Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Great BritainPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.EnglandState Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.BrazilIndiaFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.National Health Insurance, United StatesHealth Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

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Heritage Valley Health System is an integrated delivery network providing comprehensive health care for residents of Allegheny ... The Heritage Valley Health System Medical Neighborhood initiative is the Health System's approach to health care delivery that ... As part of Heritage Valley's integrated delivery network of healthcare, patients can be assured that the high quality services ... The Heritage Valley Health System Medical Neighborhood initiative is the Health System's approach to health care delivery that ...
heritagevalley.org/pages/medical-neighborhoods

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OU Medicine, SSM Health Unite to Create a. Comprehensive Integrated Health Care Delivery Network. Working in partnership to ... At OU Medicine, our mission is leading health care. Our vision is to be the premiere enterprise for advancing health care, ... With care delivery sites in Illinois, Missouri, Oklahoma and Wisconsin, SSM Health includes 20 hospitals, more than 60 ... "This is an exciting time for health care in Oklahoma," said William P. Thompson, president and CEO, SSM Health. "As a part of ...
https://oumedicine.com/oumedicine/news/2016/10/26/ssm-health-ou-medicine-unite-to-create-a-comprehensive-integrated-health-care-delivery-network

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Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration. *Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/standards* ... Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, USA.. Abstract. Aurora Healthcare, an integrated healthcare delivery system, wanted to use ... A users group approach to quality improvement across an integrated healthcare delivery system.. Kroll DA1, Brummitt CF, Berry ... Although these hospitals differed in size, volume of cases, medical staffs, and antibiotic-delivery processes, they had common ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10787787

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... priorities for organized healthcare systems. 13 th International Conference on Integrated Care 1.2 Patient- centred care . ... Patient-centeredness in Integrated healthcare delivery systems: Needs, expectations & ... BackgroundDesigning Healthcare Delivery*Organized healthcare delivery systems intend to structure the care for a defined ... Using Shared Services and Integrated Information Systems To Improve the Delivery of Health Care -Nancy vorhees inland northwest ...
slideserve.com/tory/patient-centeredness-in-integrated-healthcare-delivery-systems-needs-expectations-priorities-for-organized-healthcare-systems

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Learn about our physician-lead approach to improving patient care coordination and increasing quality of care. ... Health Care ReformOur fully integrated system is already poised to support those we serve. ... Why We're DifferentOur innovation and team approach put us at the forefront of health care delivery. ... Awards & AccoladesWe continuously set the standard in health care delivery, service and innovation. ...
kpphysiciancareers.org/about-cpmg

*  American Association of Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems (AAIHDS), AAIHDS Career Center|Find Your Career Here

American Association of Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems (AAIHDS) - Find your next career at AAIHDS Career Center. Check ... Journal of Managed Care Medicine. *Managed Care eNews. *Genomics Biotech eNews. *Prevention, Wellness and Lifestyle eNews ... American Association of Integrated. Healthcare Delivery Systems. Join Our Email List. and receive FREE publications. *AAIHDS ...
careers.aaihds.org/jobseekers/resources/blueskyLMS/live.cfm?type=slide_video_presentations&course=148

*  Hicks Morley | Ontario Passes Key Healthcare Reforms to Expand LHIN Framework and Integrate Frontline Patient Service Delivery

include a person or entity that provides primary care nursing services, maternal care or inter-professional primary care ... Ontario Passes Key Healthcare Reforms to Expand LHIN Framework and Integrate Frontline Patient Service Delivery. December 12, ... Ontario Passes Key Healthcare Reforms to Expand LHIN Framework and Integrate Frontline Patient Service Delivery. Date: December ... Our expertise in healthcare matters ranges from healthcare sector mergers and amalgamations, to healthcare program transfers, ...
https://hicksmorley.com/2016/12/12/ontario-passes-key-healthcare-reforms-to-expand-lhin-framework-and-integrate-frontline-patient-service-delivery/

*  Developing IntegRATE: a fast and frugal patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery

... DSpace/Manakin ... IntegRATE, represents a patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery that is conducive to use in both ... We sought to develop a brief and generic patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery.Methods: Drawing on ... Background: Efforts have been made to measure integration in health care delivery, but few existing instruments have adopted a ...
https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/310727

*  Impact of integrated maternal health care on reducing pregnancy and delivery complications in Qazvin province (Iran) - qums

