Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.DairyingCalcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Lactose Intolerance: The condition resulting from the absence or deficiency of LACTASE in the MUCOSA cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, and the inability to break down LACTOSE in milk for ABSORPTION. Bacterial fermentation of the unabsorbed lactose leads to symptoms that range from a mild indigestion (DYSPEPSIA) to severe DIARRHEA. Lactose intolerance may be an inborn error or acquired.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.Diet, Macrobiotic: An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mastitis, Bovine: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Frozen FoodsBiological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Programming, Linear: A technique of operations research for solving certain kinds of problems involving many variables where a best value or set of best values is to be found. It is most likely to be feasible when the quantity to be optimized, sometimes called the objective function, can be stated as a mathematical expression in terms of the various activities within the system, and when this expression is simply proportional to the measure of the activities, i.e., is linear, and when all the restrictions are also linear. It is different from computer programming, although problems using linear programming techniques may be programmed on a computer.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Genu Varum: An outward slant of the thigh in which the knees are wide apart and the ankles close together. Genu varum can develop due to skeletal and joint dysplasia (e.g., OSTEOARTHRITIS; Blount's disease); and malnutrition (e.g., RICKETS; FLUORIDE POISONING).Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.JapanDiet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Diet, Vegetarian: Dietary practice of completely avoiding meat products in the DIET, consuming VEGETABLES, CEREALS, and NUTS. Some vegetarian diets called lacto-ovo also include milk and egg products.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

*  Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension | Hypertension

... for low-fat dairy, and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.94-0.98) for milk. High-fat dairy (6 studies), total fermented dairy (4 studies), yogurt ... Total dairy (9 studies; range of intake, ≈100-700 g/d), low-fat dairy (6 studies; ≈100-500 g/d), and milk (7 studies; ≈100-500 ... Observational and clinical studies suggest that dairy intake, particularly low-fat dairy, could have a beneficial effect on ... Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension. Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Lisa D.M. Verberne, Eric L. Ding, Mariëlle F. ...

*  Dairy product Essay | Essay

Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Dairy product essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about ... Summary: Descriptions of dairy products, such as milk, cheese and yogurt. Dairy foods include milk and products made from milk ... Types of Dairy Foods from BookRags. (c)2017 BookRags, Inc. All rights reserved. ... This student essay consists of approximately 2 pages of analysis of Types of Dairy Foods. ...

*  Calcium and Bone Health Jamaica NY - Jamaica NY, Calcium and Bone Health, Jamaica NY benefits of calcium, Jamaica NY bone...

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*  Standard​ization equipment for dairy products

... the cream and milk are first separated on a dairy line. The two elements are then mixed together again. ... Dairy UHT milk Pasteurized & ESL milk Cream Fermented dairy products Concentrated & condensed milk Milk powder Other dairy ... Dairy UHT milk Pasteurized & ESL milk Cream Fermented dairy products Concentrated & condensed milk Milk powder Other dairy ... Standard​ization equipment for dairy products. When standardizing dairy products, the cream and milk are first separated on a ...

*  Dairy Consumption, Type 2 Diabetes, and Changes in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Prospective Cohort Study of Middle-Aged and Older...

... on the basis of their intake of total dairy products. To evaluate the consumption of milk or other dairy products separately, ... Worldwide trends in dairy production and consumption and calcium intake: is promoting consumption of dairy products a ... There were five items for dairy products, including milk, yogurt, ice cream, milk powder, and other products. Of them, milk ( ... Adolescent dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;94:854-861pmid: ...

*  Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Abstract Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a ... We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and ... The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95\% ... Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.. ...

*  Raw Milk Causes Most Illness From Dairy Products: CDC - Drugs.com MedNews

... milk causes 150 times more dairy product-related disease outbreaks than pasteurized milk. And states where the sale of raw milk ... Raw Milk Causes Most Illness From Dairy Products: CDC. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on GooglePlus Print this page ... Home › News › Consumer News › Raw Milk Causes Most Illness From Dairy Products: CDC ... The 13-year review looked at more than 120 dairy product-related outbreaks that occurred in 30 states between 1993 and 2006. ...

*  Calcium and Bone Health Sayville NY - Sayville NY, Calcium and Bone Health, Sayville NY benefits of calcium, Sayville NY bone...

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*  Aging: What to expect - Mayo Clinic

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*  Lactose-Free Dairy Products | LACTAID®

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*  Why are carbohydrates important? | Reference.com

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*  Milk for your bones? Information on MedicineNet.com

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*  Study of the Impact of Trans Fatty Acids From Dairy Products on Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

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*  Calcium and Bone Health Utica NY - Utica NY, Calcium and Bone Health, Utica NY benefits of calcium, Utica NY bone health,...

