Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Antlers: The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)Wasting Disease, Chronic: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Sin Nombre virus: A species of HANTAVIRUS which emerged in the Four Corners area of the United States in 1993. It causes a serious, often fatal pulmonary illness (HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME) in humans. Transmission is by inhaling aerosolized rodent secretions that contain virus particles, carried especially by deer mice (PEROMYSCUS maniculatus) and pinyon mice (P. truei).Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.MontanaHornsDisease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.

*  Gift Certificate FAQ : Whitetail Supplies, For all of your Whitetail Deer Farming & Breeder Needs!
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*  White-tailed Deer Management Program
White-tailed deer are the most popular game species in Florida. In addition to being valued by hunters, deer are appreciated by ... White-tailed deer management in Florida is a conservation success story. By the 1930s deer were absent from much of Florida, ... has been collecting biological data since 2009 from white-tailed deer to estimate the breeding dates for deer across the state ... In northern deer ranges, the duration of the breeding season (or rut) is short and there is little variation from area to area ...
*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Serologic Evidence of Various Arboviruses Detected in White-Tailed Deer...
To better assess the exposure of white-tailed deer to seven arboviruses, we tested 1,508 sera collected from 2010 to 2016 for ... Exposure to various arboviruses has been detected in white-tailed deer, typically in conjunction with another diagnostic ... White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are an abundant mammal with a wide geographic distribution in the United States, ... Eastern equine encephalitis in a free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Wildl Dis 41: 241-245.[Crossref]. ...
*  100 metre running deer - Wikipedia
100 metre running deer is a discontinued ISSF shooting event, that was part of the Olympic programme from 1908 to 1948 and of ...
*  deer tick | HealthMap
Recent news reminds us that, this summer, ticks have more to pass on to us than the infamous Lyme disease. Early this month, the medical journal... ...
*  Christmas deer trail | National Trust
Join Park and Deer Keeper Dom Andrews on a winter morning feeding session with Knole's deer herd. ... Christmas deer trail. Get out and about this winter and spend some quality family time on our unique Christmas trail in Knole ... Follow the trail and find the Knole deer to help Ollie the owl collect everything he needs to throw a Christmas party for his ... Once you have found the 10 festive deer, be sure to return to the Visitor Centre to claim your prize. ...
*  How to Smoke Deer Roast | eHow
A smoked deer roast can be sliced thin and served warm or chilled. (Image: Jupiterimages/Comstock/Getty Images). Smoking fresh ... deer meat is a centuries-old method of cooking and preserving the venison by using the indirect heat of a fire. Adding aromatic ...
*  Deer Resistant Flowering Cherry Tree | eHow
While no plant is deer-proof, there are many that are deer-resistant or seldom damaged by deer. ... Protection from Deer. If you live in an area where deer are a constant threat to your landscape plants, consider protecting ... by deer. These trees are more resistant to deer than other species of cherry trees. Depending on the variety of tree you grow, ... One way to do this is simply by laying wire fencing on the ground around the tree, as the deer don't like stepping on it, ...
*  Game meat, deer, raw Nutrition
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*  Deer Tick Tickets - Deer Tick Concert Tickets
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*  Fawn Deer Nara Japan stock photo | iStock
Download this Fawn Deer Nara Japan photo now. And search more of the web's best library of royalty-free stock images from ... Fawn Deer Nara Japan - Stock image. .... Animal, Deer, One Animal, Animal Wildlife, Cheerful. ...
*  Tomato Plants & Deer | Garden Guides
Include plants that deer are not attracted to in your vegetable patch. Although damage may still occur because deer are ... Deer. Although a browsing deer is entertaining to watch, this harmless looking animal causes large amounts of economic and ... Install 2-by-4-inch mesh fencing around the area to protect tomato plants from deer. Keep it 5 feet high to prevent deer leaps. ... Colorado State University Extension: Preventing Deer Damage * Michigan State University Extension: Deer Damage Control in Yards ...
*  Deer Problem - Knowledgebase Question -
