Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp CalcificationDental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.OdontoblastsDental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Pulp Devitalization: The destruction of the vitality of the pulp of the tooth. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p243)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dentinal Fluid: The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Porphyromonas endodontalis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PORPHYROMONAS, family Porphyromonadaceae. It is a key pathogen in endodontic infections.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Analog-Digital Conversion: The process of converting analog data such as continually measured voltage to discrete, digital form.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Forensic Anthropology: Scientific study of human skeletal remains with the express purpose of identification. This includes establishing individual identity, trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Forensic anthropologists do not certify cause of death but provide data to assist in determination of probable cause. This is a branch of the field of physical anthropology and qualified individuals are certified by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Jun;13(2):146)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Dentin SensitivityMultipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Tooth DiseasesPulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.DNA Degradation, Necrotic: The random catabolism of DNA accompaning the irreversible damage to tissue which leads to the pathological death of one or more cells.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).PulpitisDentinogenesis: Dentinogenesis is the formation of dentin, a substance that forms the majority of teeth. Dentinogenesis is performed by odontoblasts, which are a special type of biological cell on the outer wall of dental pulps, and it begins at the late bell stage of a tooth development.Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Dental cariesDental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Utah College of Dental HygieneNeonatal line: The neonatal line is a particular band of incremental growth lines seen in histologic sections of a deciduous tooth. It belongs to a series of a growth lines in tooth enamel known as the Striae of Retzius.Electric pulp test: In dentistry, an electric pulp test ascertains the vitality of a tooth.Dentin sialophosphoprotein (protein): Dentin sialophosphoprotein is the only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts, the cells that produce tooth dentin. It is a non-collagenous SIBLING protein that is later cleaved into three functional proteins: dentin phosphoprotein (also known as phosphophoryn), taken from the C-terminal end, dentin sialoprotein from the N-terminal end, and dentin glycoprotein from the middle of the molecule.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1: La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 (also known as "The Old Man") is a partial skeleton of the species Homo neanderthalensis. It was discovered in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France by A.OverjetSOAP note: The SOAP note (an acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) is a method of documentation employed by health care providers to write out notes in a patient's chart, along with other common formats, such as the admission note. Documenting patient encounters in the medical record is an integral part of practice workflow starting with patient appointment scheduling, to writing out notes, to medical billing.Outline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.MFDS: MFDS is the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, a government department in South Korea. This is former KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration.Amalgam (chemistry): An amalgam is a substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum.International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.Implant stability quotient: The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the value on a scale that indicates the level of stability and osseointegration in dental implants. The scale ranges from 1 to 100 and is measured by implant stability meters instruments using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) technique.Dental radiographyPostgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayRenal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Sydney Dental HospitalAmerican Dental Society of Anesthesiology: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA) is an American professional association established in 1953 and based in Chicago.Dental fluorosisUniversity of the East College of Dentistry: The University of the East College of Dentistry was first established as a unit of the Philippine College of Commerce and Business Administration in 1948. The college is one of the pioneers of dental education and labeled as one of the top dental schools in the Philippines.Coronation Dental Specialty GroupLimewater: Limewater is the common name for a diluted solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, is sparsely soluble in water (1.Denturist: A Denturist in the United States and Canada, clinical dental technician in the UK or (in Australia) a dental prosthetist, is a member of the oral health care team who provides an oral health examination, takes impressions of the surrounding oral tissues, constructs and delivers removable oral prosthesis (dentures and partial dentures) directly to the patient.American Academy of denturitry.Time stretch analog-to-digital converter: The time-stretch analog-to-digital converter (TS-ADC),A. S.Mass graveDental avulsion: Dental avulsion is the complete displacement of a tooth from its socket in alveolar bone owing to trauma.OssificationApical delta: Apical delta refers to the branching pattern of small accessory canals and minor foramina seen at the tip or apex of some tooth roots.Silicate: A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound. The great majority of silicates are oxides, but hexafluorosilicate ([SiF6]2−) and other anions are also included.Gluma: ==Use==Dihydroxyanthraquinone: A dihydroxyanthraquinone is any of several isomeric organic compounds with formula , formally derived from 9,10-anthraquinone by replacing two hydrogen atoms by hydroxyl groups. Dihyroxyantraquinones have been studied since the early 1900s, and include some compounds of historical and current importance.
