Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Tooth DiseasesOral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Mouth DiseasesDental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need: A dental health survey developed to evaluate a patient's orthodontic treatment need and priority for orthodontic care. The index is based on an assessment of degree of MALOCCLUSION and the potential aesthetic and dental health benefit of the treatment under consideration.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.United StatesState Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Great BritainOrthodontics, Corrective: The phase of orthodontics concerned with the correction of malocclusion with proper appliances and prevention of its sequelae (Jablonski's Illus. Dictionary of Dentistry).Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.AlaskaHealth Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.EnglandJaw, Edentulous: The total absence of teeth from either the mandible or the maxilla, but not both. Total absence of teeth from both is MOUTH, EDENTULOUS. Partial absence of teeth in either is JAW, EDENTULOUS, PARTIALLY.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.IndiaSocieties, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Diagnostic Services: Organized services for the purpose of providing diagnosis to promote and maintain health.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

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Dental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Dental cariesNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryGlobal Health Delivery ProjectPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Utah College of Dental HygieneComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Sydney Dental HospitalSociety for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.Maternal Health Task ForceCommunity mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Halfdan T. MahlerLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Water fluoridation in the United StatesBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Basic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Bone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Equine malocclusion: An equine malocclusion is a misalignment between the upper and lower jaws of a horse or other equine. It results in a faulty bite with the upper and lower teeth failing to meet correctly.United States Public Health ServiceOutline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:Toothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Tooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.

(1/185) Undergraduate and postgraduate orthodontics in Australia.

Undergraduate orthodontic education in Australian university dental schools reflects a strong British influence. The Australian Dental Council is now responsible for undergraduate course accreditation and the development of a more distinctly Australian model might be expected, although not in isolation from the traditional British and American influences. Postgraduate specialty training has been more directly influenced by the North American dental schools, and specialist registers in the states and territories reflect that influence. The Australian Dental Council will commence accreditation of postgraduate specialty courses in 1999.  (+info)

(2/185) The effects of fee bundling on dental utilization.

OBJECTIVE: To examine dental utilization following an adjustment to the provincial fee schedule in which preventive maintenance (recall) services were bundled at lower fees. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Blue Cross dental insurance claims for claimants associated with four major Ontario employers using a common insurance plan over the period 1987-1990. STUDY DESIGN: This before-and-after design analyzes the dental claims experience over a four-year period for 4,455 individuals 18 years of age and older one year prior to the bundling of services, one year concurrent with the change, and two years after the introduction of bundling. The dependent variable is the annual adjusted payment per user. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: The analysis was based on all claims submitted by adult users for services received at recall visits and who reported at least one visit of this type between 1987 and 1990. In these data, 26,177 services were provided by 1,214 dentists and represent 41 percent of all adult service claims submitted over the four years of observation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Real per capita payment for adult recall services decreased by 0.3 percent in the year bundling was implemented (1988), but by the end of the study period such payments had increased 4.8 percent relative to pre-bundling levels. Multiple regression analysis assessed the role of patient and provider variables in the upward trend of per capita payments. The following variables were significant in explaining 37 percent of the variation in utilization over the period of observation: subscriber employment location; ever having received periodontal scaling or ever having received restorative services; regular user; dentist's school of graduation; and interactions involving year, service type, and regular user status. CONCLUSIONS: The volume and intensity of services received by adult patients increased when fee constraints were imposed on dentists. Future efforts to contain dental expenditures through fee schedule design will need to take this into consideration. Issues for future dental services research include provider billing practices, utilization among frequent attenders, and outcomes evaluation particularly with regard to periodontal care and replacement of restorations.  (+info)

(3/185) Using Medicaid claims to construct dental service market areas.

OBJECTIVE: To use Medicaid claims data to construct patient origin-based market areas for dental services and compare constructed market areas with those based on the practice county. DATA SOURCES: North Carolina Medicaid claims, eligibility, and provider files, the Cooperative Health Information Systems' dentist licensure files, and the Log Into North Carolina data. STUDY DESIGN: A visit-level file was created from the Medicaid claims data and aggregated by provider practice county and patient county of residence. Using the aggregated file and an algorithm based on the Elzinga-Hogarty approach, patient travel patterns were used to construct mutually exclusive patient origin market areas. DATA ANALYSIS: Market area characteristics were compared across definitions using Pearson correlation coefficients. In addition, estimations of provider participation were performed using market area characteristics as control variables. The beta coefficients associated with market area characteristics were compared across market area definitions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Medicaid claims data, when combined with provider licensure files, can be used to construct market areas based on patient origin data. However, measures of market area characteristics are correlated highly between the two types of market areas studied. Furthermore, beta coefficients on market area variables in models of provider participation are similar in sign, significance, and magnitude across market definitions. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with market areas constructed using patient origin data, county-based market areas adequately proxy for dental markets. Using the county as the market area also avoids the time and computational costs associated with using a patient origin-based approach and facilitates the use of widely available data.  (+info)

(4/185) The bedfordshire PDS orthodontic pilot.

