama · 33 replies Real Clear ... Will There Be A Depression? (circa 1980 sermon by Pastor David Wilkerson). 04/18/2017 5:26:35 PM PDT · by Faith Presses On · 14 ...
Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10-item questionnaire that was developed to identify women who have PPD. Items of the scale correspond to various clinical depression symptoms, such as guilt feeling, sleep disturbance, low energy, anhedonia, and suicidal ideation.BrexpiprazoleS32212: S32212 is a drug which is under preclinical investigation as a potential antidepressant medicine. It behaves as a selective, combined 5-HT2C receptor inverse agonist and α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (at all three subtypes—α2A, α2B, and α2C) with additional 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, 5-HT2B receptor antagonistic properties, and lacks any apparent affinity for the monoamine reuptake transporters or for the α1-adrenergic, H1, or mACh receptors.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Social anxiety disorderMartin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerStressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.DysthymiaDavid Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.DesmethylcitalopramTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:SchizophreniaSertralineHalfdan T. MahlerBipolar disorderAvoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTeenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Olanzapine/fluoxetineKetipramine: Ketipramine (G-35,259), also known as ketimipramine or ketoimipramine, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was tested in clinical trials for the treatment of depression in the 1960s but was never marketed. It differs from imipramine in terms of chemical structure only by the addition of a ketone group, to the azepine ring, and is approximately equivalent in effectiveness as an antidepressant in comparison.List of people who have undergone electroconvulsive therapy: This is a list of notable cases of treatment with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Cortical stimulation mapping: Cortical stimulation mapping (often shortened to CSM) is a type of electrocorticography that involves a physically invasive procedure and aims to localize the function of specific brain regions through direct electrical stimulation of the cerebral cortex. It remains one of the earliest methods of analyzing the brain and has allowed researchers to study the relationship between cortical structure and systemic function.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Silent synapse: In neuroscience, a silent synapse is an excitatory glutamatergic synapse whose postsynaptic membrane contains NMDA-type glutamate receptors but no AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse inactive under typical conditions.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Place cellParoxetineNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Mental disorderRepeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Cancer-related fatigue: Cancer-related fatigue is a subjective symptom of fatigue that is experienced by nearly all cancer patients.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Serotonin transporter: The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene. SERT is a type of monoamine transporter protein that transports serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron.Mycosporine-like amino acid: Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are small secondary metabolites produced by organisms that live in environments with high volumes of sunlight, usually marine environments. So far there are up to 20 known MAAs identified.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Adjustment disorderInterpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Psychotic depression: Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.Hales E and Yudofsky JA, eds, The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.InsomniaRetrograde signaling: Retrograde signaling in biology is a process whereby function of one part of a cell is controlled by feedback from another part of the cell, or where one cell sends reciprocal messages back to another cell that regulates it.Abbreviated mental test score: The abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 rapidly to assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia. Its uses in medicine have become somewhat wider, e.
(1/9883) Meta-analysis of the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A moclobemide and brofaromine for the treatment of depression.
The reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase type A (RIMAs) are a newer group of antidepressants that have had much less impact on clinical psychopharmacology than another contemporary class of medications, the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs). The RIMAs agents are distinguished from the older monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) by their selectivity and reversibility. As a result, dietary restrictions are not required during RIMA therapy, and hypertensive crises are quite rare. In this article, we describe a series of meta-analyses of studies of the two most widely researched RIMAs, moclobemide (MOC; Aurorex) and brofaromine (BRO). Our findings confirm that both BRO and MOC are as effective as the tricyclic antidepressants, and they are better tolerated. However, BRO is not being studied at present for reasons unrelated to efficacy or side effects. MOC, which is available throughout much of the world (but not the United States), is significantly more effective than placebo and, at the least, comparable to the SSRIs in both efficacy and tolerability. For MOC, higher dosages may enhance efficacy for more severe depressions. We also found evidence that supports clinical impressions that MOC is somewhat less effective, albeit better tolerated, than older MAOIs, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine. Little evidence has yet emerged to suggest that the RIMAs share older MAOIs' utility for treatment of depressions characterized by prominent reverse neurovegetative features. Based on available evidence, the RIMAs appear to have a limited, but useful, role in the differential therapeutics of the depressive disorders. (+info)
(2/9883) Individual and organizational predictors of depression in general practitioners.