As a rule, peonies and bleeding heart are not bothered by deer, but a hungry deer will eat almost anything. Let's hope for the ... Deer have eaten holly, azaleas, rhodedendrum. Need to replace with flowering shrubs. Suggestions?? Bleeding heart and peony ... The following shrubs are considered deer resistant: Berberis (Barberry), Caryopteris (Blue Mist Shrub), Clethera (Sweet ...
*  Deer Fencing - Knowledgebase Question -
Deer can leap over very high fences to get at a garden so you need one at least 8' high to keep them out. Some folks even put a ... am willing to build as high a fence as is needed to keep deer out and will be putting an electric strand at the top to keep ... Using your search query i find different answers to the question, "what height should a fence be to keep deer out of my garden ... I am constructing a new garden and have had terrible trouble with deer and groundhogs in the old one. I will be using a backhoe ...
*  Extendedstay Deer Valley | petMD
Cleanliness is one the biggest draws of living with cats. So, if you start to detect a bad odor from your cat, you need to take notice. In most cases, foul feline smells are a sign that something is seriously wrong. ...
*  White-tailed deer - Wikipedia
White-tailed deer. The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native ... O. v. carminis - Carmen Mountains Jorge deer (Texas-Mexico border). *O. v. clavium - Key deer or Florida Keys white-tailed deer ... O. v. chiriquensis - Chiriqui white-tailed deer (Panama). *O. v. couesi - Coues white-tailed deer, Arizona white-tailed deer, ... The northern white-tailed deer (O. v. borealis), Dakota white-tailed deer (O. v. dacotensis), and northwest white-tailed deer ( ...
*  Photo Proof: Eagle Attacks Deer
... the carcass of a deer in the snow-but no sign of any tracks from the predator that killed it. A review of... Science News ... 4. It's a hoax, unless they can provide a SERIES of stills, showing tracks behind the deer in the snow. 5. Yes it happens in ... A review of film in a nearby camera trap solved the mystery: It shows dramatic images of a golden eagle attacking the deer, ... Newser) - Researchers studying Siberian tigers in Russia came across a strange thing in the woods: the carcass of a deer in the ...
*  Dreams of the Deer by Starseed on Apple Music
Dreams of the Deer', 'Food Grows Everywhere', 'Morning In the Meadow', and many more. Buy the album for $9.99. Songs start at $ ... Listen to songs from the album Dreams of the Deer, including ' ...
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*  How to Brain Tan a Deer Hide | eHow
And when done correctly, brain tanning transforms deer hide into buckskin, the distinctively soft, flexible and breathable ...
*  Oh Dear! Too Many Deer in Rural Japan
But there's another problem, too: a shortage of deer hunters. WSJ's Chester Dawson reports from Bungo-Ono. (Photo: ... Rural Japan is being over-run by deer that are damaging crops and timber groves. ... Oh Dear! Too Many Deer in Rural Japan. 12/28/2012 10:30PM Rural Japan is being over-run by deer that are damaging crops and ... in addition to these were the deer population is another ... a shortage of deer hunters ... the average age of Japanese hunters ...
*  Additional Deer Farms Released from Chronic Wasting Disease Quarantines
8, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Additional Deer Farms Released from Chronic Wasting Disease Quarantines. ... This decision was based on evidence from records kept by the Adams County farm where the first positive deer, known by its farm ... Additional Deer Farms Released from Chronic Wasting Disease Quarantines. Feb 08, 2013, 10:36 ET from Pennsylvania Department of ... To ensure the safety of Pennsylvania's farmed and wild deer, the department took precautions and issued quarantine orders on 34 ...
*  Deer Resistant Plants - Knowledgebase Question -
But, a hungry deer will eat almost anything so your mileage may vary. If there is a large deer population and a big competition ... however the deer are destroying my flower garden and trees. Can you suggest deer resistant flowering perennials and trees ( ... For that reason, not all deer resistant plants are indicated. I've found that native plants are often passed up by deer. ... even plants identified as deer resistant can become dinner for a hungry deer. With that said, here's a list of plants generally ...
*  deer resistant plantings - Knowledgebase Question -
Deer won't bother heather, heavenly bamboo or Vinca - at least the deer population in my garden don't touch them. Best wishes ... First, the disclaimer - a hungry deer will eat most anything! With that said, Buxus is generally not bothered by deer, but a ... I want to fill urns but need something deer resistant. I need color or something eye catching. ... hungry deer may well munch on it. Buxus 'Green Velvet' is my favorite. It grows thick and dense, with a rich green color. It ...