Osteoporosis and Calcium, and the Debate on Diary Products When most of us were growing up, we were taught that dairy products ... Now it seems that, as with other foodstuffs, the dairy products story may not be quite what it originally seemed. Or so some ... In addition to butter, ice cream, cheese and other dairy products, high levels of calcium are also found in beans, fruits, nuts ... cheese and other dairy products. Drinking plenty of milk and eating plenty of other calcium rich foods is vital to good health ...

*  The You Docs: Tests to prevent bone fractures - Houston Chronicle

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*  Small Scale Farming: Dairy Products - Sustainable Farming - MOTHER EARTH NEWS

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*  Global Dairy Products Industry

Enriched Products to Drive Demand III-101 French Dairy Goes the Organic Way III-102 Review of Select Dairy Product Segments III ... II-54 Consolidation Activity in the Dairy Market II-55 M&A Activity in the Dairy Products Industry: 2016-2014 II-55. 5. DAIRY ... Future Analysis for Dairy Products by Product Segment - Fluid Milk, Milk Powder, Butter, Cheese, Ice Cream and Related Products ... Future Analysis for Dairy Products by Product Segment - Fluid Milk, Milk Powder, Butter, Cheese, Ice Cream and Related Products ...

*  Dairy Products

Dairy has tons of health benefits. Here, find the best and healthiest cheese, milk, Greek yogurt, and more ... The Best Dairy Products. Looking for the ultimate bone builders? Here, your guide to the healthiest cheese, Greek yogurt, kefir ...

*  More Nutritious Dairy Products From Cows Fed Flaxseed - Redorbit

Researchers attempted to pinpoint the amount of flaxseed that would maximize the amount of omega-3 in milk and dairy products ... Still, saturated fat accounted for more than half of the fatty acids in the dairy products while the increase in ... Traditional cattle feed mixtures of corn, grains, alfalfa hay and grass silage result in dairy products with low concentrations ... "Too much of a good thing can be bad, especially when trying to maintain consistency with dairy products." ...

*  Smetana (dairy product) - Wikipedia

It is a dairy product produced by souring heavy cream. It is similar to crème fraîche (28% fat), but nowadays mainly sold with ... Smântână[8] is a Romanian dairy product that is produced by separating the milk fat through decantation and retaining the cream ... The current trend toward reduced-fat content is believed to have resulted in an inferior product.[3] To imitate Hungarian-style ... The Balkan name for fattier variances of Smetana, Mileram is probably a variation of earlier German name for the product ...