The two study groups (one provided with integrated health care and the other with routine health care) were examined for ... the referral rate for the group with integrated maternal health care was higher compared to the one with routine health care (P ... Impact of integrated maternal health care on reducing pregnancy and delivery complications in Qazvin province (Iran) ... Dr.jourabchi, Zinat (2013) Impact of integrated maternal health care on reducing pregnancy and delivery complications in Qazvin ...
eprints.qums.ac.ir/5985/

*  Healthcare Administration Minor

MGHA 432 Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems. 3. MGHA 433 Leadership for Healthcare Professionals. 3. ... who recognize and deal with the challenges facing the healthcare industry in order to advance the quality of patient care. ... Healthcare Administration Minor (21 hours). The healthcare administration minor offers students of other majors a 21-semester- ... MGHA 430 Legal and Ethical Aspects of Healthcare Services. 3. ... Bachelors (BA) in Healthcare Administration. *Bachelors (BA) in ...
https://georgefox.edu/catalog/degcomp/curriculum/programs/dps/mgha_minor.html

*  Improving the quality of primary care delivery and health worker performance in rural Rwanda using the W.H.O. Integrated...

... efforts to advance integrated primary care delivery in LMICs, is the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Integrated Management of ... Improving the quality of primary care delivery and health worker performance in rural Rwanda using the W.H.O. Integrated ... To--‐date primary care delivery - defined here as first--‐contact patient care delivered at the first level of health systems ... Improving the quality of primary care delivery and health worker performance in rural Rwanda using the W.H.O. Integrated ...
researchonline.lshtm.ac.uk/2548572/

*  Sandra H. Berry - Publications | RAND

Physician Professional Satisfaction and Area of Clinical Practice: Evidence from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System 2016 ... Channeling Health: A Review of the Evaluation of Televised Health Campaigns 1978. ... Variations in the Care of HIV-infected Adults in the United States: Results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study ... Health status and function with Zidovudine or Zalcitabine as initial therapy for AIDS : a randomized controlled trial 1995. ...
https://rand.org/pubs/authors/b/berry_sandra_h.html

*  Cardiorespiratory instability before and after implementing an integrated monitoring system.

We explored whether using an integrated monitoring system that continuously amalgamates single noninvasive monitoring ... Critical Care / methods. Delivery of Health Care, Integrated / methods. Electrocardiography / methods. Female. Follow-Up ... Title: Critical care medicine Volume: 39 ISSN: 1530-0293 ISO Abbreviation: Crit. Care Med. Publication Date: 2011 Jan ... Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan;39(1):202-3 [PMID: 21178538 ] From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Cardiorespiratory-instability-before-after-implementing/20935559.html

*  Limited Health Literacy is a Barrier to Medication Reconciliation in Ambulatory Care

It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life ... peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. ... reconciliation efforts at an integrated healthcare delivery ... Literacy testing in health care research. In: Schwartzberg JG, VanGeest JB, Wang CC, eds. Understanding health literacy: ... Through the process of medication reconciliation, health care providers can improve patient care by reducing adverse drug ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2219798/?lang=en-ca

*  Perinatal Outreach Project

Childrens Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati provides professional education and consultative services to perinatal health care ... Develop integrated healthcare delivery programs to optimize systems of perinatal care *Educate providers of perinatal care to ... Monitor perinatal healthcare trends and alert regional health professionals to emerging issues ... Improving perinatal health is the primary goal of CCPOP, and the group has five strategies to achieve that goal: * ...
https://cincinnatichildrens.org/service/n/neonatology/ccpop

*  Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults i... : Sexually Transmitted Diseases

This study assessed data from KPNC, an integrated health care delivery system that provides comprehensive medical care for more ... Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ... We describe genital wart incidence and recurrence in a cohort of young persons in a large integrated health care delivery ... Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ...
journals.lww.com/stdjournal/Fulltext/2013/07000/Incidence_of_Genital_Warts_in_Adolescents_and.4.aspx

*  July 2013 - Volume 40 - Issue 7 - Contributor Index : Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ... Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ... Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ... Incidence of Genital Warts in Adolescents and Young Adults in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System in the United States ...
journals.lww.com/stdjournal/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2013&issue=07000

*  April 2009 - Volume 113 - Issue 4 - Contributor Index : Obstetrics & Gynecology