(1/1110) Comparative hypocholesterolemic effects of five animal oils in cholesterol-fed rats.

The hypocholesterolemic efficacy of various animal oils was compared in rats given a cholesterol-enriched diet. After acclimatization for one week, male F344 DuCrj rats (8 weeks of age) that had been fed with a conventional diet were assigned to diets containing 5% of oil from emu (Dromaius), Japanese Sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis, Heude), sardine, beef tallow, or lard with 0.5% cholesterol for 6 weeks. After this feeding period, the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and of very-low-density lipoprotein + intermediate-density lipoprotein + low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the sardine oil group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration in the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that in the other groups. The atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the sardine oil and Japanese Sika deer oil groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. The fecal cholesterol excretion by the Japanese Sika deer oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the sardine oil group, and the fecal bile acid excretion by the sardine oil group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, except for the lard group. These results suggest that Japanese Sika deer oil reduced the atherosclerotic index and liver cholesterol concentration in the presence of excess cholesterol in the diet as well as sardine oil did by increasing the excretion of cholesterol from the intestines of rats.  (+info)

(2/1110) Pregnancy detection and the effects of age, body weight, and previous reproductive performance on pregnancy status and weaning rates of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama).

Fallow does (n = 502) of different ages (mature, 2-yr-old, and yearling) were maintained with bucks for a 60-d breeding season to determine whether previous reproductive performance and changes in BW affect doe pregnancy rates and to compare the effectiveness of ultrasonography and serum pregnancy-specific protein B (PSPB) for the detection of pregnancy in fallow does. Ultrasonography was performed, blood samples collected, and BW recorded at buck removal (d 0) and at 30 and 90 d after buck removal. Lactational status (lactating = WET; nonlactating = DRY) were determined from farm records taken at weaning prior to each breeding season (autumn 1990 through autumn 1994). Ultrasonography and PSPB for determining pregnancy were in agreement 93% of the time. Overall pregnancy rates did not differ (P>.10) relative to age of the doe; the combined pregnancy rate was 92%. We also determined that 82.9% of does conceived early in the breeding season and that the incidence of embryonal-fetal mortality during the first 90 d after buck removal was 2.8%. In general, mature and 2-yr-old DRY does were heavier and had lower pregnancy rates than WET does. The overall weaning rate for all does was 77.9%. Loss in the number of fawns from pregnancy detection to weaning was equivalent to 14.8% for mature does, 24.7% for 2 yr old does, and 42.5% for yearling does. These data indicate that even though pregnancy rates were relatively high, further study is needed to determine the causes associated with subsequent fawn losses, particularly among yearling does. As a production tool, lactational WET/ DRY status testing was found to be an acceptable means for determining the reproductive potential of individual does within the herd. In addition, serum PSPB may be used in place of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis in fallow deer as early as d 30 after buck removal.  (+info)

(3/1110) Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented.  (+info)

(4/1110) Direct imaging of DNA in living cells reveals the dynamics of chromosome formation.

Individual chromosomes are not directly visible within the interphase nuclei of most somatic cells; they can only be seen during mitosis. We have developed a method that allows DNA strands to be observed directly in living cells, and we use it to analyze how mitotic chromosomes form. A fluorescent analogue (e.g., Cy5-dUTP) of the natural precursor, thymidine triphosphate, is introduced into cells, which are then grown on the heated stage of a confocal microscope. The analogue is incorporated by the endogenous enzymes into DNA. As the mechanisms for recognizing and removing the unusual residues do not prevent subsequent progress around the cell cycle, the now fluorescent DNA strands can be followed as they assemble into chromosomes, and segregate to daughters and granddaughters. Movies of such strands in living cells suggest that chromosome axes follow simple recognizable paths through their territories during G2 phase, and that late replicating regions maintain their relative positions as prophase chromosomes form. Quantitative analysis confirms that individual regions move little during this stage of chromosome condensation. As a result, the gross structure of an interphase chromosome territory is directly related to that of the prophase chromosome.  (+info)

(5/1110) Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns.

Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and adenovirus virions in endothelial cell nuclei. Adenovirus was reisolated in black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells using lung homogenate of the first fawn that developed systemic adenovirus infection. Serum virus neutralization test results suggest that this deer adenovirus is a new serotype.  (+info)

(6/1110) Diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by PCR using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.

