Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Fissures: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Tooth DiseasesDental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Mouth DiseasesDental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.BrazilXerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)IndiaTelepathy: The knowledge or communication by one person with the mental processes of another through channels other than known physical or perceptual processes.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Periapical Abscess: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.LacquerQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Dental cariesDental Procedure Education System: The Dental Procedure Education System (DPES), is a web-based resource containing a collection of procedures from the dental disciplines. The procedures presented in DPES were developed by individual faculty members at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, in collaboration with a group of educational media and technology experts.Streptococcus mutans: Streptococcus mutans is facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus-shaped bacterium commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay.Neonatal line: The neonatal line is a particular band of incremental growth lines seen in histologic sections of a deciduous tooth. It belongs to a series of a growth lines in tooth enamel known as the Striae of Retzius.Dental plaque: Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth. It appears as a white or pale yellow "slime layer", that is commonly found between the teeth and along the cervical margins.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Water fluoridation in the United StatesToothbrush: The toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth.WKT (sealant): WKT is sealing compound which was developed by Paul Pietzschke, Chemisch-Technische Fabrik, Hamburg, Germany in 1962 specifically to meet the stringent requirements in the yacht and ship building industry. WKT belongs to the silicone group of sealants.Dental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Dental fluorosisHappy Tooth: 72px|thumb|right|"Happy Tooth" logoToothpasteFluoride toxicitySaliva testing: Saliva testing is a diagnostic technique that involves laboratory analysis of saliva to identify markers of endocrine, immunologic, inflammatory, infectious, and other types of conditions. Saliva is a useful biological fluid for assaying steroid hormones such as cortisol, genetic material like RNA, proteins such as enzymes and antibodies, and a variety of other substances, including natural metabolites, including saliva nitrite, a biomarker for nitric oxide status (see below for Cardiovascular Disease, Nitric Oxide: a salivary biomarker for cardio-protection).International Association for Dental Research: The International Association for Dental Research (IADR) is a professional association that focuses on research in the field of dentistry. The aim of this association by constitution is to promote research in all fields of oral and related sciences, to encourage improvements in methods for the prevention and treatment of oral and dental disease, to improve the oral health of the public through research, and to facilitate cooperation among investigators and the communication of research findings and their implications throughout the world.Pulp (tooth): The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts. The dental pulp is a part of the dentin–pulp complex (endodontium).Utah College of Dental HygieneTooth loss: Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth (baby teeth), when they are replaced by a person's adult teeth.Enamel spindles: Enamel spindles are "short, linear defects, found at the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ) and extend into the enamel, often being more prevalent at the cusp tips."Histology Course Notes: "Mature Enamel", New Jersey Dental School, 2003-2004, page 2.Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive DentistryBone destruction patterns in periodontal disease: In periodontal disease, not only does the bone that supports the teeth, known as alveolar bone, reduce in height in relation to the teeth, but the morphology of the remaining alveolar bone is altered.Carranza, FA: Bone Loss and Patterns of Bone Destruction.Dental radiographyMFDS: MFDS is the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, a government department in South Korea. This is former KFDA, Korean Food and Drug Administration.Human tooth: The human teeth function in mechanically breaking down items of food by cutting and crushing them in preparation for swallowing and digestion. There are four different types of teeth, namely incisors, canines, molars and premolars.Amalgam (chemistry): An amalgam is a substance formed by the reaction of mercury with another metal. Almost all metals can form amalgams with mercury, the notable exceptions being iron, platinum, tungsten, and tantalum.SOAP note: The SOAP note (an acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan) is a method of documentation employed by health care providers to write out notes in a patient's chart, along with other common formats, such as the admission note. Documenting patient encounters in the medical record is an integral part of practice workflow starting with patient appointment scheduling, to writing out notes, to medical billing.Franz Hein: Franz Hein (1892–1976) was a German scientist and artist.Dentin sialophosphoprotein (protein): Dentin sialophosphoprotein is the only protein produced uniquely by odontoblasts, the cells that produce tooth dentin. It is a non-collagenous SIBLING protein that is later cleaved into three functional proteins: dentin phosphoprotein (also known as phosphophoryn), taken from the C-terminal end, dentin sialoprotein from the N-terminal end, and dentin glycoprotein from the middle of the molecule.The Alligator's Toothache: The Alligator's Toothache is a 1962 children's picture book written and illustrated by Marguerite Dorian. It tells the tale of an alligator called Alli and his child-friendly experiences with a painful tooth and a dentist's surgery.Gum base: Gum base is the non-nutritive, non-digestible, water-insoluble masticatory delivery system used to carry sweeteners, flavors and any other substances in chewing gum and bubble gum. It provides all the basic textural and masticatory properties of gum.Glot-Up: A Glot-Up is type of dental equipment, something in between a mouth guard and an adult-sized pacifier.Demineralization (physiology): Demineralization - it is the opposite process of mineralization, a process to reduce the content of mineral substances in tissue or organism, such as bone demineralization, of teeth. Demineralization can lead to serious diseases such as osteoporosis or tooth decay.Conjuring Arts Research Center: Conjuring Arts Research Center is a not-for-profit organization, based in New York City in the United States, dedicated to the preservation and interpretation of magic and its allied arts.Sydney Dental HospitalCandy: Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy.ListerineDentists Act 1984: The Dentists Act 1984 (c. 24) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom regulating dentistry.International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies: The International Federation of Dental Anesthesiology Societies (IFDAS) is a professional association established in 1976. IFDAS is devoted solely to promoting the safe and effective use of sedation and anesthesia by educationally qualified dentists for their patients.XylitolEnamel hypoplasiaImplant stability quotient: The implant stability quotient (ISQ) is the value on a scale that indicates the level of stability and osseointegration in dental implants. The scale ranges from 1 to 100 and is measured by implant stability meters instruments using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) technique.Nordic Institute of Dental Materials: NorwayDesquamative gingivitisPostgraduate training in general dentistry: ==Australia==Outline of dentistry and oral health: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to dentistry and oral health:OverjetAmerican Dental Society of Anesthesiology: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology (ADSA) is an American professional association established in 1953 and based in Chicago.