Decreasing Elective Deliveries Before 39 Weeks of Gestation in an Integrated Health Care System. Oshiro, Bryan T.; Henry, Erick ... Decreasing Elective Deliveries Before 39 Weeks of Gestation in an Integrated Health Care System. Oshiro, Bryan T.; Henry, Erick ... Decreasing Elective Deliveries Before 39 Weeks of Gestation in an Integrated Health Care System. Oshiro, Bryan T.; Henry, Erick ... Wolters Kluwer Health may email you for journal alerts and information, but is committed to maintaining your privacy and will ...
journals.lww.com/greenjournal/pages/contributorindex.aspx?year=2009&issue=04000

*  153 Quality Assurance RN Jobs | ID/HIV Career Center

Henry Ford Health System Featured programs include HIV, ID transplant, Health Care Epidemiology, Antimicrobial Resistance and ... Join a Leader in Integrated Healthcare Delivery - Kaiser Permanente!. Transplant Infectious Disease Specialist ... Palo Alto Medical Foundation (PAMF) is a not-for-profit health care organization dedicated to enhancing the health of people in ... of Health and Mental Hygiene Under the direction of the Assistant Commissioner for the Office of School Health, the Senior ...
https://healthecareers.com/idsa/nursing-jobs/quality-assurance-rn/

*  Alice R Pressman

Methods for assessing fracture risk prediction models: experience with FRAX in a large integrated health care delivery system. ... Methods for assessing fracture risk prediction models: experience with FRAX in a large integrated health care delivery system. ... Fracture risk tool validation in an integrated healthcare delivery system. Joan C Lo. Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente ... Fracture risk tool validation in an integrated healthcare delivery system. Joan C Lo. Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/kaiser/pressman/alice-r-pressman-1740041.html

*  Not Running a Hospital: How am I doing?

Second, it was a disfunctional attempt to create an integrated healthcare delivery system. Third, the PSN reflected that ... I don't work in health care, but I'm a chronic care patient so health care administration is very interesting and important to ... I have always had this strange fascination with hospitals and health care. However, providing healthcare isn't really my thing ... The health care system is a tricky place to navigate. Despite having worked at the Longwood area last summer, I still cannot ...
runningahospital.blogspot.com/2006/10/how-am-i-doing.html?showComment=1161866760000

*  Larissa Nekhlyudov

health services research*forecasting*delivery of health care*decision making*primary health care*theoretical models*breast ... Cancer research network: using integrated healthcare delivery systems as platforms for cancer survivorship research. Larissa ... Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Health ... Department of Ambulatory Care and Prevention, Harvard Medical School Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Health ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/harvard/nekhlyudov/larissa-nekhlyudov-1562981.html

*  Study identifies novel Parkinson's disease drug target | EurekAlert! Science News

... a Boston-based integrated health care delivery system. ... US National Institutes of Health. *US National Science ... MGH and Brigham and Women's Hospital are founding members of Partners HealthCare HealthCare System, ... The study was supported by private donations to MGH-MIND and grants from the National Institutes of Health and the ...
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-06/mgh-sin061907.php

*  Do Integrated Delivery Systems Deliver on Costs and Quality?

Last month, Burns, James Joo-Jin Kim Professor of Health Care Management at Wharton, presented these findings at a joint ... post-acute services and/or health plans, or fully integrated provider systems inside a health plan (e.g. with no other source ... The study, commissioned by the National Academy of Social Insurance, defined IDNs as vertically integrated health services ... No apparent cost of care advantage conferred on IDN hospitals that operate their own health plan ...
marcumllp.com/blog-health-care-legislative-update/do-integrated-delivery-systems-deliver-on-costs-and-quality

*  How to

Delivery of health care, Integrated§Provision des soins de santé intégrés§Atención de salud, integrada. ... Delivery of health care handbooks§Guides pour délivrance de soins§Guías para la atención de salud. ... Health status§Etat de santé§Estado de salud. Health status indicators§Indicateurs d'état sanitaire§Indicadores del estado de ... Health assessment§Evaluation sanitaire§Evaluación de salud. Health economics and financing§Economie et financement de la santé§ ...
nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0who--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-preferences---00-0-1-00-0--4----0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&cl=CL1

Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Neural drug delivery systems: Neural drug delivery is the next step beyond the basic addition of growth factors to nerve guidance conduits. Drug delivery systems allow the rate of growth factor release to be regulated over time, which is critical for creating an environment more closely representative of in vivo development environments.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Halfdan T. MahlerBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Minati SenMaternal Health Task ForceResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreCharged Aerosol Release Experiment: The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in the upper atmosphere to form a dusty plasma in space. NASA plans to trigger cloud formation around the rocket's exhaust particles.Lower segment Caesarean section: A lower (uterine) segment Caesarean section (LSCS) is the most commonly used type of Caesarean section used today. It includes a transverse cut just above the edge of the bladder and results in less blood loss and is easier to repair than other types of Caesarean sections.DenplanBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Nanoparticle: Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Standard evaluation frameworkIntegrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Health management system: The health management system (HMS) is an evolutionary medicine regulative process proposed by Nicholas Humphrey reprinted fromPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGay Men's Health Crisis: The GMHC (formerly Gay Men's Health Crisis) is a New York City–based non-profit, volunteer-supported and community-based AIDS service organization whose mission statement is "end the AIDS epidemic and uplift the lives of all affected."Mental disorder

(1/963) A taxonomy of health networks and systems: bringing order out of chaos.

OBJECTIVE: To use existing theory and data for empirical development of a taxonomy that identifies clusters of organizations sharing common strategic/structural features. DATA SOURCES: Data from the 1994 and 1995 American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, which provide extensive data on hospital involvement in hospital-led health networks and systems. STUDY DESIGN: Theories of organization behavior and industrial organization economics were used to identify three strategic/structural dimensions: differentiation, which refers to the number of different products/services along a healthcare continuum; integration, which refers to mechanisms used to achieve unity of effort across organizational components; and centralization, which relates to the extent to which activities take place at centralized versus dispersed locations. These dimensions were applied to three components of the health service/product continuum: hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: We identified 295 health systems and 274 health networks across the United States in 1994, and 297 health systems and 306 health networks in 1995 using AHA data. Empirical measures aggregated individual hospital data to the health network and system level. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a reliable, internally valid, and stable four-cluster solution for health networks and a five-cluster solution for health systems. We found that differentiation and centralization were particularly important in distinguishing unique clusters of organizations. High differentiation typically occurred with low centralization, which suggests that a broader scope of activity is more difficult to centrally coordinate. Integration was also important, but we found that health networks and systems typically engaged in both ownership-based and contractual-based integration or they were not integrated at all. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we were able to classify approximately 70 percent of hospital-led health networks and 90 percent of hospital-led health systems into well-defined organizational clusters. Given the widespread perception that organizational change in healthcare has been chaotic, our research suggests that important and meaningful similarities exist across many evolving organizations. The resulting taxonomy provides a new lexicon for researchers, policymakers, and healthcare executives for characterizing key strategic and structural features of evolving organizations. The taxonomy also provides a framework for future inquiry about the relationships between organizational strategy, structure, and performance, and for assessing policy issues, such as Medicare Provider Sponsored Organizations, antitrust, and insurance regulation.  (+info)

(2/963) Randomised controlled trial of follow up care in general practice of patients with myocardial infarction and angina: final results of the Southampton heart integrated care project (SHIP). The SHIP Collaborative Group.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a programme to coordinate and support follow up care in general practice after a hospital diagnosis of myocardial infarction or angina. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial; stratified random allocation of practices to intervention and control groups. SETTING: All 67 practices in Southampton and south west Hampshire, England. SUBJECTS: 597 adult patients (422 with myocardial infarction and 175 with a new diagnosis of angina) who were recruited during hospital admission or attendance at a chest pain clinic between April 1995 and September 1996. INTERVENTION: Programme to coordinate preventive care led by specialist liaison nurses which sought to improve communication between hospital and general practice and to encourage general practice nurses to provide structured follow up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Serum total cholesterol concentration, blood pressure, distance walked in 6 minutes, confirmed smoking cessation, and body mass index measured at 1 year follow up. RESULTS: Of 559 surviving patients at 1 year, 502 (90%) were followed up. There was no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in smoking (cotinine validated quit rate 19% v 20%), lipid concentrations (serum total cholesterol 5.80 v 5.93 mmol/l), blood pressure (diastolic pressure 84 v 85 mm Hg), or fitness (distance walked in 6 minutes 443 v 433 m). Body mass index was slightly lower in the intervention group (27.4 v 28.2; P=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: Although the programme was effective in promoting follow up in general practice, it did not improve health outcome. Simply coordinating and supporting existing NHS care is insufficient. Ischaemic heart disease is a chronic condition which requires the same systematic approach to secondary prevention applied in other chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus.  (+info)

(3/963) The cost of coverage: rural health insurance in China.

