Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Polystichum: A plant genus of the family DRYOPTERIDACEAE.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Anostraca: An order of CRUSTACEA comprised of shrimp-like organisms containing body trunks with at least 20 segments. The are commonly used as aquarium food.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.EuropeChileAfricaClimate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.LizardsModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.EnglandMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.United StatesGreat BritainCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.IndiaSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

*  Category:Demography - Wikimedia Commons
English: Graphics about demography. See also categories: Statistics, Population statistics, Sociological statistics, Health ... Датотеке у категорији „Demography". Следећих 200 датотека је у овој категорији, од укупно 301. ... Преузето из „https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Demography&oldid=257349539" ...
  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Demography?uselang=sr
*  3311.3 - Demography, Queensland, 1998
Provides detailed statistics on births, deaths, infant deaths, marriages and divorces. Detailed population statistics (including overseas arrivals and departures and other components of population change) and population projections. Some data for Statistical Local Areas. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3311.3Main%20Features11998?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3311.3&issue=1998&num=&view=
*  3311.3 - Demography, Queensland, 2001
Outdoing the Australian rate of 1.3%, the population of Queensland grew at a rate of 1.9% from 2000 to 2001. The main contributor to this growth was the net interstate migration of 21,995 people. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mediareleasesbyCatalogue/A9EBD838A4B8BB4DCA256C9000800BEC?OpenDocument
*  3141.0 - Demography Bulletin, 1971
Australian Demography Bulletins (1922 to 1937) and Demography Bulletins (1938 to 1971). Previously: Australian Demography ...
  http://abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/productsbytitle/4FA76C79CD9B0D12CA25766B00192FD4?OpenDocument
*  3311.6 - Demography, Tasmania, 1998
Provides a comprehensive demographic overview of Tasmania. Contains tables and commentary on Tasmanian trends in population, births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and migration. Components of population change, estimated resident population and various demographic rates are reported, and comparisons are made across States and Territories. Selected statistics are presented for Statistical Local Areas. ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/ProductsbyReleaseDate/FE0FEDCE0F054106CA2570A80018741B?OpenDocument
*  3311.2 - Demography, Victoria, 2000
Further details can be found in Demography Victoria, 2000 (cat. no. 3311.2), available in ABS bookshops. This media release and ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mediareleasesbyReleaseDate/37BEB0EF3D79AD0ACA256B25007CC843?OpenDocument
*  3311.2 - Demography, Victoria, 2001
In 2001, the local government area in Melbourne (SD) recording the highest number of deaths was the City of Boroondara with 1,300 deaths. This was followed by the Shire of Mornington Peninsula with 1,200 deaths. In the remainder of Victoria, the highest numbers were recorded in the local government areas of the City of Greater Geelong with 1,600 deaths and the City of Greater Bendigo with 700 deaths. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/3311.2Main+Features12001?OpenDocument
*  3311.2 - Demography, Victoria, 2001
Most couples who married had lived together before marriage. Of these, the majority (61%) were more likely to have a civil celebrant officiate their wedding. Of couples who didn't live together before marriage, 71% had their wedding officiated by a minister of religion. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mediareleasesbyReleaseDate/A7603D1E66B9A10DCA256C93007F6994?OpenDocument
*  3311.2 - Demography, Victoria, 1993
Annual; ISSN:1036-2622; Detailed statistics on births, deaths, infant deaths, marriages and divorces. Detailed population statistics (including overseas arrivals and departures and other components of population change) and population projections. Some data for statistical local areas ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/ProductsbyReleaseDate/6E245EDCEE54DB84CA25722E001A3A11?OpenDocument
*  MPIDR - Statistical Demography
Start » Laboratories » Statistical Demography » Projects » Joint Models for Investigating Fertility and Mortality Rates ...
  http://www.demogr.mpg.de/en/laboratories/statistical_demography_35/projects/joint_models_for_investigating_fertility_and_mortality_rates_5146.htm
*  religious demography
Tag: religious demography. Gina Zurlo gives papers at social science conferences NY and Boston in Announcements, Students 0 ... Tags: academic conferences, religion and social science, religious demography. Global Christian Shifts in Announcements, ...
  http://www.bu.edu/cgcm/tag/religious-demography/
*  Statistical Demography and Forecasting | Juha Alho | Springer
"The new book by Alho and Spencer is focused on putting a better emphasis on statistics in the discipline of demography … . The ... "This book is a most useful guide to the literature intersecting demography and statistics. … the book is of almost encyclopedic ... It] is a must buy for every statistician interested in demography and every demographer interestd in expanding his knowledge of ... Both have contributed extensively to statistical demography and served in advisory roles and as statistical consultants in the ...
  https://www.springer.com/us/book/9780387235301
*  Industrial structure, business demography and innovation
"Industrial structure, business demography and innovation," Working Papers on Innovation Studies 20070611, Centre for Technology ...
  https://ideas.repec.org/p/tik/inowpp/20070611.html
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Jun 2002
If you are seeking demography or any other ABS data, you can:. *visit the ABS web site, particularly the Demography theme pages ... Indigenous - demography. m.shahidullah@abs.gov.au. (02) 6252 5129. Population - general and other. shail.jain@abs.gov.au. (02) ... To receive ABS Demography News as an email, unsubscribe or change your email address, please email tita.tabije@abs.gov.au If ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/c121294847949b84ca2572bf00009c50
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Feb 1999