(1/1744) The identification of agreed criteria for referral following the dental inspection of children in the school setting.
AIM: To clarify the function of the school based dental inspection. OBJECTIVE: For representatives of the Community Dental Service, General Dental Service and Hospital Dental Service to identify an agreed set of criteria for the referral of children following school dental inspection. DESIGN: Qualitative research methodology used to establish a consensus for the inclusion of referral criteria following dental screening. SETTING: Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, England. MATERIALS: A Delphi technique was used to establish a consensus amongst the study participants on the inclusion of nine possible criteria for referral following dental screening. All participants scored each criterion in the range 1-9, with a score of 1 indicating that referral of individuals with the condition should definitely not take place, and a score of 9 indicating referral should definitely take place. Referral criteria were accepted only if they achieved a group median score of 7 or more, with an interquartile range of three scale points, with the lower value being no less than 7. RESULTS: Four of the nine possible criteria met the agreed group standard for inclusion: 'Sepsis', 'Caries in the secondary dentition', 'Overjet > 10 mm', and 'Registered & caries in the permanent dentition'. CONCLUSION: It is possible to agree clear criteria for the referral of children following the school dental inspection. (+info)
(2/1744) Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans.
To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product. (+info)
(3/1744) Regulated expression of the Streptococcus mutans dlt genes correlates with intracellular polysaccharide accumulation.
Intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) are glycogen-like storage polymers which contribute significantly to Streptococcus mutans-induced cariogenesis. We previously identified and cloned a locus from the S. mutans chromosome which is required for the accumulation of IPS. Sequencing of this locus revealed at least four contiguous open reading frames, all of which are preceded by a common promoter region and are transcribed in the same direction. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the first of these open reading frames (ORF1) revealed domains which are highly conserved among D-alanine-activating enzymes (DltA) in Lactobacillus rhamnosus (formerly Lactobacillus casei) and Bacillus subtilis. The deduced amino acid sequences derived from ORF2, -3, and -4 also exhibit extensive similarity to DltB, -C, and -D, respectively, in these microorganisms. However, Southern hybridization experiments indicate that this operon maps to a locus on the S. mutans chromosome which is separate from the glgP, glgA, and glgD genes, whose products are known mediators of bacterial IPS accumulation. We therefore assigned a new dlt designation to the locus which we had formerly called glg. We maintain that the dlt genes are involved in S. mutans IPS accumulation, however, since they complement a mutation in trans which otherwise renders S. mutans IPS deficient. In this study, we found that expression of the S. mutans dlt genes is growth phase dependent and is modulated by carbohydrates internalized via the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS). We demonstrated that the S. mutans dlt genes are expressed constitutively when non-PTS sugars are provided as the sole source of carbohydrate. Consistent with a role for the PTS in dlt expression is a similar constitutive expression of the dlt genes in an S. mutans PTS mutant grown in a chemically defined medium supplemented with glucose. In summary, these findings support a novel role for the dlt gene products in S. mutans IPS accumulation and suggest that dlt expression in this oral pathogen is subject to complex mechanisms of control imposed by growth phase, dietary carbohydrate, and other factors present in the plaque environment. (+info)
(4/1744) Interactions of Streptococcus mutans fimbria-associated surface proteins with salivary components.
Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components that facilitate binding with fimbriae. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) established that the S. mutans fimbria preparation bound to components of whole saliva. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot techniques were used to separate components of whole saliva and determine fimbria binding. SDS-PAGE separated 15 major protein bands from saliva samples, and Western blot analysis indicated significant binding of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to a 52-kDa salivary protein. The major fimbria-binding salivary protein was isolated by preparative electrophoresis. The ability of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to the purified salivary protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Incubation of the purified salivary protein with the S. mutans fimbria preparation significantly neutralized binding of the salivary protein-fimbria complex to saliva-coated surfaces. The salivary protein, whole saliva, and commercial amylase reacted similarly with antiamylase antibody in immunoblots. A purified 65-kDa fimbrial protein was demonstrated to bind to both saliva and amylase. These data indicated that the S. mutans fimbria preparation and a purified fimbrial protein bound to whole-saliva-coated surfaces and that amylase is the major salivary component involved in the binding. (+info)
(5/1744) Intranasal immunization against dental caries with a Streptococcus mutans-enriched fimbrial preparation.
