DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats: Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)rRNA Operon: Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.RNA, Ribosomal, 5S: Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.

*  Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.

... ... were examined using comparative nucleotide sequences from the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. ... Pairwise sequence divergence across both spacers for ingroup and outgroup species ranged from 0 to 29\%. Streptocarpus is not ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/origin-and-relationships-of-saintpaulia-gesneriaceae-based-on-ribosomal-dna-internal-transcribed-spacer-its-sequences-1464178.html

*  A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA

A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal ... Real-time quantitative PCR method was used to show that the internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA ... real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA ...
readabstracts.com/Biological-sciences/A-real-time-PCR-method-for-quantifying-viable-Ascaris-eggs-using-the-first-internally-transcribed-sp.html

*  Transmission and maintenance cycle of Bartonella quintana among rhesus macaques, China.

DNA, Bacterial / genetics. DNA, Ribosomal Spacer / genetics. Disease Vectors. Female. Genes, Bacterial. Insect Proteins / ... 0/DNA, Bacterial; 0/DNA, Ribosomal Spacer; 0/Insect Proteins; 9035-37-4/Cytochromes b ... internal transcribed spacer [ITS], gltA, and rnpB) confirmed the existence of B. quintana in the 4 parasite-positive macaques ( ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Transmission-Maintenance-Cycle-Bartonella-quintana/23347418.html

*  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Involvement of Disperse Repetitive Sequences in Wheat/Rye Genome Adjustment | HTML

Through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with OPH20 10-mer primer we unraveled clear alterations corresponding ... Saghaimaroof, M.A.; Soliman, K.M.; Jorgensen, R.A.; Allard, R.W. Ribosomal DNA spacer-length polymorphisms in barley-Mendelian ... DNA dilutions used as templates in the initial OPH20 10-mer PCR experiment and in the PCR reactions using primers to the pSc20H ... Moreover, using DNA from all wheat-rye addition lines as template, similar bands were obtained for the 20H1 segment (Figure 3) ...
mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/7/8549/htm

*  Species Diversity of Shallow Water Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Florida

... mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA) showed the ... Internal Transcribed Spacer Region of Ribosomal DNA. Several Zoanthus specimens (1569, 1570, 1571, 1572, 1575, 1577, and 1578) ... DNA Extraction, PCR Reactions, and DNA Sequencing. Genomic DNA was extracted from portions of specimens by following a ... internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (ITS-rDNA) sequences. Novel sequences from specimens in this study represented in ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2012/856079/

*  SK 142 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Streptococcus mitis strain KCTC 13047 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, ... 16S-23S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer, complete sequence; and 23S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ATCC 49456 ... Development of a novel PCR assay based on the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region for the detection of Lactococcus ...
straininfo.net/strains/32819

*  Jorgensen 262 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ATCC 49619 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partialsequence; and 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer ... Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ATCC 49619 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, partial sequence. ATCC 49619 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ATCC 49619 DNA topoisomerase IV subunit B (parE) gene, partial cds. ATCC 49619 ...
straininfo.net/strains/31863

*  Guthof E6844 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Identification of clinically relevant enterococcus species by direct sequencing of groES and spacer region ...
straininfo.net/strains/9139

*  H 12 B Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ...
straininfo.net/strains/95140

*  LMG 9465 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Streptococcus uberis 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, completesequence, 23S ribosomal RNA partial sequence. NCDO 2038 T ... Streptococcus uberis strain NCTC 3858 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, partial sequence. NCTC 3858 T ... Streptococcus uberis gyrB gene for DNA gyrase subunit B, partial cds,strain:GTC 271(T) = NCTC 3858(T). NCTC 3858 T ...
straininfo.net/strains/21884

*  LMG 15051 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Streptococcus gallolyticus strain ATCC 9809 16S-23S ribosomal RNAintergenic spacer, complete sequence. ATCC 9809 ...
straininfo.net/strains/37392

*  LMG 14518 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Identification of Clinically Relevant Viridans Group Streptococci by Sequence Analysis of the 16S-23S Ribosomal DNA Spacer ... Streptococcus gordonii strain KCTC 3286 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, ... 16S-23S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer, complete sequence; and 23S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ATCC 10558 ... Streptococcus gordonii strain NCTC 7865 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, partial sequence. NCTC 7865 T ...
straininfo.net/strains/40598

*  Leishmania infantum - Wikipedia

Analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences of the Leishmania donovani complex». Microbes Infection. 7 (11- ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania_infantum

*  Polemoniaceae

Porter, J. M. 1996 [1997]. Phylogeny of Polemoniaceae based on nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer DNA sequences. ... Phylogenetic affinities of Polemoniaceae inferred from nuclear ribosomal 18S DNA sequences. Plant Syst. Evol. 214:65-89. ... DNA sequence data suggest Lathrocasis is sister to Gilia, Collomia+Navarretia+Allophyllum, or both of these groups combined ( ... A chloroplast DNA phylogeny of eastern Phlox (Polemoniaceae): implications of congruence and incongruence with the ITS ...
tolweb.org/Polemoniaceae/20812

*  An approach to identify putative hybrids in the 'coalescent stochasticity zone', as exemplified in the African plant genus...

Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. ... evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences. Systematic Botany 26: 769-778.. *Web of ... A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochemical Bulletin 19: 11-15.. ... Universal primers for amplification of three non-coding regions of chloroplast DNA. Plant Molecular Biology 17: 1105-1109.. * ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12133/references?globalMessage=0

*  Approaches to Minimize Variation of Transgene Expression in Plants | SpringerLink

Borisjuk, N., Borisjuk, L., Komarnytsky, S., Timeva, S., Hemleben, V., Gleba, Y., Raskin, I. 2000Tobacco ribosomal DNA spacer ... 1999The DNA sequences of T-DNA junctions suggest that complex T-DNA loci are formed by a recombination process resembling T-DNA ... Pawlowski, W.P., Somers, D.A. 1998Transgenic DNA integrated into the oat genome is frequently interspersed by host DNAProc. ... 2002The upstream Sal repeat-containing segment of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal DNA intergenic (IGR) enhances the activity of ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11032-005-4929-9

*  CECT 148 Strain Passport - StrainInfo

Oligonucleotide microarray for identification of Bacillus anthracis based on intergenic transcribed spacers in ribosomal DNA ... anthracis diverges from related clades of the Bacillus cereus group in 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacers ... Bacillus cereus partial gyrB gene for DNA gyrase subunit B, strain ATCC 14579. ATCC 14579 T ... The Bacillus thuringiensis linear double-stranded DNA phage Bam35, which is highly similar to the Bacillus cereus linear ...
straininfo.net/strains/4495

*  Alternaria - Wikipedia

... fungi known to produce host-specific toxins on the basis of variation in internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA. Current ... Nuclear ribosomal DNA variation and pathogenic specialization in Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins. ... Comparison of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. Mycological Research 99:604-614 ... Organization of ribosomal RNA genes in Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, a host-selective AK-toxin-producing fungus ...
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternaria

*  Galantheae - Wikipedia

Phylogenetic analysis of Leucojum and Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae) based on plastid matK and nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) DNA ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galantheae

*  Seriphidium - Wikipedia

... based on nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Taxon., 48: 721-736 Watson, L.E., P. ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seriphidium

*  Fungo medicinal - Wikipedia

... of the anamorph of Cordyceps sinensis inferred from the analysis of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S ...
https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungo_medicinal

*  María Dolores Bargues Castelló - Wikipedia

Ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer sequence studies of Culicid vectors from an endemic area of Dirofilaria ... Phenotypic variability confirmed by nuclear ribosomal DNA suggests a possible natural hybrid zone of Triatoma brasiliensis ... by analysis of their ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 101(7):621-641. PMID 17877881. Herrera C, Bargues ... DNA sequence characterisation and phylogeography of Lymnaea cousini and related species, vectors of fascioliasis in northern ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/María_Dolores_Bargues_Castelló

*  Arnoldo Santos Guerra - Wikipedia

... based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1984-1990 Fuertes-Aguilar, J., Ray, ... evidence from nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 161-169 ... Chloroplast DNA evidence of colonization, adaptiveradiation and hybridization in the evolution of the Macaronesian flora. Proc ... Evolution of endemic Sideritis (Lamiaceae) in Macaronesia: insights from a chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis. Syst. Bot ...
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arnoldo_Santos_Guerra

*  Leishmania - Wikipedia

DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014039 ↑ (en) Kuhls K. et al., « Analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ... Chararacteristics of digestion include an endosome fusing with a lysosome, releasing acid hydrolases which degrade DNA, RNA, ...
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leishmania

*  CiNii 論文 - Ammonia-assimilating microbes in microbial community in a lagoon for wastewater...