BACKGROUND: High levels of stress and depression are seen in both general practitioners (GPs) and hospital doctors, and this has implications for patient care. It is therefore important to discover the individual and organizational causes of elevated symptoms so they can be tackled. AIM: To discover the relative importance of individual characteristics measured 10 years earlier compared with current organizational stressors in predicting depression in GPs. METHOD: Longitudinal questionnaire study, using data from those of the original cohort of 318 medical students who are now GPs (n = 131), considering perceptions of current stressors and comparing through regression analyses the relative strength of early personality and mood with current organizational factors of sleep, hours worked, and practice size in predicting current depression levels. RESULTS: There were 22 (17%) stressors scoring above threshold for depression. Relationships with senior doctors and patients are the main reported stressors, followed by making mistakes and conflict of career with personal life. The predictors of symptom levels varied for men and women. In men, depression and self-criticism as students, and current sleep levels; and in women, sibling rivalry and current alcohol use, were the main predictors: in men, 27% of the variance was accounted for by early dispositional factors alone compared with 14% in women. A model is suggested linking sleep loss with workplace stressors, self-critical cognitions, and depression. CONCLUSION: Interventions can be made throughout training, targeting self-criticism and recognizing early depression, while later addressing the organizational stressors, particularly work relationships and sleep patterns. (+info)
(3/9883) Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation among smokers.
This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes (smokers) or a similar resting interval (nonsmokers). Assessment of PA included both platelet secretion and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) binding. Platelet 5HT2A receptor binding and saturation were tested using [3H]LSD, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Platelet 5HT2A receptor density was increased among smokers versus nonsmokers (82.7+/-67.7 versus 40.0+/-20.2 fmol/mg protein; P<0.005), and there was a dose-dependent relationship between receptor density and packs/d among smokers. Baseline wound-induced GPIIb/IIIa binding at 1 minute and GPIIb/IIIa binding in response to collagen stimulation in vitro was increased among smokers (P<0.05); there were no changes in PA among smokers after smoking, and platelet secretion was not elevated among smokers. Depressive symptoms were associated with 5HT2A receptor density among nonsmokers (P<0.005), but no such relationship was evident among smokers; PA was unrelated to 5HT2A receptor density in either group. The findings indicate that smoking is associated with increased platelet serotonin receptor density and with increased GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding, although these 2 factors are not related to each other or to depressive symptoms among smokers. Serotonergic dysfunction may be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease among smokers. (+info)
(4/9883) The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children.
OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention. (+info)
(5/9883) Persistence of depressive symptoms in diabetic adults.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the level and pattern of persistent depressive symptoms among adults with diabetes and identify factors associated with increased risk of being persistently depressed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-report depression symptom inventory was administered to 245 patients at two initial time points--the beginning and end of a comprehensive outpatient diabetes education program--and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Only 13% of subjects were persistently depressed (i.e., exceeded the criterion for depression symptoms at all three time points). The rate of being depressed at follow-up was 10% for those negative for depression symptoms at either of the initial time points, 36% for those positive at one initial time point, and 73% for those positive at both initial time points (P < 0.0001). Those at increased risk for being persistently depressed were those who did not graduate from high school, had more than two complications of diabetes, and were not treated with insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent depressive symptomatology is present in a substantial number of diabetic adults and can be effectively predicted using simple screening instruments during initial contacts. Risk factors for being persistently depressed only partly overlap those for transient depressive symptoms and represent a possible biological dimension. (+info)
(6/9883) A cost-effective approach to the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
In light of the tremendous expansion in the number of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors available to the clinician, the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee of the Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center considered the advantages and disadvantages of fluoxethine, paroxetine, and sertraline, to determine which agent or agents would be carried on the formulary. The committed recommended sertraline as the preferred agent for the treatment of depression, panic disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the economic outcome of that decision. The study population consisted of patients at the medical center who were receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during January through March of 1994 and those were receiving these agents between September 1995 and January 1996. The expanded collection period in 1995-96 was due to a relatively new medical center policy to offer 90-day fills on medication to reduce costs. The extended collection period assured a 100% sample of patients receiving these agents. The 1994 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio was 20 mg:55.6 mg, based on average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline of 32.7 and 90.9 mg, respectively. The cost to the medical center for an average daily dose of fluoxetine was $1.86; sertraline cost $1.22 per day. The 1996 fluoxetine to sertraline dosage equivalency ratio (20 mg:51.3 mg) had not changed significantly since 1994, indicating that the dose of 20 mg of fluoxetine remained very close to a 50-mg dose of sertraline. The average daily doses of fluoxetine and sertraline (34.9 mg and 89.7 mg, respectively) were not significantly different than the 1994 doses. Only 33 patients had been prescribed paroxetine (average daily dose, 32.4 mg). On the basis of these values, the average daily cost of fluoxetine to the medical center was $2.01, compared with $1.18 for sertraline and $1.24 for paroxetine. This $0.83 per patient per day drug acquisition cost difference between fluoxetine and sertraline results in a drug cost reduction of $302,674 per year. (+info)
(7/9883) Alternative insurance arrangements and the treatment of depression: what are the facts?