Streptococcus mutans has been identified as the major etiological agent of human dental caries. The first step in the initiation of infection by this pathogenic bacterium is its attachment (i.e., through bacterial surface proteins such as glucosyltransferases, P1, glucan-binding proteins, and fimbriae) to a suitable receptor. It is hypothesized that a mucosal vaccine against a combination of S. mutans surface proteins would protect against dental caries by inducing specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which may reduce bacterial pathogenesis and adhesion to the tooth surface by affecting several adhesins simultaneously. Conventional Sprague-Dawley rats, infected with S. mutans at 18 to 20 days of age, were intranasally immunized with a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched for fimbriae and conjugated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) plus free cholera toxin (CT) at 13, 15, 22, 29, and 36 days of age (group A). Control rats were either not immunized (group B) or immunized with adjuvant alone (CTB and CT [group C]). At the termination of the study (when rats were 46 days of age), immunized animals (group A) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to the mixture of surface proteins and to whole bacterial cells than did the other two groups (B and C). No significant differences were found in the average numbers of recovered S. mutans cells among groups. However, statistically fewer smooth-surface enamel lesions (buccal and lingual) were detected in the immunized group than in the two other groups. Therefore, a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched with fimbria components, appears to be a promising immunogen candidate for a mucosal vaccine against dental caries. (+info)
(6/1744) Inhibitory effect of a self-derived peptide on glucosyltransferase of Streptococcus mutans. Possible novel anticaries measures.
Glucosyltransferase (GTF) plays an important role in the development of dental caries. We examined the possible presence of self-inhibitory segments within the enzyme molecule for the purpose of developing anticaries measures through GTF inhibition. Twenty-two synthetic peptides derived from various regions presumably responsible for insoluble-glucan synthesis were studied with respect to their effects on catalytic activity. One of them, which is identical in amino acid sequence to residues 1176-1194, significantly and specifically inhibited both sucrose hydrolysis and glucosyl transfer to glucan by GTF-I. Double-reciprocal analysis revealed that the inhibition is noncompetitive. Scramble peptides, composed of the identical amino acids in randomized sequence, had no effect on GTF-I activity. Furthermore, the peptide is tightly bound to the enzyme once complexed, even in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Kinetic analysis using an optical evanescent resonant mirror cuvette system demonstrated that the enzyme-peptide interaction was biphasic. These results indicate that the peptide directly interacts with the enzyme with high affinity and inhibits its activity in a sequence-specific manner. This peptide itself could possibly be an effective agent for prevention of dental caries, although its effectiveness may be improved by further modification. (+info)
(7/1744) The effect of water fluoridation and social inequalities on dental caries in 5-year-old children.
BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that water fluoridation dramatically reduces dental caries, but the effect that water fluoridation has upon reducing dental health inequalities is less clear. The aim of this study is to describe the effect that water fluoridation has upon the association between material deprivation and dental caries experience in 5-year-old children. METHODS: It is an ecological descriptive study of dental caries experience using previously obtained data from the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry's biennial surveys of 5-year-old children. This study examined the following data from seven fluoridated districts and seven comparable non-fluoridated districts in England: 1) dental caries experience using the dmft (decayed, missing, filled teeth) index; 2) the Townsend Deprivation Index of the electoral ward in which the child lived; 3) whether fluoride was present at an optimal concentration in the drinking water or not. RESULTS: A statistically significant interaction was observed between material deprivation (measured by the Townsend Deprivation Index) and water fluoridation (P < 0.001). This means that the social class gradient between material deprivation and dental caries experience is much flatter in fluoridated areas. CONCLUSION: Water fluoridation reduces dental caries experience more in materially deprived wards than in affluent wards and the introduction of water fluoridation would substantially reduce inequalities in dental health. (+info)
(8/1744) Polymicrobial etiology of dental caries.
The present study was carried out to establish the normal bacterial oral flora and the aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora from deep seated dental caries, and to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity of the clinical isolates so obtained Streptococcus mutans (48%) and Streptococcus sanguis (20%) were the main aerobic isolates whereas Lactobacillus spp. (52%), Veillonella spp. (24%) and Actinomyces spp. (12%) were the major anaerobic isolates. Hundred percent of the samples from dental caries yielded polymicrobial isolates while in two samples from healthy individuals S. mutans was the sole isolate. As the flora changed from healthy tooth to dental caries it changed from one predominated by anaerobic gram-positive cocci to anaerobic gram-positive bacilli. All the anaerobes isolated were sensitive to metronidazole and cefotaxime, whereas all the isolated streptococci were sensitive to penicillin, erythromycin and clindamycin. Incorporation of the antibiotics in baseline restoration, if technically feasible, has been advocated. (+info)