*  Study shows how dairy farmers can cut energy costs - Farmers Weekly

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Actimel: Actimel (also known as DanActive in the United States and Canada) is a 'probiotic' yogurt-type drink produced by the French company Danone. It is sold in 100ml bottles, typically as an 8, 6 or 4 pack, but more recently as a 12 or 16 pack.Supercow (dairy): Supercow (or super cow) is a term used in the dairy industry to denote lines or individual animals that have superior milk production: that is, which produce more milk per day, or in some cases produce more fat per gallon of milk. Biology of the super cow.Calcium deficiency (plant disorder): Calcium (Ca) deficiency is a plant disorder that can be caused by insufficient calcium in the growing medium, but is more frequently a product of low transpiration of the whole plant or more commonly the affected tissue. Plants are susceptible to such localized calcium deficiencies in low or nontranspiring tissues because calcium is not transported in the phloem.Eyes (cheese): Eyes are the round holes that are a characteristic feature of Swiss-type cheeseP.L.Powdered milk: Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. One purpose of drying milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated, due to its low moisture content.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Beef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Lactagen: Lactagen was a nutritional supplement produced by Ritter Pharmaceuticals that claimed to reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance. In 2011, Ritter Pharmaceuticals ceased sales of Lactagen, and other dietary supplements, in order to pursue FDA approval for a treatment for lactose intolerance.Pasteurization: Pasteurization (American English) or pasteurisation (British English) is a process that kills bacteria in liquid food.Animal fatSAFE FOODSList of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Functional food: A functional food is a food given an additional [(often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.[http://www4.Forced molting: Induced molting (or forced molting) is the practice by the commercial egg industry of artificially provoking a complete flock of hens to molt simultaneously. This is usually achieved by withdrawal of feed for 7-14 days.Vegetable juiceBifidobacterium longum: Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive, catalase-negative, rod-shaped bacterium present in the human gastrointestinal tract and one of the 32 species that belong to the genus Bifidobacterium. It is a micro-aerotolerant anaerobe and considered to be one of the earliest colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract of infants.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.AllolactoseAbiotrophia: Abiotrophia is a genus of lactic acid bacteria, a family in the phylum Firmicutes (Bacteria).QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.California mastitis test: The California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a simple cow-side indicator of the somatic cell count of milk. It operates by disrupting the cell membrane of any cells present in the milk sample, allowing the DNA in those cells to react with the test reagent, forming a gel.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Male lactation: Male lactation in zoology means production of milk from mammary glands in the presence of physiological stimuli connected with nursing infants. It is well documented in the Dayak fruit bat.God's Providence House, Chester: God's Providence House is at 9 Watergate Street and 11–11A Watergate Row, Chester, Cheshire, England. The house incorporates part of the Chester Rows, is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II listed building,} and is included in the English Heritage Archive.China Biologic Products, Inc.Health food storeLactase persistence: Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning.Ideal number: In number theory an ideal number is an algebraic integer which represents an ideal in the ring of integers of a number field; the idea was developed by Ernst Kummer, and led to Richard Dedekind's definition of ideals for rings. An ideal in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field is principal if it consists of multiples of a single element of the ring, and nonprincipal otherwise.Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score: Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) is a method of evaluating the protein quality based on both the amino acid requirements of humans and their ability to digest it. The PDCAAS rating was adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) in 1993 as "the preferred 'best'" method to determine protein quality.Coles PhillipsLactobacillus sanfranciscensis: Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (formerly L. sanfrancisco) is a species of lactic acid bacteria that helps give sourdough bread its characteristic taste.Brucellosis vaccineVitamin DLactic acid fermentationHealthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.General Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsSeaChoice: SeaChoice is a program of Sustainable Seafood Canada that uses the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch recommendations to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. It is best known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing.Genu varum: -, |Mutaflor: Mutaflor is a probiotic consisting of a viable non-pathogenic bacteria strain named Escherichia coli Nissle 1917.Mutaflor Information page "The Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917-designated DSM 6601 in the German Collection for Microorganisms in Braunschweig is one of the best-examined and therapeutically relevant bacterial strains worldwide" as claimed by the manufacturerManufacturers WebsiteTimeline of agriculture and food technology: ==Paleolithic==Protein toxicity: Protein toxicity with proteinuria can result in those with preexisting kidney disease, or those who have lost kidney function due to age.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning: Charlotte Canning, Countess Canning (31 March 1817–18 November 1861), one of the most prolific women artists in India, was the wife of Charles Canning, 1st Earl Canning. Two portfolios in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London contain some three hundred and fifty watercolours by her, the result of four major tours in India.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (until 2014 known as Lactobacillus bulgaricus) is one of several bacteria used for the production of yogurt.Banquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Micronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.Lactobacillus acidophilus: Lactobacillus acidophilus (New Latin 'acid-loving milk-bacterium') is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. L.Niigata UniversityActoBiotics: ActoBiotics (a registered trademark) consist of food-grade bacteria (Lactococcus lactis), genetically engineered to synthesize and secrete therapeutic proteins and peptides in situ. ActoBiotics are delivered to patients via oral administration instead of injection, and specifically target receptors and cells localized in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues.Heptadecanoic acidCarbohydrate loading: Carbohydrate loading, commonly referred to as carb-loading or carbo-loading, is a strategy used by endurance athletes, such as marathon runners, to maximize the storage of glycogen (or energy) in the muscles and liver.http://www.Vegetarian cuisine: Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal derived rennet). For lacto-ovo vegetarianism (the most common type of vegetarianism in the Western world), eggs and dairy products such as milk and cheese are permitted.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

(1/682) Food groups and colorectal cancer risk.

Most studies of diet and colorectal cancer have considered nutrients and micronutrients, but the role of foods or food groups remains open to debate. To elucidate the issue, we examined data from a case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1997 in the Swiss canton of Vaud. Cases were 223 patients (142 men, 81 women) with incident, histologically confirmed colon (n= 119) or rectal (n= 104) cancer (median age 63 years), linked with the Cancer Registry of the Swiss Canton of Vaud, and controls were 491 subjects (211 men, 280 women, median age 58 years) admitted to the same university hospital for a wide spectrum of acute non-neoplastic conditions unrelated to long-term modifications of diet. Odds ratios (OR) were obtained after allowance for age, sex, education, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity and total energy intake. Significant associations were observed for refined grain (OR = 1.32 for an increase of one serving per day), and red meat (OR = 1.54), pork and processed meat (OR = 1.27), alcohol (OR = 1.28), and significant protections for whole grain (OR = 0.85), raw (OR = 0.85) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.69), citrus (OR = 0.86) and other fruits (OR = 0.85), and for coffee (OR = 0.73). Garlic was also protective (OR = 0.32 for the highest tertile of intake). These findings in a central European population support the hypothesis that a diet rich in refined grains and red meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer; they, therefore, support the recommendation to substitute whole grains for refined grain, to limit meat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.  (+info)