China has undergone great economic and social change since 1978 with far reaching implications for the health care system and ultimately for the health status of the population. The Chinese Medical Reform of the 1980s made cost recovery a primary objective. The urban population is mostly protected by generous government health insurance. A high share government budget is allocated to urban health care. Rural cooperative health insurance reached a peak in the mid-1970s when 90% of the rural population were covered. In the 1980s rural cooperative health insurance collapsed and present coverage is less than 8%. The decline has been accompanied by reports of growing equity problems in the financing of and access to health care. This article is the first in a four-year study of the impact on equity of the changes in Chinese health care financing. The article examines the relationship between rural cooperative health insurance as the explanatory variable and health care expenditure, curative vs. preventive expenditure and tertiary curative care expenditure as dependent variables using a natural experimental design with a 'twin' county as a control. The findings support the hypothesis that cooperative health insurance will induce higher growth of health care expenditure. The findings also support the hypothesis that cooperative health insurance will lead to a shift from preventive medicine to curative medicine and to a higher level of tertiary curative care expenditure. The empirical evidence from the Chinese counties is contradicting World Bank health financing policies.  (+info)

(4/963) Regulating the private health care sector: the case of the Indian Consumer Protection Act.

Private medical provision is an important constituent of health care delivery services in India. The quality of care provided by this sector is a critical issue. Professional organizations such as the Medical Council of India and local medical associations have remained ineffective in influencing the behaviour of private providers. The recent decision to bring private medical practice under the Consumer Protection Act (COPRA) 1986 is considered an important step towards regulating the private medical sector. This study surveyed the views of private providers on this legislation. They believe the COPRA will be effective in minimizing malpractice and negligent behaviour, but it does have adverse consequences such as an increase in fees charged by doctors, an increase in the prescription of medicines and diagnostics, an adverse impact on emergency care, etc. The medical associations have also argued that the introduction of COPRA is a step towards expensive, daunting and needless litigation. A number of other concerns have been raised by consumer forums which focus on the lack of standards for private practice, the uncertainty and risks of medicines, the effectiveness of the judiciary system, and the responsibility of proving negligence. How relevant are these concerns? Is the enactment of COPRA really appropriate to the medical sector? The paper argues that while this development is a welcome step, we need to comprehensively look into the various quality concerns. The effective implementation of COPRA presumes certain conditions, the most important being the availability of standards. Besides this, greater involvement of professional organizations is needed to ensure appropriate quality in private practice, since health and medical cases are very different from other goods and services. The paper discusses the results of a mailed survey and interview responses of 130 providers from the city of Ahmedabad, India. The questionnaire study was designed to assess the opinion of providers on various implications of the COPRA. We also analyze the data on cases filed with the Consumer Disputes and Redressal Commission in Gujarat since 1991. Four selected cases filed with the National Commission on Consumers Redressal are discussed in detail to illustrate various issues affecting the implementation of this Act.  (+info)

(5/963) Integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services: current debates and future directions.

The issue of integrating MCH/FP and STD/HIV services has gained an increasingly high priority on public health agendas in recent years. In the prevailing climate of health sector reform, policy-makers are likely to be increasingly pressed to address the broader concept of "reproductive health' in the terms consolidated at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development, and the UN Conference on Women in Beijing. Integrated MCH/FP and STD/HIV services could be regarded as a significant step towards providing integrated reproductive health services, but clarity of issues and concerns is essential. A number of rationales have emerged which argue for the integration of these services, and many concerns have been voiced. There is little consensus, however, on the definition of "integrated services' and there are few documented case studies which might clarify the issues. This paper reviews the context in which rationales for "integrated services' emerged, the issues of concern and the case studies available. It concludes by suggesting future directions for research, noting in particular the need for country-specific and multi-dimensional frameworks and the appropriateness of a policy analysis approach.  (+info)

(6/963) The relationship and tensions between vertical integrated delivery systems and horizontal specialty networks.

This activity is designated for physicians, medical directors, and healthcare policy makers. GOAL: To clarify the issues involved with the integration of single-specialty networks into vertical integrated healthcare delivery systems. OBJECTIVES: 1. Recognize the advantages that single-specialty networks offer under capitated medical care. 2. Understand the self-interests and tensions involved in integrating these networks into vertical networks of primary care physicians, hospitals, and associated specialists. 3. Understand the rationale of "stacking" horizontal networks within a vertical system.  (+info)

(7/963) The three dimensions of managed care pharmacy practice.