... diversity and community structure in an aerated lagoon revealed by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S ribosomal DNA ... Development of an ribosomal-RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for the genus Acinetobacter and its application for in- ...
ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10018626858

Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis: Amplified rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) Restriction Analysis is the extension of the technique of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) to the gene encoding the small (16s) ribosomal subunit of bacteria. The technique involves an enzymatic amplification using primers directed at the conserved regions at the ends of the 16s gene, followed by digestion using tetracutter Restriction enzymes.Community Fingerprinting: Community fingerprinting refers to a set of molecular biology techniques that can be used to quickly profile the diversity of a microbial community. Rather than directly identifying or counting individual cells in an environmental sample, these techniques show how many variants of a gene are present.Intergenic region: An Intergenic region (IGR) is a stretch of DNA sequences located between genes. Intergenic regions are a subset of Noncoding DNA.MoniliellaMT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Anaesthetic vaporizerDNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Thermal cyclerThomas Girdlestone: Thomas Girdlestone (Holt, Norfolk, 1758 – 25 June 1822) was an English physician and writer.Amplified fragment length polymorphismVentolin (EP): "Ventolin" is a piece of electronic music composed by Cornish musician Richard D James. It is noted for its harsh, abrasive sound.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Chlorofluorocarbon: A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon.Cement: A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together. The word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt lime as binder.Bronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.Genetic variation: right|thumbNucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Rocket propellant: Rocket propellant is a material used by a rocket as, or to produce in a chemical reaction, the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion. Each rocket type requires different kind of propellant: chemical rockets require propellants capable of undergoing exothermic chemical reactions, which provide the energy to accelerate the resulting gases through the nozzle.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.CS-BLASTEstradiol dipropionateLasiodiplodia: Lasiodiplodia is a genus of fungi in the family Botryosphaeriaceae. There are 21 species.

(1/1629) Utility of internally transcribed 16S-23S rDNA spacer regions for the definition of Pseudomonas stutzeri genomovars and other Pseudomonas species.

Bacteria identified and classified as Pseudomonas stutzeri, on the basis of traditional criteria, are recognized to be markedly heterogeneous, such that a systematic phenotypic characterization has not been correlated with genotypic groupings (i.e. genomovars) based upon DNA-DNA similarities. The internally transcribed 16S-23S rDNA spacer (ITS1) regions of P. stutzeri were analysed with respect to the ability of these nucleic acid regions to differentiate and identify the genomic groups (i.e. genomovars) of P. stutzeri. The ITS1s of 34 strains of P. stutzeri were amplified by PCR and the PCR product was subjected to RFLP analysis, which allowed the differentiation and identification of the strains to their respective genomovars. Sequence determination and analysis of ITS1s supported further the results obtained by RFLP, i.e. nucleotide signatures were identified in strains belonging to different genomovars. The ITS1s of all strains of P. stutzeri contained the tandem tRNA(Ile)/tRNA(Ala) genes and did not exhibit distinct sequence heterogeneity between different operons of a strain. Phylogenetically informative variable sites were located, exclusively, in non-coding regions. The results of the RFLP and sequence analysis of ITS1s supported and correlated with the phylogenetic relationships estimated from 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons and DNA-DNA hybridizations, offering an alternative tool for genomovar and species differentiation.  (+info)

(2/1629) High intraindividual variation in internal transcibed spacer sequences in Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae): implications for phylogenetics.

Aeschynanthus (Gesneriaceae) is a large genus of tropical epiphytes that is widely distributed from the Himalayas and China throughout South-East Asia to New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) consensus sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of Aeschynanthus nuclear ribosomal DNA showed sequence polymorphism that was difficult to interpret. Cloning individual sequences from the PCR product generated a phylogenetic tree of 23 Aeschynanthus species (two clones per species). The intraindividual clone pairs varied from 0 to 5.01%. We suggest that the high intraindividual sequence variation results from low molecular drive in the ITS of Aeschynanthus. However, this study shows that, despite the variation found within some individuals, it is still possible to use these data to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species, suggesting that clone variation, although persistent, does not pre-date the divergence of Aeschynanthus species. The Aeschynanthus analysis revealed two major clades with different but overlapping geographic distributions and reflected classification based on morphology (particularly seed hair type).  (+info)

(3/1629) High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of NO2--oxidizing Nitrobacter species using the rrs-rrl IGS sequence and rrl genes.

A high-resolution phylogenetic analysis of Nitrobacter strains and their neighbours was made using the rrs-rrl intergenic spacer sequence and the hypervariable part of the rrl gene. The phylogenetic tree obtained was consistent with that which was obtained previously but was much more discriminating, permitting the design of genus-specific primers.  (+info)

(4/1629) Three new species in the Saccharomyces sensu stricto complex: Saccharomyces cariocanus, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces mikatae.

On the basis of genetic analysis, molecular karyotyping and sequence analyses of the 18S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, three new Saccharomyces species are described, Saccharomyces cariocanus (with type strain NCYC 2890T), Saccharomyces kudriavzevii (with type strain NCYC 2889T) and Saccharomyces mikatae (with type strain NCYC 2888T). Genetic and molecular analyses did not confirm the previously observed conspecificity of Saccharomyces paradoxus and S. cariocanus. The latter species exhibits postzygotic isolation from representative strains from all known geographical populations of S. paradoxus: European, Far-East Asian, North American and Hawaiian.  (+info)

(5/1629) Molecular systematics of European Hyalodaphnia: the role of contemporary hybridization in ancient species.