(2/682) Racial bias in federal nutrition policy, Part I: The public health implications of variations in lactase persistence.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the basis for all federal nutrition programs and incorporate the Food Guide Pyramid, a tool to educate consumers on putting the Guidelines into practice. The Pyramid recommends two to three daily servings of dairy products. However, research has shown that lactase nonpersistence, the loss of enzymes that digest the milk sugar lactose, occurs in a majority of African-, Asian-, Hispanic-, and Native-American individuals. Whites are less likely to develop lactase nonpersistence and less likely to have symptoms when it does occur. Calcium is available in other foods that do not contain lactose. Osteoporosis is less common among African Americans and Mexican Americans than among whites, and there is little evidence that dairy products have an effect on osteoporosis among racial minorities. Evidence suggests that a modification of federal nutrition policies, making dairy-product use optional in light of other calcium sources, may be a helpful public health measure.  (+info)

(3/682) Quantitative analysis of styrene monomer in polystyrene and foods including some preliminary studies of the uptake and pharmacodynamics of the monomer in rats.

A variety of food containers, drinking cups and cutlery, fabricated from polystyrene (PS) or polystyrene-related plastic, were analyzed for their styrene monomer content. Samples of yogurt, packaged in PS cups, were similarly analyzed and the leaching of styrene monomer from PS containers by some food simulants was also determined. Blood level studies with rats, dosed with styrene monomer by various routes, illustrated uptake phenomena that were dependent on the dose and route of administration and were also affected by the vehicle used to convey the styrene monomer.  (+info)

(4/682) Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study.

Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer and socioeconomic status, no associations were found for consumption of fresh meat, fish, cheese and eggs. Positive trends in risk were found for consumption of cured meat and milk products (P-values 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). For calcium and protein intake, no associations were observed. The hypothesis that dietary factors might be more strongly related to advanced prostate tumours could not be confirmed in our study. We conclude that, in this study, animal products are not strongly related to prostate cancer risk.  (+info)

(5/682) Modulation of immune function by a modified bovine whey protein concentrate.

The commercial preparation of dairy foodstuffs generates large volumes of by-products, many of which have as yet undocumented effects on mammalian immune function. In the present report, a modified whey protein concentrate (mWPC), derived as a by-product from the commercial manufacture of cheese, was tested for its ability to modulate murine immune function in vitro. The mWPC suppressed T and B lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens in a dose-dependent fashion. The mWPC also suppressed alloantigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation during a mixed leucocyte reaction, but showed no suppressive effect against IL-2-sustained proliferation of mitogen-activated T cell blasts. Other indices of lymphocyte activation, such as cytokine secretion and the formation of activated (CD25+) T cell blasts, were suppressed by the mWPC, suggesting that the mode of suppression may be to inhibit the lymphocyte activation process. Enzymatic digestion by pepsin and pancreatin, under physiologically realistic conditions in vitro, ablated the immunomodulatory function of the mWPC. These results are discussed in relation to the potential development of complex-mixture dairy products into health-modulating products.  (+info)

(6/682) Health risks associated with unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale in England and Wales. A PHLS Dairy Products Working Group Study.

A pilot study to determine the microbiological quality of unpasteurized milk from goats and ewes sampled from farm shops, health food shops, and other retail premises found that 47%, (47/100) of goats' and 50% (13/26) of ewes' milk samples failed the standards prescribed by the Dairy Products (Hygiene) Regulations 1995. In addition, Staphylococcus aureus, haemolytic streptococci or enterococci, were present in excess of 10(2) c.f.u./ml in 9 (7 %) 2 (2 %) and 19 (15%) samples, respectively. Salmonella, campylobacter, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in the samples. At the time of purchase approximately half of the milk samples (58 %) were frozen, the rest were liquid. Farm outlets sold predominantly liquid milk, other retail premises sold a frozen product. The microbiological quality of goats' and ewes' milk, whether frozen or liquid, was not significantly different. Milk sold from farm shops was of lower quality than that from health food shops and other retail premises. In this pilot study most producers (92 %) supplied, and most retailers (76 %) sold unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk that contained unacceptable levels of indicator organisms. The study was carried out during the winter when goats' milk production is reduced. The results indicate the need for a full representative study of unpasteurized goats' and ewes' milk on retail sale throughout the year.  (+info)

(7/682) Genus- and species-specific PCR-based detection of dairy propionibacteria in environmental samples by using primers targeted to the genes encoding 16S rRNA.