Using insurance claims data from nine large self-insured employers offering 26 alternative health benefit plans, we examine empirically how the composition and utilization for the treatment of depression vary under alternative organizational forms of insurance (indemnity, preferred provider organization networks, and mental health carve-outs), and variations in patient cost-sharing (copayments for psychotherapy and for prescription drugs). Although total outpatient mental health and substance abuse expenditures per treated individual do not vary significantly across insurance forms, the depressed outpatient is more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications is preferred provider organizations and carve-outs than when covered by indemnity insurance. Those individuals facing higher copayments for psychotherapy are more likely to receive anti-depressant drug medications. For those receiving treatment, increases in prescription drug copayments tend to increase the share of anti-depressant drug medication costs accounted for by the newest (and more costly) generation of drugs, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (+info)
(8/9883) Effectiveness and economic impact of antidepressant medications: a review.
This article reviews the existing literature on the pharmacoeconomics and effectiveness of antidepressant medications. Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have not proved to be more efficacious than the older tricyclics, and their prescription costs are significantly higher, they provide superior effectiveness; ie, patients are less likely to discontinue taking them or switch antidepressants. Pharmacoeconomic studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between this superior effectiveness and reductions in overall treatment costs, often through decreased utilization of medical and hospital services. The most conservative study found a cost offset that more than negated the extra cost of drugs, although the cost savings were not statistically significant. Other studies found statistically significant lowering of utilization costs by using SSRIs rather than tricyclics. Studies comparing SSRIs with each other present conflicting findings, although fluoxetine appears to have an edge over sertraline and paroxetine with regards to effectiveness and pharmacoeconomics. More studies employing a prospective outcome design and naturalistic study setting need to be conducted with SSRIs and other new antidepressants. (+info)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an aerobic home-based exercise program for the treatment of postpartum depression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Postpartum depression occurs in 10-16% of women, with depressive symptoms lasting up to one year post delivery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- While the direct and indirect costs associated with postpartum depression are unknown, those associated with depression have been found to exceed 43 billion dollars in the United States alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Despite the high prevalence of postpartum depression, the condition often goes undiagnosed and untreated by primary care providers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Alternative non-medical interventions for treating postpartum depression have not been widely investigated, leaving women and health care providers with few evidence-based options for treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Postpartum Depression is thought to be triggered by the rapid change in hormone levels experienced after labor, as well as extreme exhaustion. (dmoztools.net)
- A research article proposing an evolutionary function for postpartum depression. (dmoztools.net)
- One woman's account of her decent into and back out of postpartum depression and anxiety. (dmoztools.net)
- Information on postpartum depression, including diagnosis and self help and message boards. (dmoztools.net)
- Providing information and support to women suffering from postpartum depression. (dmoztools.net)
- A community of women with Postpartum Depression concerns offering support and sharing experiences. (medhelp.org)
- This study will test an intervention that aims to prevent postpartum depression by providing new mothers with information on and resources for dealing with the disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Participants will receive behavioral education on postpartum depression and a list of community and Internet resources by mail. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Postpartum depression (PPD) is a disorder affecting many women after delivery of a child. (clinicaltrials.gov)
Postnatal Depression Scale
- as measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 1 There are several reasons why this might be the case, even though a reliable tool (the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale) has been available for detecting its presence for over 10 years. (bmj.com)
- When the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale has been used to detect postnatal depression, health visitors have used various strategies to help women, with varying degrees of success. (bmj.com)
- 2 3 Factors that influence the process of screening and caring for women with postnatal depression include health visitors' workload and their willingness to use the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale 3 and the readiness of women to be labelled as patients with depression, to accept an intervention by a health visitor, 2 - 4 or to be referred for further care. (bmj.com)
- Depression symptoms were recorded using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 18 and 32 weeks of pregnancy and at 8 weeks and 8 months after delivery. (dur.ac.uk)