Throughout the 50-year history of the NHS, the Government has sought to cash limit the GDS. PDS (Personal Dental Services) pilots represent another attempt at cash limiting and a new system for delivering dental services in NHS practice. The development of the Bedfordshire Orthodontic PDS pilot is described. The basis is the prioritization of orthodontic services to child patients with the greatest oral health need through a cost and volume contract with the local Health Authority. A brief outline of the Bedfordshire PDS contract is given. The experiences of the first 9 months of the PDS pilot are related.  (+info)

(5/185) Comparing characteristics of Canadians who visited dentists and physicians during 1993/94: a secondary analysis.

Unlike medical care, dental services are not included in Canada's universal system of health care. Using the data from the 1994 National Population Health Survey, we estimate the proportion of the population aged 12 and older visiting dentists and physicians in 1993/94 and compare the factors that influence the use of dentists' and physicians' services. Overall, 52.4% of Canadians made one or more visits to a dentist and 78.4% visited a physician. Logistic regression analysis indicates that whereas visiting a family physician is more likely to occur for people who are ill (generally, on medications or needing help with daily living) or pregnant, visiting a dentist is more likely to occur for young, healthy, wealthy and highly educated people. Future dental health policy needs better information on health status linked to use of services.  (+info)

(6/185) Perceived unmet need for oral treatment among a national population of HIV-positive medical patients: social and clinical correlates.

OBJECTIVES: This study examines social, behavioral, and clinical correlates of perceived unmet need for oral health care for people with HIV infection. METHODS: Baseline in-person interviews with 2864 individuals were conducted with the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study cohort, a nationally representative probability sample of HIV-infected persons in medical care. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted, with unmet need in the last 6 months as the dependent variable and demographic, social, behavioral, and disease characteristics as independent variables. RESULTS: We estimate that 19.3% of HIV-infected medical patients (n = 44,550) had a perceived unmet need for dental care in the last 6 months. The odds of having unmet dental needs were highest for those on Medicaid in states without dental benefits (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21), for others with no dental insurance (OR = 2.26), for those with incomes under $5000 (OR = 2.20), and for those with less than a high school education (OR = 1.83). Low CD4 count was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived unmet need was related more to social and economic factors than to stage of infection. An expansion of dental benefits for those on Medicaid might reduce unmet need for dental care.  (+info)

(7/185) Controlling the cost of dental care.

Methods for controlling dental care expenditures are taking on greater importance with the rapid increase in prepaid dental plans. The use of regulatory systems to monitor provider performance are necessary to prevent gross over-utilization but are unlikely to result in net savings of more than five per cent of total gross premiums. Theoretically, prepaid group dental practice (PGDP) may reduce expenditures by changing the mix of services patients receive. The modest estimated savings and the small number of PGDPs presently in operation limit the importance of this alternative for the next five to ten years. If substantial reductions in dental expenditures are to be obtained, it will be necessary to limit dental insurance plans to cover only those services which have demonstrated cost-effectiveness in improving health for the majority of people. The concept that richer benefit plans may have small marginal effects on improving oral health may not be easy for the public to accept but, until they do, expenditures for dental care will be difficult to control.  (+info)

(8/185) Dental and other health care visits among U.S. adults with diabetes.

OBJECTIVE: This study compared yearly dental visits of diabetic adults with those of nondiabetic adults. For adults with diabetes, we compared the frequency of past-year dental visits with past-year visits for diabetes care, dilated eye examinations, and foot examinations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a sample of 105,718 dentate individuals aged > or =25 years, including 4,605 individuals with diabetes who participated in the 1995-1998 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 38 states. RESULTS: Dentate adults (i.e., those with at least some natural teeth) with diabetes were less likely than those without diabetes to have seen a dentist within the preceding 12 months (65.8 vs. 73.1%, P = 0.0000). Adults with diabetes were less likely to have seen a dentist than to have seen a health care provider for diabetes care (86.3%); the percentage who saw a dentist was comparable with the percentage who had their feet examined (67.7%) or had a dilated eye examination (62.3%). The disparity in dental visits among racial or ethnic groups and among socioeconomic groups was greater than that for any other type of health care visit for subjects with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Promotion of oral health among diabetic patients may be necessary, particularly in Hispanic and African-American communities. Information on oral health complications should be included in clinical training programs. Oral and diabetes control programs in state health departments should collaborate to promote preventive dental services, and the oral examination should be listed as a component of continuous care in the American Diabetes Association's standards of medical care for diabetic patients.  (+info)