Our goal is to provide a framework for pharmacy in an evolving healthcare marketplace by identifying and discussing the three dimensions of pharmacy practice: (1) pharmacy practice across the continuum of care; (2) the major elements of pharmacy practice; and (3) the evolution of pharmacy during the five stages of the development of managed care. The framework was devised under the proposition that there is a substantial consistency in what patients need or should expect from pharmacists. As integrated health systems develop, pharmacists must apply their skills and knowledge across the continuum of care to ensure that they play an integral part in the systems. In a managed care environment characterized by change and the development of integrated health systems, pharmacists have opportunities to become involved directly in patient care in such areas as disease prevention, home healthcare, primary care, and subacute care. Information systems, hospital drug distribution, clinical pharmacy, and the fiscal environment comprise the major elements of pharmacy practice within an integrated health system, and the way in which each of these elements evolves as the healthcare market adapts to managed care is critical to pharmacy practice. If the pharmacy profession can demonstrate its ability to manage disease and health, improve outcomes, and reduce costs within the evolving healthcare system, pharmacists will play a vital role in the managed healthcare market in the approaching new millennium.  (+info)

(8/963) Using a multidisciplinary automated discharge summary process to improve information management across the system.

We developed and implemented an automated discharge summary process in a regional integrated managed health system. This multidisciplinary effort was initiated to correct deficits in patients' medical record documentation involving discharge instructions, follow-up care, discharge medications, and patient education. The results of our team effort included an automated summary that compiles data entered via computer pathways during a patient's hospitalization. All information regarding admission medications, patient education, follow-up care, referral at discharge activities, diagnosis, and other pertinent medical events are formulated into the discharge summary, discharge orders, patient discharge instructions, and transfer information as applicable. This communication process has tremendously enhanced information management across the system and helps us maintain complete and thorough documentation in patient records.  (+info)



psychiatric


  • The South African Mental Health Care Act (the Act) No. 17 of 2002 stipulated that regional and district hospitals be designated to admit, observe and treat mental health care users (MHCUs) for 72 hours before they are transferred to a psychiatric hospital. (scielo.org.za)
  • Consideration will be given to mental health promotion with vulnerable aggregates and recognition of psychiatric mental health disorders that emerge across the lifespan. (athabascau.ca)
  • A current snapshot of the field of psychiatric nursing, including both current practice and future research possibilities will be presented. (athabascau.ca)

mental health care


  • Medical managers in 49 'designated' hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) were surveyed on infrastructure, staffing, administrative requirements and mental health care user case load pertaining to the Act for the month of July 2009. (scielo.org.za)
  • 3 To ensure adequate access and treatment for mental health care users (MHCUs), human, social and financial resources are necessary. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 (the Act) 8 introduced radical changes. (scielo.org.za)
  • Petersen expressed concern that de-institutionalisation and comprehensive integrated mental health care in South Africa were hampered by a lack of resources for mental health care as well as the inefficient use of existing mental health resources. (scielo.org.za)

infrastructure


  • Although 'designated' hospitals admit and treat assisted and involuntary MHCUs, they do so against a backdrop of inadequate infrastructure and staff, a high administrative load, and a low level of contact with Review Boards. (scielo.org.za)

Nursing


  • Please consult the Centre for Nursing and Health Studies website for the most recent information relating to clinical course registration and start dates. (athabascau.ca)
  • Nursing 435: Professional Practice in Mental Health Promotion This 16-week paced online course provides opportunities to integrate theory and develop further skills related to mental health promotion with a focus on individuals, families and groups experiencing mental health alterations. (athabascau.ca)

focus


  • A major focus of the course is a mental health promotion project. (athabascau.ca)

services


  • 6 Scarce resources, inequity of distribution and inefficiency of resource use characterise mental health services in low- and middle-income countries. (scielo.org.za)
  • Historically, mental health services in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) had been centred on a few large mental hospitals and stand-alone clinics. (scielo.org.za)
  • 50 (70.4%) of the district and regional hospitals have been designated to provide mental health services and admit involuntary and assisted MHCUs for 72-hour observations. (scielo.org.za)

cent


  • Seventy-six per cent of admissions were involuntary or assisted. (scielo.org.za)

Development


  • Historical Development of the Benchmarks. (slideserve.com)
  • In terms of skill development, NURS 435 provides you with practice opportunities using a variety of online tools and experiential activities. (athabascau.ca)

communication


  • 10 In KZN, 0.03% of the total health budget is spent on mental health, a figure that has not increased in the last decade (personal communication, KZN Department of Health). (scielo.org.za)