What the ABS Demography Program produces The demography program produces estimates of the total population by age, sex, ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/1eb473678651b594ca2572dc0017739e
*  3311.7 - Demography, Northern Territory, 2001
In 2001 the NT experienced a further loss from net interstate migration with 2,200 more people leaving for other states and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) than arriving to settle in the Northern Territory. Tasmania was the only state that provided a net gain of interstate migrants to the Northern Territory (10) while the largest net loss was to Queensland (1,040). ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/ProductsbyReleaseDate/927CED3F7F86A6E4CA2568A90013942F?OpenDocument
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Oct 2000
The aim of this one day course is to provide an understanding of the framework of demographic data and the processes which shape the population. The course covers the relationship between Census data and Estimated Resident Population data; components of population growth; projections; estimating the population of small areas; some tools for analysing demographic data and population dynamics. It costs $327 per participant, including a light lunch. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3106.0Main%20Features4Oct%202000?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3106.0&issue=Oct%202000&num=&view=
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Jan 2004
There were 251,000 births registered in Australia during 2002. This was 4,600 births (1.9%) more than 2001 and the highest since 1997. The total fertility rate was 1.75 babies per woman. This rate has been relatively stable since 1998, ranging between 1.73 and 1.76 babies per woman, and remained lower than that of the United States of America (2.1 babies per woman) and New Zealand (2.0), but higher than that of the United Kingdom (1.6), Japan (1.3) and many European countries such as Germany (1.4), Greece (1.3) and Italy (1.2). ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/ca61422a9463a64dca2572b9001ad572
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Jun 2002
Inexperienced users of population data can find it difficult to decide which measure of population is the most appropriate to use for their purpose. Aside from the differences in the methodology used and the concepts each measure is representing, not all measures are available for any one year. Census counts are only available every five years, estimated resident population figures are available every quarter in a year to the present, and population projections provide figures for points of time in the future (normally published on a yearly basis). The article explains what is being measured by each type of measure and the relationships between them. ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3106.0Main%20Features6Jun%202002?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3106.0&issue=Jun%202002&num=&view=
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Feb 1999
Ischaemic heart disease was often associated with one or more circulatory diseases. Hypertensive disease was reported as a contributory cause in 16% of all cases where the underlying cause was ischaemic heart disease. Other major contributory causes were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (10%); diseases of the arteries, arterioles, and capillaries (10%): diabetes (8.7%;) and cerebrovascular disease (7.7%). ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3106.0Main%20Features6Feb%201999?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3106.0&issue=Feb%201999&num=&view=
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Jun 2003
The growth in Australia's population has two components; natural increase (the number of births minus the number of deaths) and net overseas migration (net permanent and long-term movement plus an adjustment for category jumping). Since Federation natural increase has generally contributed more to annual population growth than net overseas migration. This was not the case for the year ended December 2002 when net overseas migration exceeded natural increase by 23,000 persons. Natural increase slowed marginally, while net migration increased over the same period. Net overseas migration in the year ended December 2002 (139,000) was the second highest number recorded since the year ended December 1988 (172,800 persons). ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/6def9110ebbcee28ca2572ba00125fee
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Feb 1999
Passenger cards and visa information form the basis for overseas arrival and departure statistics. From July 1998, the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs has revised incoming and outgoing passenger cards and associated procedures and systems. There have been some significant data problems, particularly in relation to main reason for journey and main state of stay for short-term visitors. A summary of data quality issues to date will appear in Appendix 2 of the December 1998 issue of Overseas Arrivals and Departures, Australia (ABS Catalogue No. 3401.0). ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/7d12b0f6763c78caca257061001cc588/0d18f7ec293cf06fca2572dc0017715c
*  3311.4 - Demography, South Australia, 1997
Provides a comprehensive demographic overview of South Australia. Contains tables and commentary on trends in South Australian population, births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and migration. Estimated resident population, components of population change, and various demographic rates are reported. Comparisons are made across States and Territories. Selected statistics for statistical local areas within South Australia are also given. ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/ProductsbyReleaseDate/609C2B1B004CF19DCA2570A800059649?OpenDocument
*  3106.0 - Demography News, April 2012
A well attended seminar was also given at ABS House, with invited guest speakers Dr Ching Choi (former Director of Demography ... at the ABS) and Professor Peter McDonald (ANU), along with the current Director of Demography, Patrick Corr.. ...
  http://abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/3106.0Main%20Features4April%202012?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3106.0&issue=April%202012&num=&view=
*  3106.0 - Demography News, Jan 2004
Demographic statistics provide measures of the Australian population, its size, growth, composition and geographic distribution, as well as the components that shape population change: births, deaths and migration ...
  http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Previousproducts/3106.0Main%20Features999Jan%202004?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=3106.0&issue=Jan%202004&num=&view=

Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asPolystichum acrostichoides: Polystichum acrostichoides (Christmas fern) is an evergreen fern native to eastern North America from Nova Scotia west to Minnesota and south to Florida and eastern Texas. USDA .Genetic variation: right|thumbEcosystemPhylogeography: Phylogeography is the study of the historical processes that may be responsible for the contemporary geographic distributions of individuals. This is accomplished by considering the geographic distribution of individuals in light of the patterns associated with a gene genealogy.Chirocephalus diaphanus: Chirocephalus diaphanus is a widely distributed European species of fairy shrimp that lives as far north as Great Britain, where it is the only surviving species of fairy shrimp and is protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. It is a translucent animal, about long, with reddened tips to the abdomen and appendages.Proto-Greek language: The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects (Attic-Ionic, Aeolic, Doric and Arcado-Cypriot), and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek. The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Betula pendula: Betula pendula, commonly known as silver birch or warty birch, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to Europe and parts of Asia, though in southern Europe it is only found at higher altitudes. Its range extends into Siberia, China and southwest Asia in the mountains of northern Turkey, the Caucasus and northern Iran.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Pyrites Island: Pyrites Island () is the largest of three small islands lying northeast of Gam Point and forming the east side of Esther Harbor, off the north coast of King George Island in the South Shetland Islands. In 1913–14, the rocky extremity of Gam Point and the adjoining islands to the northwest and southeast were named Esther, Pyritis (sic) or Pyritic Islands by Scottish geologist David Ferguson, who reported they were composed of pyrites and vein quartz.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation: The Greenpoint Renaissance Enterprise Corporation (GREC) is a consortium of neighborhood organizations in North Brooklyn that serves to facilitate and advocate the activities for city initiatives, as well as coordinate community involvement in the neighborhood of the former Greenpoint Hospital Complex.Lang, Frank.Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Narcissus (wrestler): Narcissus was a Roman athlete,Cassius Dio, Roman History, Book LXXII, pg. 117.Haplogroup L0 (mtDNA)Natural Park of El FondoSkylark launch tower: A Skylark tower is a tower used for the launch of earlier versions of Skylark rockets. As Skylark rockets have no guidance system and accelerate slowly, they require a safe launch tower with a height of at least 24 metres with a guidance system.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Baccharis malibuensis: Baccharis malibuensis is a rare California species of shrubs in the aster family known by the common name Malibu baccharis.Calflora taxon report, University of California, Baccharis malibuensis Beauchamp & Henrickson Malibu baccharisComputational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Hyperparameter: In Bayesian statistics, a hyperparameter is a parameter of a prior distribution; the term is used to distinguish them from parameters of the model for the underlying system under analysis.Microevolution: Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occur over time within a population.Microevolution: What is microevolution?Lists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Timeline of historic inventionsFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Inbreeding depression: Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result of inbreeding, or breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentGA²LENList of tallest buildings in Chile: This is a list of the 10 tallest buildings in Chile including buildings that are under construction.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightDecoding methods: In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code. There have been many common methods of mapping messages to codewords.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTokay gecko: The tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) is a nocturnal arboreal gecko, ranging from northeast India, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, throughout Southeast Asia, Philippines to Indonesia and western New Guinea. Its native habitat is rainforest trees and cliffs, and it also frequently adapts to rural human habitations, roaming walls and ceilings at night in search of insect prey.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Doob decomposition theorem: In the theory of stochastic processes in discrete time, a part of the mathematical theory of probability, the Doob decomposition theorem gives a unique decomposition of every adapted and integrable stochastic process as the sum of a martingale and a predictable process (or "drift") starting at zero. The theorem was proved by and is named for Joseph L.Gene polymorphismMeramec Conservation AreaDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Disequilibrium (medicine): Disequilibrium}}Flower box: __NOTOC__Vladimir Andreevich Markov: Vladimir Andreevich Markov (; May 8, 1871 – January 18, 1897) was a Russian mathematician, known for proving the Markov brothers' inequality with his older brother Andrey Markov. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 25.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Maximum life span: Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population has been observed to survive between birth and death. The term can also denote an estimate of the maximum amount of time that a member of a given species could survive between life and death, provided circumstances that are optimal to their longevity.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.List of sequenced eukaryotic genomesMaladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.