A previously described polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (amplification of a 238-bp fragment of ovine herpesvirus 2 [OHV-2] genomic DNA) for diagnosis of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) was adapted for use on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Variables affecting its use were examined. Archived tissues from cattle, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and bison (Bison bison) diagnosed with MCF by clinical signs or histologic lesions were obtained from 2 veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Tissues from healthy animals and from animals diagnosed with other common bovine viral diseases were examined as controls. A total of 86 blocks from 37 suspect MCF cases were examined. Forty-one blocks from healthy animals and animals with unrelated viral diseases were examined as controls. The assay was specific for sheep-associated MCF and did not yield false-positive signals from healthy animals or from cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea, mucosal disease, or parainfluenza-3 virus infection. A wide variety of tissues were suitable substrates, including spleen, lymph node, intestine, brain, lung, and kidney. Extracted DNA provided a more suitable target than did unextracted tissue lysate. The highest levels of viral DNA were present in lymphoid organs and intestine, but the data indicate that in acute clinical cases, most organs contain sufficient viral DNA to serve as a suitable diagnostic specimen. Fixation of 0.5-cm3 blocks of tissue in 10% neutral buffered formalin was deleterious to the target DNA, and PCR signals progressively diminished after fixation for >45 days. Detection of genomic DNA of OHV-2 by PCR was successful for archived tissues that were 15 years old.  (+info)

(7/1110) Low-temperature sensitivity and enhanced Bohr effect in red deer (Cervus elaphus) haemoglobin: a molecular adaptive strategy to life at high altitude and low temperature.

A study of the functional properties of haemoglobin from red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose habitat varies over a wide range of latitude, was performed. The oxygen-binding properties of the most common haemoglobin phenotype from the species living in Sardinia were examined with particular attention to the effect of pH, chloride, 2, 3-bisphosphoglycerate and temperature. Results indicate that red deer haemoglobin, like all haemoglobins from ruminants so far examined, is characterized by a low intrinsic oxygen affinity, with chloride being its main physiological modulator in vivo. The functional results and the low temperature sensitivity of the oxygen affinity are discussed in the light of the amino acid sequence of closely related ruminant haemoglobins.  (+info)

(8/1110) Environmental variation shapes sexual dimorphism in red deer.

Sexual dimorphism results from dichotomous selection on male and female strategies of growth in relation to reproduction. In polygynous mammals, these strategies reflect sexual selection on males for access to females and competitive selection on females for access to food. Consequently, in such species, males display rapid early growth to large adult size, whereas females invest in condition and early sexual maturity at the expense of size. Hence, the magnitude of adult size dimorphism should be susceptible to divergence of the sexes in response to environmental factors differentially influencing their growth to reproduction. We show that divergent growth of male and female red deer after 32 years of winter warming and 15 years of contemporaneously earlier plant phenology support this prediction. In response to warmer climate during their early development, males grew more rapidly and increased in size, while female size declined. Conversely, females, but not males, responded to earlier plant phenology with increased investment in condition and earlier reproduction. Accordingly, adult size dimorphism increased in relation to warmer climate, whereas it declined in relation to forage quality. Thus, the evolutionary trajectories of growth related to reproduction in the sexes (i) originate from sexual and competitive selection, (ii) produce sexual size dimorphism, and (iii) are molded by environmental variation.  (+info)