(1/535) Lipopolysaccharide enhances the production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human pulp cells in culture.
We investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by human pulp cells (HPC) is regulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in relation to the pathogenesis of pulpitis. Although HPC incubated with medium alone only marginally expressed VEGF mRNA and produced a low level of VEGF as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the VEGF mRNA expression and VEGF production were markedly enhanced upon stimulation with LPS from Escherichia coli. Prevotella intermedia LPS, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and interleukin-6 also induced VEGF mRNA expression in HPC. A simian virus 40-infected HPC line also exhibited increased VEGF mRNA expression in response to E. coli LPS, but lung and skin fibroblasts did not. Fetal bovine serum (FBS) increased the sensitivity of HPC to LPS in a dose-dependent manner. HPC did not express membrane CD14 on their surfaces. However, the anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody MY4 inhibited VEGF induction upon stimulation with LPS in HPC cultures in the presence of 10% FBS but not in the absence of FBS. LPS augmented the VEGF production in HPC cultures in the presence of recombinant human soluble CD14 (sCD14). To clarify the mechanisms of VEGF induction by LPS, we examined the possible activation of the transcription factor AP-1 in HPC stimulated with LPS, by a gel mobility shift assay. AP-1 activation in HPC was clearly observed, whereas that in skin fibroblasts was not. The AP-1 inhibitor curcumin strongly inhibited LPS-induced VEGF production in HPC cultures. In addition, a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited VEGF mRNA accumulation in response to LPS. These results suggest that the enhanced production of VEGF in HPC induced by LPS takes place via an sCD14-dependent pathway which requires new protein synthesis and is mediated in part through AP-1 activation. (+info)
(2/535) Thermal image analysis of electrothermal debonding of ceramic brackets: an in vitro study.
This study used modern thermal imaging techniques to investigate the temperature rise induced at the pulpal well during thermal debonding of ceramic brackets. Ceramic brackets were debonded from vertically sectioned premolar teeth using an electrothermal debonding unit. Ten teeth were debonded at the end of a single 3-second heating cycle. For a further group of 10 teeth, the bracket and heating element were left in contact with the tooth during the 3-second heating cycle and the 6-second cooling cycle. The average pulpal wall temperature increase for the teeth debonded at the end of the 3-second heating cycle was 16.8 degrees C. When the heating element and bracket remained in contact with the tooth during the 6-second cooling cycle an average temperature increase of 45.6 degrees C was recorded. (+info)
(3/535) Super pulse CO2 laser for bracket bonding and debonding.