(1/5270) Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely.  (+info)

(2/5270) Identifying families with likely genetic protective factors against Alzheimer disease.

Elderly individuals who lived beyond the age of 90 years without dementia were hypothesized to have increased concentrations of genetic protective factors against Alzheimer disease (AD), conferring a reduced liability for this disease relative to less-aged nondemented elderly. However, testing this hypothesis is complicated by having to distinguish such a group from those who may lack genetic risk factors for AD, have had protective environmental exposures, or have escaped dementia for other reasons. Probands carrying genetic protective factors, however, should have relatives with lower illness rates not only for earlier-onset disease, when genetic risk factors are a strong contributing factor to the incidence of AD, but also for later-onset disease, when the role of these factors appears to be markedly diminished. AD dementia was assessed through family informants in 6,660 first-degree relatives of 1,049 nondemented probands aged 60-102 years. The probands were grouped by age (60-74, 75-89, and 90-102 years), and the cumulative survival from AD and 10-year-age-interval hazard rates of AD were calculated in their first-degree relatives. Cumulative survival from AD was significantly greater in the relatives of the oldest proband group (aged 90-102 years) than it was in the two younger groups. In addition, the reduction in the rate of illness for this group was relatively constant across the entire late life span. The results suggest that genetic factors conferring a lifelong reduced liability of AD may be more highly concentrated among nondemented probands aged >/=90 years and their relatives. Efforts to identify protective allele-bearing genes that are associated with very late-onset AD should target the families of nonagenarians and centenarians.  (+info)

(3/5270) Tay-Sachs screening: motives for participating and knowledge of genetics and probability.

A highly-educated, socially aware group of persons presented themselves for Tay-Sachs screening having learned about it mainly from friends, newspapers, radio, and television but not from physicians or rabbis. After learning that screening was possible and deciding that it is in principle a good idea, and after discussing it with relatives and friends but not with physicians and rabbis, they presented themselves for the test. Although the participants knew that Tay-Sachs is a serious disease and that Jews are vulnerable, few of them knew much about the genetics of the disease, its frequency, or the incidence of the carrier state. This experience of screening for Tay-Sachs carriers suggests the need for physicians to learn the relation of genetics to preventive medicine, and for the public to learn more about the biology of man.  (+info)

(4/5270) Disease patterns of the homeless in Tokyo.

In recent years, homelessness has been recognized as a growing urban social problem in various countries throughout the world. The health problems of the homeless are considerable. The purpose of this study was to elicit, with sociodemographic profiles, the disease patterns among Tokyo's homeless. The subjects were 1,938 men who stayed at a welfare institution from 1992 to 1996. Diagnosed diseases/injuries and sociodemographic profiles were analyzed. The disease patterns of the homeless were compared to those of the male general population. Of the subjects, 8.3% were admitted to the hospital; 64.0% received outpatient care. Their observed morbidity rates by disease category were greater than those of the male general population in both Japan and Tokyo. Comorbidity of alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependent syndrome to both liver disease and pulmonary tuberculosis were greater than the average (P < .01). Construction work brought a higher risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (odds ratio = 2.0) and dorsopathies (odds ratio = 1.4) than did other jobs (P < .05). Disease patterns among the homeless in Tokyo were characterized by alcoholic psychosis/alcohol-dependence syndrome; liver disease; pulmonary tuberculosis; diabetes mellitus; fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains; hypertension; and cerebrovascular disease. Although the sociodemographic backgrounds of Tokyo's homeless have become more diverse, the principal occupation of the homeless was unskilled daily construction work, which underlay the characteristics of their disease patterns.  (+info)

(5/5270) Marijuana use among minority youths living in public housing developments.