  • antlers
  • Female reindeer, and male deer of all species (except the Chinese water deer), grow and shed new antlers each year. (
  • This caused the deer to have up to 33 points on their antlers and the outer edge of the rack to be up to 35 inches (90 cm) long. (
  • Laurent Chazée, an agronomist with the United Nations, later identified the antlers from a photograph he took as coming from Schomburgk's deer. (
  • A deer rub describes the abrasions caused by a male deer rubbing his forehead and antlers against the base of a tree. (
  • The area between the forehead and antlers contains a large number of apocrine sweat glands, and leave a scent that communicates a challenge to other male deer while also attracting potential mates. (
  • The most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are the size of their ears, the color of their tails, and the configuration of their antlers. (
  • white-tail
  • White-tailed deer management in Florida is a conservation success story. (
  • White-tailed deer are the most popular game species in Florida. (
  • The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission has partnered with University of Georgia to conduct a large-scale white-tailed deer research project in South Florida. (
  • The Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC) has been collecting biological data since 2009 from white-tailed deer to estimate the breeding dates for deer across the state. (
  • The white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), also known as the whitetail , is a medium-sized deer native to the United States , Canada , Mexico , Central America , and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia . (
  • The conversion of land adjacent to the northern Rockies into agriculture use and partial clear-cutting of coniferous trees (resulting in widespread deciduous vegetation) has been favorable to the white-tailed deer and has pushed its distribution to as far north as Fort St. John, British Columbia . (
  • The westernmost population of the species, known as the Columbian white-tailed deer , once was widespread in the mixed forests along the Willamette and Cowlitz River valleys of western Oregon and southwestern Washington , but today its numbers have been considerably reduced, and it is classified as near-threatened. (
  • Some taxonomists have attempted to separate white-tailed deer into a host of subspecies , based largely in morphological differences. (
  • The Florida Key deer , O. virginianus clavium , and the Columbian white-tailed deer, O. virginianus leucurus , are both listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act . (
  • The white-tailed deer species has tremendous genetic variation and is adaptable to several environments. (
  • Several local deer populations, especially in the southern states, are descended from white-tailed deer transplanted from various localities east of the Continental Divide . (
  • Central and South America have a complex number of white-tailed deer subspecies that range from Guatemala as far south as Peru. (
  • However, the white-tailed deer populations in these areas are difficult to study, due to overhunting in many parts and a lack of protection. (
  • The highest concentration of large deer species in temperate North America lies in the Canadian Rocky Mountain and Columbia Mountain regions between Alberta and British Columbia where all five North American deer species (white-tailed deer, mule deer, caribou, elk, and moose) can be found. (
  • Elk also inhabit river valley bottomlands, which they share with White-tailed deer. (
  • The White-tailed deer have recently expanded their range within the foothills and river valley bottoms of the Canadian Rockies owing to conversion of land to cropland and the clearing of coniferous forests allowing more deciduous vegetation to grow up the mountain slopes. (
  • Unlike the related white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River, and more specifically with the Rocky Mountain region of North America. (
  • Their tails are short and bushy, 10 cm to 15 cm long, and when they run, they lift their tail to reveal a white patch, just like white-tailed deer. (
  • mule deer
  • Elk and mule deer both migrate between the alpine meadows and lower coniferous forests and tend to be most common in this region. (
  • Mule deer have also been introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii. (
  • Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting (also called pronking), with all four feet coming down together. (
  • The mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80-106 cm (31-42 in) at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m (3.9 to 6.9 ft). (
  • Unlike the whitetail, the mule deer does not generally show marked size variation across its range, although environmental conditions can cause considerable weight fluctuations in any given population. (
  • This race is markedly smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg (120 lb) and 36 kg (79 lb) in males and females, respectively. (
  • Mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. (
  • For a guide to identify the sex and age class of Rocky Mountain mule deer at various seasons see S1 File. (
  • The size of mule deer groups follows a marked seasonal pattern. (