  • Alex C.-T. Ko, Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith, Mark Hewko, Michael G. Sowa, Cecilia C.S. Dong, and Blaine Cleghorn, "Detection of early dental caries using polarized Raman spectroscopy," Opt. (
  • A new technique based on polarized Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for detecting early dental caries on extracted human teeth. (
  • Such difference in the degree of Raman polarization anisotropy allows for discrimination between early dental caries and sound enamel. (
  • Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries that can destroy the primary dentition of toddlers and preschool children. (
  • Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. (
  • We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. (
  • The distinctive clinical presentation of dental caries in infants and toddlers, which is often known as early childhood caries (ECC), and are influenced by the eruption sequence of the primary dentition. (
  • After birth the parents are invited to come with their babies around 12 months for the first dental examination and follow up according to individual risk for caries development. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether a high degree of dental caries severity is associated with the distal and proximal determinants of caries in a group of Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. (
  • High caries severity was associated with regular visits to the dentist, low income, use of private/supplementary dental service and not petitioning the authorities for community benefits. (
  • The results of the study underscore the importance of considering distal and proximal factors in the assessment of the severity of dental caries. (
  • This study evaluated the prevalence of enamel defects and dental caries and their risk factors on primary and permanent dentitions of prematurely-born children and term children. (
  • One concludes that prematurity can't be a predisposing factor for the presence of dental caries. (
  • In Japan, comprehensive food education ( shokuiku ) programs are carried out with the aim of improving dietary practices and thereby reducing the incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, including dental caries. (
  • The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the association between knowledge about shokuiku and the increase in dental caries among Japanese university students who had attended a shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. (
  • A total of 562 students volunteered to undergo oral examinations over a three-year follow-up period, during which the number of cases of dental caries were recorded. (
  • These results suggest that having no knowledge about shokuiku is associated with a risk of increase in dental caries in Japanese male university students. (


  • In addition the effect of these feeding habits on the dental/oral aspects, relevant for the developing dentition. (

socioeconomic status

  • Participating mothers were interviewed regarding child's demographic profile, educational level and socioeconomic status of parents, past medical and dental history of the mother and child, child's feeding habits, and dietary habits and oral hygiene practices of mother and child. (


  • The value of a pre- perinatal preventive approach is currently being examined in the dental literature. (
  • Dental health educator coordinators determine the oral health needs of communities, provide health promotion and dental health education, and deliver preventive programs. (


  • An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. (


  • Appraisal of behavioral measurement techniques for assessing dental anxiety and fear in children: A review. (


  • Additional information was collected using a questionnaire survey regarding knowledge about shokuiku , dietary habits, and oral health behaviors. (


  • General dentists and special needs patients: Does dental education matter? (

oral health status

  • In addition, sociodemographic and self-reported oral health status were recorded. (



  • The Oral Health Program has two components - primary health services and the Public Health Dental Clinic. (


  • A screening device: Children at risk for dental fears and management problems. (

regular dental

  • In an experimental crossover design, each participant underwent two professional dental cleanings, one in a regular dental environment (RDE) and one in a SADE, administered in a randomized and counterbalanced order 3-4 months apart. (


  • Listing of a study on this site does not reflect endorsement by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • The pilot study in cooperation with the Woman's Health Center and with the midwives and the breastfeeding counselors of the maternity unit. (
  • This pilot and feasibility study examined the impact of a sensory adapted dental environment (SADE) to reduce distress, sensory discomfort, and perception of pain during oral prophylaxis for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (


  • Barriers to dental care for children in Virginia with autism spectrum disorders. (
  • General dentists' perceptions of educational and treatment issues affecting access to care for children with special health care needs. (



  • Objective: To determine whether or not self-weighting at an item level contributes to the performance of an oral health-related quality-of-life measure. (


  • The demographic variables, medical history and oral health behaviors were recorded on a questionnaire. (




  • Design: Data were collected in two national surveys conducted a month apart, one using the 'weighted' measure and the other an 'unweighted' version of the UK oral health-related quality-of-life measure. (


  • The goal of the Oral Health Program is to promote good oral health for people of all ages within the community. (