Youths residing in public housing developments appear to be at markedly heightened risk for drug use because of their constant exposure to violence, poverty, and drug-related activity. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a model of marijuana etiology with adolescents (N = 624) residing in public housing. African-American and Hispanic seventh graders completed questionnaires about their marijuana use, social influences to smoke marijuana, and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. Results indicated that social influences, such as friends' marijuana use and perceived ease of availability of marijuana, significantly predicted both occasional and future use of marijuana. Individual characteristics such as antimarijuana attitudes and drug refusal skills also predicted marijuana use. The findings imply that effective prevention approaches that target urban youths residing in public housing developments should provide them with an awareness of social influences to use marijuana, correct misperceptions about the prevalence of marijuana smoking, and train adolescents in relevant psychosocial skills.  (+info)

(6/5270) Is choice of general practitioner important for patients having coronary artery investigations?

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether particular sociodemographic characteristics of patients with stable angina affected their general practitioners' (GPs') decisions to refer them for revascularisation assessment. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Collaborative survey by the departments of public health medicine in each of the four health boards in Northern Ireland, serving a total population of 1.5 million. SUBJECTS: All (962) GPs. MAIN MEASURES: The relation between GPs' referral decisions and patients' age, sex, employment status, home circumstances, smoking habits, and obesity. RESULTS: 541 GPs replied (response rate 56%). Most were "neutral" towards a patient's sex (428, 79%), weight (331, 61%), smoking habit (302, 56%), employment status (431, 80%), and home circumstances (408, 75%) in making decisions about referral. In assigning priority for surgery most were neutral towards the patient's sex (459, 85%), employment status (378, 70%), and home circumstances (295, 55%). However, most GPs (518, 95%) said that younger patients were more likely to be referred, and a significant minority were less likely to refer patients who smoked (202, 37%) and obese patients (175, 32%) and more likely to refer employed patients (97, 18%) and those with dependents (117, 22%) (compared with patients with otherwise comparable clinical characteristics); these views paralleled the priority which GPs assigned these groups. The stated likelihood of referral of young patients was independent of the GPs' belief in ability to benefit from revascularisation, but propensity to refer and perception of benefit were significantly associated for all other patient characteristics. CONCLUSION: GPs' weighting of certain characteristics in reaching decisions about referral for angiography is not uniform and may contribute to unequal access to revascularisation services for certain patient groups.  (+info)

(7/5270) Factors influencing default at a hospital colposcopy clinic.

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors reducing compliance at diagnosis, treatment, and review stages among women referred with abnormal cervical smears to a hospital colposcopy clinic. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of sociodemographic data from hospital notes of the attenders and defaulters during one year (1989-90) and prospective collection of information by structured interviews of a sample of defaulters and attenders during five months (May-September 1990). SETTING: One hospital colposcopy clinic. PATIENTS: 238 women defaulting on two consecutive occasions and 188 attending regularly (retrospective analysis) and a subset of 40 defaulters and 24 attenders (interview sample). MAIN MEASURES: Sociodemographic data and interview responses about attitudes, behaviour, choice, accessibility cultural understanding, communications, and emotional response. RESULTS: 22 (12%) women defaulted at diagnosis, 24(13%) at treatment, 39(21%) at the first check up after treatment, and 84(45%) at the review stage; 19(10%) defaulted from the first check up after diagnostic examination revealed no need for treatment. Age and social class differed between the two groups. 181(76%) defaulters were under 30 compared with 91(48%) attenders; 14(6%) compared with 41(23%) were over 40(p < 0.001). The proportion of women in social classes 4 and 5 was 33%(20/60) for defaulters and 21%(25/120) for attenders (p < 0.05) and unemployed was 66%(158/238) and 36%(68/188) respectively. 63(28%) defaulters were pregnant compared with 11(6%) attenders (p < 0.001). More defaulters came from gynaecology or antenatal clinics. Most defaulters (93%) had child care responsibilities and they knew and understood less about colposcopy. Their explicit reasons for defaulting included child care commitments and fear and their implicit reasons lack of understanding, inaccessibility of information, and staff attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Compliance may be improved by promoting women's understanding of treatment and encouraging health professionals to develop a service more sensitive to the various needs of women in different socioeconomic groups.  (+info)

(8/5270) The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania.

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)



  • change
  • However, in political demography, there is always scope for assimilation as well as boundary and identity change, which can redraw the boundaries of populations in a way that is not possible with biological populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Berlin Demography Forum (BDF) is a global, non-partisan platform providing a new impetus to raise awareness of the significance of demographic change both at a national and international level. (wikipedia.org)
  • responsible
  • The Animal Demography Unit, popularly known as the ADU, was responsible for the management of the First and Second Southern African Bird Atlas Projects SABAP1 and SABAP2. (wikipedia.org)