- This study will compare the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention versus usual clinic care in helping HIV infected adults with depression to take their HIV medications on schedule. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Participants in this group will receive individual sessions of cognitive-behavioral training for improvement of medication adherence and reduction of depression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This study will compare the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral intervention that targets both depression and adherence versus usual care practices which may or may not include mental health intervention with the goal of improving ART adherence among HIV infected adults with depression who are experiencing difficulty with adhering to their medication regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Moreover, maternal depression can negatively impact the mother-infant relationship and infant development. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Conclusions: Preterm births are specifically associated with high maternal depression scores in the postpartum period, and with a higher prevalence of failure to thrive. (dur.ac.uk)
- The State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale were used to assess anxiety and depression. (uta.fi)
- Antidepressants are used in the treatment of all subtypes of depression, including depressed phase of bipolar disorder, psychotic depression (in combination with an antipsychotic medication), atypical depression, and seasonal depression. (trans4mind.com)
- Symptoms of OCD respond more slowly than symptoms of major depression. (trans4mind.com)
- Preparing mothers to identify potential situational triggers of depressive symptoms, enhancing their postpartum self-management skills, and providing them access to the proper social and healthcare resources may prevent them from developing major depression. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting patients often suffer from persistent fears, anxiety and depression after surgery, but no studies are available to show how these psychological symptoms are linked to each other and affect the perceived social support. (uta.fi)
- None of these differences in prevalence was statistically significant, and significant differences did not emerge from further analyses using more stringent criteria for depression. (dur.ac.uk)
- High depression scores in the postpartum period are not themselves associated with a higher prevalence of failure to thrive, however, either in infants born at term or in those born preterm. (dur.ac.uk)
- They were interested in studies that investigated whether a woman's level of emotional distress (anxiety or depression) before fertility treatment affected her chances of becoming pregnant. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Objectives: We developed and estimated a hypothetical model to assess the relations of anxiety, fears and depression on perceived social support and the quality of patient education among coronary artery bypass grafting patients. (uta.fi)
- This news story is based on a review of previous studies, which investigated whether anxiety or depression affect the chances of becoming pregnant after a single cycle of fertility treatment, such as IVF. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The results showed that women who became pregnant after the treatment cycle did not differ significantly in levels of anxiety or depression before their treatment than women who did not become pregnant. (mynewsdesk.com)
- To be included, the studies had to have data available on pre-treatment anxiety or depression for women who became pregnant and women who did not. (mynewsdesk.com)
- For their search, the researchers did not specify that the studies had to use particular methods for assessing anxiety or depression, but they did assess whether a reliable validated tool had been used. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The review used data on depression for studies that did not measure anxiety. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Aims: To examine the relationship between failure to thrive in preterm and term infants and postnatal depression in their mothers. (dur.ac.uk)
- Results: After the birth, high depression scores were significantly more common in the mothers of infants born preterm, and controlling for depression scores in pregnancy did not eliminate this association after the birth. (dur.ac.uk)
- This program aims to research and prevent postnatal depression within Australia. (dmoztools.net)
- Addresses the pregnancy and birth needs of women and their families, before and after delivery, particularly as it pertains to the development of depression and other mood disorders. (dmoztools.net)
- Other unknown mechanisms must play a role in the successful psychopharmacologic treatment of depression. (trans4mind.com)
- Women affected by depression in the postpartum have been shown to be at higher risk for developing a recurrent depressive disorder. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- EDITOR-In their review of postnatal depression Cooper and Murray comment that depression is often missed by primary care teams. (bmj.com)
- A Postnatal Depression (PND) video and CD ROM for health care professionals and parents dealing with the postnatal depression and its effects. (dmoztools.net)
- I dont have post pardum depression but this is the only forum I think best suits my question. (medhelp.org)
- A site attempting to raise awareness about postpartum psychosis and depression. (dmoztools.net)