  • Besides humans, the three leading predators of mule deer are coyotes, gray wolves, and cougars. (
  • Bears and smaller-sized carnivores are typically opportunistic feeders, and pose little threat to a strong, healthy mule deer. (
  • Play media In 99 studies of mule deer diets, some 788 species of plants were eaten by mule deer, and their diets vary greatly depending on the season, geographic region, year, and elevation. (
  • The studies gave these data for Rocky Mountain mule deer diets: The diets of mule deer are very similar to those of whitetail deer in areas where they coexist. (
  • Mule deer readily adapt to agricultural products and landscape plantings. (
  • In the Sierra Nevada range, mule deer depend on the lichen Bryoria fremontii as a winter food source. (
  • The most common plant species consumed by mule deer are: Among trees and shrubs: Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush), Cercocarpus ledifolius (curlleaf mountain mahogany), Cercocarpus montanus (true mountain mahogany), Cowania mexicana (Mexican cliffrose), Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen), Purshia tridentata (antelope bitterbrush), Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), and Rhus trilobata (skunkbush sumac). (
  • Central and Sou
  • Small species of brocket deer and pudús of Central and South America, and muntjacs of Asia generally occupy dense forests and are less often seen in open spaces, with the possible exception of the Indian muntjac. (
  • musk deer
  • The musk deer of Asia and water chevrotain (or mouse deer) of tropical African and Asian forests are not usually regarded as true deer and form their own families: Moschidae and Tragulidae, respectively. (
  • The water deer (Hydropotes inermis) is a small deer superficially more similar to a musk deer than a true deer. (
  • Its prominent tusks (elongated canines), similar to those of musk deer, have led to both being colloquially named vampire deer in English-speaking areas to which they have been imported. (
  • Shrubs
  • It can be frustrating to landscape in an area where deer are present, as they will eat many trees and shrubs -- sometimes killing them. (
  • Schomburgk's deer inhabited swampy plains with long grass, cane, and shrubs in central Thailand, particularly in the Chao Phraya River valley near Bangkok. (
  • Predators
  • Predators of the deer fly (and other Tabanidae) include nest-building wasps and hornets, dragonflies, and some birds including the killdeer. (
  • Scientists believe the deer evolved with no culling predators because when alarmed, they stamp their feet, have a particular trot and whistle, and deposit odor. (
  • 1978
  • Tracey Penelope Tekahentakwa Deer (born February 28, 1978) is a Mohawk film director and newspaper publisher. (
  • Tracey Deer was born in 1978 and grew up in a large, close knit family in Kahnawake, a Mohawk reserve in Quebec, Canada, south of the St. Lawrence River across from Montreal. (
  • Deer ran for Wisconsin's secretary of state in both 1978 and 1982 but was not successful. (
  • populations
  • Populations of deer around the Great Lakes have also expanded their range northwards, due to conversion of land to agricultural uses favoring more deciduous vegetation, and local caribou and moose populations. (
  • Some of these deer populations may have been from as far north as the Great Lakes region to as far west as Texas, yet are also quite at home in the Appalachian and Piedmont regions of the south. (
  • Clearing open areas within forests to some extent may actually benefit deer populations by exposing the understory and allowing the types of grasses, weeds, and herbs to grow that deer like to eat. (
  • Easy to spot in areas with high deer populations, hunters use them to find ideal locations for hunting. (
  • Auchreddie
  • New Deer is currently host to three public houses, the Brucklay Arms on Main Street, the Howe (Earl of Aberdeen Arms), situated on Auchreddie Road East and the Royal British Legion, opposite St Kane's Church. (
  • male deer
  • They appear in the late summer or early fall, when male deer rub the velvet off their newly acquired antler growth or during rut season. (
  • adult deer
  • According to The Review newspaper, an adult deer eats between 7 and 10 lbs. of fruit and vegetables daily, causing damage worth millions of dollars to homeowners annually. (
  • Bobcats, wolverines, American black bears, and brown bears may prey upon adult deer, but most often only attack fawns or infirm specimens or eat the deer after it has died naturally. (
  • Abbey
  • In 1218 William Comyn, earl of Buchan, founded the Abbey of St Mary of Deer, now in ruins, 3⁄4 mi (1.2 km) farther up the river than the monastery and on the opposite bank. (
  • inhabit
  • The majority of large deer species inhabit temperate mixed deciduous forest, mountain mixed coniferous forest, tropical seasonal/dry forest, and savanna habitats around the world. (
  • Water deer inhabit the land alongside rivers, where they are protected from sight by the tall reeds and rushes. (
  • monks
  • The Book of Deer is a most interesting relic of the monks, which was discovered in 1857 in the Cambridge University library by Henry Bradshaw. (
  • It had belonged to the monks of Deer and been in the possession of the University Library since 1715. (