A super pulse and a normal pulse CO2 laser were used to carry out enamel etching and bracket debonding in vitro and in vivo. The shear bond strength of the orthodontic brackets attached to laser-etched and conventional chemically-etched extracted premolars was measured. The pulp cavity temperature was also measured using the same laser irradiation conditions as the shear test. Both super pulse and normal pulse CO2 laser etching resulted in a lower shear bond strength (super pulse: 6.9 +/- 3.4 kg, normal pulse: 9.7 +/- 5.2 kg) than that of chemical etching (15.3 +/- 2.8 kg). Furthermore, the super pulse CO2 laser was able to create debonding at 2 watts within a period of less than 4 seconds (2.9 +/- 0.9 seconds). The super pulse, when irradiating the ceramic brackets from above, during debonding showed a 1.4 degrees C temperature increase in the dental pulp at 2 watts and an increase of 2.1 degrees C at 3 watts. While etching, directly irradiating the enamel surface at 3 watts, the dental pulp showed a temperature increase of 3.5 degrees C. These temperature increases were within the physiologically acceptable limits of the pulp. These results indicate that, in orthodontic treatments, super pulse CO2 laser debonding is more useful than laser etching. (+info)
(4/535) An evaluation of the changes in maxillary pulpal blood flow associated with orthognathic surgery.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the Laser Doppler Flowmeter (LDF) in the measurement of pulpal blood flow following orthognathic surgery and to conduct an initial study of the effects of a Le Fort I osteotomy on the pulpal blood flow of the maxillary central incisors. The design consisted of a preliminary prospective controlled consecutive clinical trial undertaken at the Orthodontic Clinic, University Dental Hospital NHS Trust, Wales, 1994. The study group consisted of 15 consecutive patients who were to receive a standard advancement Le Fort I osteotomy. Seven patients who were to undergo a mandibular advancement only acted as a control. A further 20 separate patients participated in a study for the assessment of measurement error. The blood flow in relative perfusion unit v. time, was measured using a Laser Doppler Flowmeter. Measurement error for flowmeter recordings with hand-held application and custom-made splint support showed no consistent difference or significant random variation between the two methods for holding the probe against the teeth (pooled S.D. of reproducibility 1/1 = 1.91/1.39 for custom splint location as opposed to 0.96/1.07 for hand-held/fixed bracket location). For the surgical patients under investigation no significant differences for maxillary pulpal blood flow were found in the control group (mandibular osteotomy) over time. However, in the maxillary osteotomy patients there was a tendency for an initial rise in the maxillary perfusion post-surgery as measured at the central incisor pulps, followed by an overall reduction at 6 months. As an example, the mean value for the upper right central showed a significant increase in blood flow during the immediate post-operative period (P < 0.05), but at 6 months after surgery demonstrated a statistically significant overall reduction in comparison with the presurgical reading (P < 0.001). The laser Doppler flowmeter is not an easy instrument to use in the clinical assessment of pulpal blood flow. However, it would appear from these longitudinal series of readings, taken over a 6-month period on 15 patients, that the maxillary perfusion recorded at the central incisor pulps may be permanently affected in many Le Fort I osteotomy patients. For patients that already have a prejudiced blood supply this could lead to devitalization and discoloration of incisors. It is not known if this affect on the perfusion of the pulp continues beyond 6 months post-surgery. (+info)
(5/535) Neural modulation of inflammatory reactions in dental tissues incident to orthodontic tooth movement. A review of the literature.
This article reviews the current knowledge of the biological aspects of dental tissue changes incident to orthodontic tooth movement. The inflammatory nature of these tissue changes was first recognized in the early 1970s, and since then a number of morphological and quantitative investigations have been published in support of this view. The studies dealing with vascular and cellular dental tissue changes, as well as those concerned with inflammatory mediators present at sites of orthodontic tooth movement are systematized and presented accordingly. Special emphasis is placed upon the role of the sensory nerve fibres and their neuropeptides in the control, and development of an inflammatory process, i.e. their role in tooth movement. (+info)
(6/535) Tooth pulp- and facial hair mechanoreceptor-evoked responses of trigeminal sensory neurons are attenuated during ketamine anesthesia.
BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that ketamine, administered systemically using a dose required for inducing a state of anesthesia, may antagonize nociceptive but not innocuous input to lumbar dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether ketamine exerts this selective action on sensory inputs to trigeminal sensory neurons. The current study was undertaken to compare the responses evoked in trigeminal sensory neurons by electrical stimuli applied to the tooth pulp versus air-puff stimuli applied to facial hair mechanoreceptors (FHMs) during quiet wakefulness versus ketamine anesthesia. METHODS: Accordingly, responses of rostral trigeminal sensory nuclear complex (TSNC) and trigeminothalamic tract neurons evoked by tooth pulp (a source of small-diameter fiber input) and FHMs (a source of larger-diameter fiber input) were recorded extracellularly from chronically instrumented cats before, during, and after recovery from the anesthetic state induced by a single (2.2 mg/kg) intravenous injection of ketamine. RESULTS: Overall, tooth pulp-evoked responses of TSNC neurons were maximally suppressed by 50% within 5 min after the intravenous administration of ketamine. Ketamine also suppressed the FHM-evoked responses of TSNC and trigeminothalamic neurons by 45%. The time course of ketamine's suppressive action was equivalent for tooth pulp- and FHM-evoked responses. However, the recovery of tooth pulp-evoked TSNC neuronal responses at suprathreshold intensities was markedly prolonged compared with neuronal responses driven by threshold stimuli or FHM. CONCLUSIONS: These electrophysiologic results in the chronically instrumented cat preparation indicate that a nonselective suppression of orofacial somatosensory information occurs during ketamine anesthesia. The prolonged recovery of suprathreshold responses of TSNC neurons mediated by small-diameter afferent fiber input may partly underlie the analgesic action of ketamine that is clinically relevant at subanesthetic doses. (+info)
(7/535) Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor receptor signaling is not required for bacteria-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss but is essential for protecting the host from a mixed anaerobic infection.
Bacterial infection causes significant morbidity, mediated in part by the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Cytokine induction is thought to stimulate osteolysis in conditions such as periodontal disease and otitis media. To establish the relative importance of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in mediating the response to a mixed anaerobic infection, we used an in vivo model in which the dental pulp was inoculated with six anaerobic pathogens, in mice with functional deletions of receptors to IL-1 (IL-1RI(-/-)), TNF (TNFRp55(-/-)-p75(-/-)), or both (TNFRp55(-/-)-IL-1RI(-/-)). Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocyte recruitment occurred to the greatest extent in TNFRp55(-/-)-IL-1RI(-/-) mice, and to a lesser extent in IL-1RI(-/-) or TNFRp55(-/-)-p75(-/-) mice, and the least in wild-type mice, demonstrating that recruitment of these phagocytes is not dependent on IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling. A similar pattern was observed for bacterial penetration into host tissue. Because it had recently been reported that TNF played a critical role in mediating lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss, we anticipated that mice with targeted deletions of TNFRp55(-/-) would have reduced osteoclastogenesis. Surprisingly, osteolytic lesion formation was greatest in animals lacking TNF and/or IL-1 receptors. These results indicate that IL-1 or TNF receptor signaling is not required for bacteria-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss, but does play a critical role in protecting the host against mixed anaerobic infections. (+info)
(8/535) Effects of capsaicin-induced sensory denervation on osteoclastic resorption in adult rats.
Many recent findings suggest that the nervous system has efferent effects on bone. A putative role of the sensory innervation has been assessed by using a synchronised rat model of bone resorption after treating adult animals with the neurotoxin capsaicin. Fourteen days after capsaicin treatment (50 mg kg-1) the right maxillary molars were extracted to activate a wave of resorption along the mandibular cortex. The rats were killed 4 days later (i.e. at the peak of resorption in this model), and their right mandibles were processed for histometric evaluation of resorption along the cortex and of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- and substance P (SP)-immunoreactive (IR) fibres in the dental pulp. CGRP-IR and SP-IR fibres were significantly reduced in numbers by the capsaicin treatment (by 58 and 49%, respectively), confirming the success of sensory denervation. The resorption surface was significantly reduced (P < 0.005) versus the sham-treated animals. Although the size of the osteoclast population recruited in the site was not modified, the number of actively resorbing osteoclasts was significantly reduced (P < 0.03). However, the activity of the resorbing cells was not modified. Non-specific esterase-positive osteoclast precursors were also significantly few after capsaicin treatment. These data show that the sensory nervous system is involved in the control of bone resorption at two different levels: (1) in the recruitment of osteoclast precursors, and (2) in regulating the access of recruited cells to the bone surface. (+info)