PCR assays with primers targeted to the genes encoding 16S rRNA were developed for detection of dairy propionibacteria. Propionibacterium thoenii specific oligonucleotide PT3 was selected after partial resequencing. Tests allowed the detection of less than 10 cells per reaction from milk and cheese and 10(2) cells per reaction from forage and soil.  (+info)

(8/682) Factor analysis of digestive cancer mortality and food consumption in 65 Chinese counties.

Dietary factors were analyzed for the regional difference of GI tract cancer mortality rates in China. Sixty-five rural counties were selected among a total of 2,392 counties to represent a range of rates for seven most prevalent cancers. The dietary data in the selected 65 counties were obtained by three-day dietary record of households in 1983. The four digestive cancer mortality rates (annual cases per 100,000 standardized truncated rates for ages 35-64) and per capita food consumption were analyzed by the principal components factor analysis. Esophageal cancer associated with poor area, dietary pattern rich in starchy tubers, and salt, lack of consumption of meat, eggs, vegetables and rice. Stomach cancer seemed to be less associated with diet in this study because of its small model Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy, suggesting some other carcinogenic factors would play more important role in the development of this cancer in China. The colon and rectal cancer showed close relation to diet; rich in sea vegetables, eggs, soy sauce, meat and fish, while lack in consumption of milk and dairy products. Rapeseed oil was more important risk factor for colon cancer than that of rectum. Rice, processed starch and sugar were closely associated with colon cancer, supporting the insulin/colon cancer hypothesis.  (+info)


  • I was so fortunate to be a part of the National Dairy Council's (NDC) Lactose Intolerance Google + Hangout discussion in December with 4 parent bloggers besides myself and experts Karen Kafer, registered dietitian with the National Dairy Council and Bob Murray, pediatric gastroenterologist with a background in Geriatric GI and nutrition. (ingredientsinc.net)
  • How can lactose intolerant individuals maintain dairy in their diet? (ingredientsinc.net)
  • Lactose intolerant individuals can also use enzyme treated dairy milk or pre-digested milk, which do not contain lactose. (ingredientsinc.net)
  • Today, there are products like lactose-free cottage cheeses and lactose-free ice cream as well. (ingredientsinc.net)
  • The simple message is that whether or not you have lactose intolerance from your lactase insufficiency, the goal is to talk with your doctor, get tested, and maintain low-fat and fat-free dairy products in your diet to the extent possible. (ingredientsinc.net)
  • Visit National Dairy Council for additional information about lactose intolerance. (ingredientsinc.net)
  • If you're actually lactose intolerant, though, your lactase deficiency leads to symptoms after you eat dairy foods. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Most people with lactose intolerance can manage the condition without having to give up all dairy foods. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Make an appointment with your doctor if you frequently have symptoms of lactose intolerance after eating dairy foods, particularly if you're worried about getting enough calcium. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In primary lactose intolerance, lactase production falls off sharply, making milk products difficult to digest by adulthood. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose (a type of sugar found in milk and other dairy products). (drugline.org)
  • Lactose is also found in some non-milk products -- including some beers. (drugline.org)


  • The consumption of fermented milk products containing health beneficial probiotic lactic acid bacteria may turn out to be a successful solution to prevent CVD by eliminating various risk factors, including elevated cholesterol levels. (isrctn.com)


  • Many people have low levels of lactase but are able to digest milk products without problems. (mayoclinic.org)
  • As children replace milk with other foods, their lactase production normally decreases, but remains high enough to digest the amount of dairy in a typical adult diet. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Before humans became dairy farmers, most people did not continue to drink milk, so their bodies did not make lactase after early childhood. (drugline.org)

milk products

  • Symptoms often occur after you eat or drink milk products, and are often relieved by not eating or drinking milk products. (drugline.org)
  • Large doses of milk products may cause worse symptoms. (drugline.org)
  • Removing milk products from the diet usually improves the symptoms. (drugline.org)
  • Add other sources of calcium to the diet if you remove milk products. (drugline.org)
  • Symptoms usually go away when milk products are removed from the diet. (drugline.org)
  • If you have the condition, avoiding or restricting the amount of milk products in your diet can reduce or prevent symptoms. (drugline.org)


  • Consuming dairy is a way of managing health disparities that we really struggle with and we can't afford to give up calcium, vitamin D, potassium, phosphorus, quality protein sources and B12. (ingredientsinc.net)