  • native
  • Kanien'kehá:ka/Living the Language (2008) - about the Kanien'kehá:ka language immersion program at Akwesasne, a Mohawk Nation territory that covers parts of Canada and the US across the St. Lawrence River Club Native (2008) Deer became the first Mohawk woman to win a Gemini Award, for her Club Native, a documentary on Mohawk identity, community and tribal blood quantum laws. (
  • Sarah Deer (born November 9, 1972) is a Native American lawyer, professor of law at William Mitchell College, and 2014 MacArthur fellow. (
  • Deer coauthored, with Bonnie Claremont, Amnesty International's 2007 report Maze of Injustice, documenting sexual assault against Native American women. (
  • Native to central Thailand, Schomburgk's deer was described by Edward Blyth in 1863 and named after Sir Robert H. Schomburgk, who was the British consul in Bangkok from 1857 to 1864. (
  • The species is not native, but a few small deer farms in the southeastern United States have successfully bred water deer. (
  • Before and after her term in the BIA, Deer served on the National Support Committee of the Native American Rights Fund. (
  • hunters
  • In addition to being valued by hunters, deer are appreciated by hikers, wildlife photographers, and other outdoor enthusiasts. (
  • But there's another problem, too: a shortage of deer hunters. (
  • tick
  • This is one band that has become the pulse of indie rock music and the group is Deer Tick. (
  • Deer Tick definitely is a gifted band with a unique music style of its own, this group is a must watch for all so get Deer Tick tickets now for a memorable musical evening! (
  • Deer Tick was the brainchild of lyricist and guitarist John McCauley who started this band as his own solo project in the year 2004. (
  • Deer Tick melodic music can surely be compared with the music of other known bands like Uncle Tupelo, Modest House and Bright Eyes. (
  • The history behind naming the band Deer Tick is that one day founder member McCauley was out camping in the forest where he one day came across a Deer Tick sticking to his scalp and it was at that time that he decided to name the band Deer Tick because he felt that this name was kind of unique. (
  • Deer Tick debut album was called War Elephant that was released in the year 2007 by Feow Records but due to some legal issues the band signed a contract with Partisan Records and War Elephant was re-released in 2007. (
  • was originally a song written by Anthony Newley and it was recorded as a cover by Deer Tick in their debut album. (
  • After a gap of hardly an year Deer Tick released yet another fine studio album called Born on Flag Day in 2009. (
  • migrate
  • Many North American birds migrate south to these areas, and if the Pampas deer habitat is lost, they are afraid these bird species will also decline. (
  • Resistant
  • While no plant is deer-proof, there are many that are deer-resistant or seldom damaged by deer. (
  • These trees are more resistant to deer than other species of cherry trees. (
  • Are Hibiscus Plants Deer Resistant? (
  • Grow peppers or herbs such as dill, sage, rosemary and oregano between tomatoes or around plants, or choose deer-resistant varieties of tomatoes such as Bonnie Original, Better Boy or Sweet 100. (
  • 1938
  • It is thought to have gone extinct by 1938, but there is speculation that the deer might still exist. (
  • The wild population of Schomburgk's deer is thought to have died because of overhunting in 1932, with the last captive individual being killed in 1938. (
  • Great Britain
  • In 2015, Deer representing Great Britain, competed in the -74kg category in the 2015 World Taekwondo Championships in May 2015. (
  • Chinese water deer were first introduced into Great Britain in the 1870s. (
  • habitat
  • By the 1930s deer were absent from much of Florida, however, today they are found throughout the state thanks to science-based wildlife and habitat management. (
  • Aristotle (384 BC - 322 BC) described deer botfly larvae as follows: However, without any exception, stags are found to have maggots living inside the head, and the habitat of these creatures is in the hollow underneath the root of the tongue and in the neighbourhood of the vertebra to which the head is attached. (
  • Their habitat includes water and hills, often with winter drought, and grass that is high enough to cover a standing deer. (
  • harmless
  • Although a browsing deer is entertaining to watch, this harmless looking animal causes large amounts of economic and aesthetic damage to backyard gardens and fields. (
  • Nasal Bots in Deer: Harmless but Irritating. (
  • areas
  • Coyote is a natural enemy, and deer naturally resist areas that indicate their presence. (
  • Some areas no longer carry deer, so it is difficult to assess the genetic difference of these animals. (
  • While often associated with forests, many deer are ecotone species that live in transitional areas between forests and thickets (for cover) and prairie and savanna (open space). (
  • Commercial production of rice for export began in the late-19th century in Thailand, leading to the loss of nearly all grassland and swamp areas on which this deer depended. (
  • Due to the large continental glaciers and the high soil acidity in areas where there were no glaciers, a huge part of the fossil record has been destroyed, so there is no indication what the New World deer used to look like. (
  • grassland
  • Many people are concerned over this loss, because a healthy deer population means a healthy grassland, and a healthy grassland is home to many species, some also threatened. (
  • genus
  • Deer flies (also known as yellow flies, June flies, three corner flies or stouts in Atlantic Canada) are flies in the genus Chrysops of the family Tabanidae that can be pests to cattle, horses, and humans. (
  • Deer flies are a genus of horse-flies (Tabanidae). (
  • The name deer botfly (also deer nose bot) refers to any species in the genus Cephenemyia (sometimes misspelled as Cephenomyia or Cephenemya), within the family Oestridae. (
  • lands
  • During that time, Deer became involved in a group called DRUMS (Determination of Right and Unity for Menominee Shareholders) in opposition to Menominee Enterprise's proposed sale of former Menominee lands. (
  • main
  • The two main groups are the Cervinae, including the muntjac, the elk (wapiti), the fallow deer and the chital, and the Capreolinae, including the reindeer (caribou), the roe deer and the moose. (
  • New Deer (St Kane's) Primary School sits behind the main church, in the centre of the village. (
  • For more information see the main article on deer. (
  • refers
  • The etymology of the species name corresponds to the Latin word inermis meaning unarmed, defenceless - itself constructed from the prefix in- meaning without and the stem arma meaning defensive arms, armor -, and refers to the fact that the water deer is antlerless. (
  • wildlife
  • The research investigates several aspects of deer ecology in Big Cypress National Preserve and Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge. (
  • several
  • Deer has written and directed several award-winning projects for the Aboriginal-run film and television production company, Rezolution Pictures, as well as her own independent short work. (
  • Water deer are proficient swimmers, and can swim several miles to reach remote river islands. (
  • population
  • Their fawns are not spotted at birth, which separates them from the best known western population of the hog deer (H. porcinus). (
  • The current population of Chinese water deer at Whipsnade is currently estimated to be more than 600, while the population at Woburn is probably in excess of 250. (
  • citation needed] The majority of the current population of Chinese water deer in Britain derives from escapees, with the remainder being descended from a number of deliberate releases. (
  • plants
  • If you live in an area where deer are a constant threat to your landscape plants, consider protecting your newly planted flowering cherry tree until it is well established. (
  • Deer eat tomatoes directly from plants, leaving a trampled mess of branches, leaves and stems behind, and putting an end to months of hard work. (
  • Install 2-by-4-inch mesh fencing around the area to protect tomato plants from deer. (
  • Include plants that deer are not attracted to in your vegetable patch. (
  • Argentina
  • Chinese Water Deer are now located in United Kingdom, France and Argentina, and even some in the United States. (
  • Search
  • Prevent deer from scavenging your yard in search for tomatoes and other vegetables. (
  • Using your search query i find different answers to the question, "what height should a fence be to keep deer out of my garden? (
  • name
  • In 2014 Deer was able to turn her documentary Mohawk Girls in to a TV series of the same name. (
  • similar
  • Otherwise similar in size and appearance to the ubiquitous housefly, the distinguishing characteristic of a deer fly is patterned gold or green eyes. (
  • This deer was a graceful species similar in appearance to the barasingha. (
  • Days
  • Since his playing days, Deer has had a career in drag racing, sprint car racing and has served as a roving hitting instructor for the San Diego Padres minor league system and is currently the owner of Viz-U-Bat. (
  • high
  • Keep it 5 feet high to prevent deer leaps. (
  • Although the sound is undetected by humans, it is very high for animals such as deer that refrain from entering the particular area. (
  • am willing to build as high a fence as is needed to keep deer out and will be putting an electric strand at the top to keep raccoons, squirels, etc from climbing over. (
  • But: how high to keep deer from jumping? (
  • Deer can leap over very high fences to get at a garden so you need one at least 8' high to keep them out. (
  • season
  • In northern deer ranges, the duration of the breeding season (or rut) is short and there is little variation from area to area. (
  • Get started deer hunting with information about season dates, regulations, hunter safety requirements, and where to go. (
  • 1. This old Michigan November deer season hunter doesn't believe the photo for a minute! (
  • Deer is famous for hitting the game-tying home run on Easter Sunday in 1987, to give the Milwaukee Brewers their 12th straight win to start the season. (
  • Deer held the American League record for strikeouts in a season (186 strikeouts in 1987) until being passed by Jack Cust in 2008, and had at least 140 strikeouts on seven occasions. (