We examined phylogenetic relationships among Daphnia using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S), cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear DNA sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacer representing 1612 base positions. Phylogenetic analyses using several species of the three main Daphnia subgenera, Ctenodaphnia, Hyalodaphnia and Daphnia, revealed that the Hyalodaphnia are a monophyletic sister group of the Daphnia. Most Hyalodaphnia species occur on one continent, whereas only three are found in North America and Europe. Endemicity of species is associated with variation in thermal tolerance and habitat differentiation. Although many species of the Hyalodaphnia are known to hybridize in nature, mtDNA divergence is relatively high ca. 9%) compared to other hybridizing arthropods (ca. 3%). Reproductive isolation in Daphnia seems to evolve significantly slower than genetic isolation. We related these findings to what is known about the ecology and genetics of Daphnia in order to better understand the evolutionary diversification of lineages. The relationship of these data to phylogenetic patterns is discussed in the context of speciation processes in Daphnia.  (+info)

(6/1629) Detection and identification of mycobacteria by amplification of the internal transcribed spacer regions with genus- and species-specific PCR primers.

We evaluated the usefulness of PCR assays that target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for identifying mycobacteria at the species level. The conservative and species-specific ITS sequences of 33 species of mycobacteria were analyzed in a multialignment analysis. One pair of panmycobacterial primers and seven pairs of mycobacterial species-specific primers were designed. All PCRs were performed under the same conditions. The specificities of the primers were tested with type strains of 20 mycobacterial species from the American Type Culture Collection; 205 clinical isolates of mycobacteria, including 118 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and 87 isolates of nontuberculous mycobacteria from 10 species; and 76 clinical isolates of 28 nonmycobacterial pathogenic bacterial species. PCR with the panmycobacterial primers amplified fragments of approximately 270 to 400 bp in all mycobacteria. PCR with the M. tuberculosis complex-specific primers amplified an approximately 120-bp fragment only for the M. tuberculosis complex. Multiplex PCR with the panmycobacterial primers and the M. tuberculosis complex-specific primers amplified two fragments that were specific for all mycobacteria and the M. tuberculosis complex, respectively. PCR with M. avium complex-, M. fortuitum-, M. chelonae-, M. gordonae-, M. scrofulaceum-, and M. szulgai-specific primers amplified specific fragments only for the respective target organisms. These novel primers can be used to detect and identify mycobacteria simultaneously under the same PCR conditions. Furthermore, this protocol facilitates early and accurate diagnosis of mycobacteriosis.  (+info)

(7/1629) Divergent mechanisms of 5' 23S rRNA IVS processing in the alpha-proteobacteria.

Widespread occurrence of a separate small RNA derived from the 5'-end of 23S rRNA and of an intervening sequence (IVS) which separates this domain from the main segment of 23S rRNA in the alpha-proteobacteria implies that processing reactions which act to excise the IVS are also maintained in this group. We previously characterized the first example of processing of this IVS in Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which is classified with the Bradyrhizobia In this case, IVS excision occurs by a multistep process and RNase III appears to act at an early step. Here, we characterize in vivo and in vitro IVS processing in two other related, but phenotypically distinct, Bradyrhizobia We also examine in vivo and in vitro processing of rRNA precursors from a more distantly related alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides which produces a separate 5' 23S rRNA domain but has different sequences in the 5' 23S rRNA IVS. The details of the in vivo processing of all of the Bradyrhizobial rRNAs closely resemble the R. palustris example and in vitro studies suggest that all of the Bradyrhizobia utilize RNase III in the first step of IVS cleavage. Remarkably, in vivo and in vitro studies with R.sphaeroides indicate that initial IVS cleavage uses a different mechanism. While the mechanism of IVS cleavage differs among these alpha-proteobacteria, in all of these cases the limits of the internal segments processed in vivo are almost identical and occur far beyond the initial cleavage sites within the IVSs. We propose that these bacteria possess common secondary maturation pathways which enable them to generate similarly processed 23S rRNA 5'- and 3'-ends.  (+info)

(8/1629) Strain identification of Trichophyton rubrum by specific amplification of subrepeat elements in the ribosomal DNA nontranscribed spacer.

Trichophyton rubrum is the commonest cause of dermatophytosis of skin and nail tissue. Molecular characterization of the T. rubrum ribosomal DNA nontranscribed-spacer region revealed two novel tandemly repetitive subelements (TRSs): TRS-1, containing a 27-bp palindromic sequence, and TRS-2. Specific amplification of TRS-1 produced strain-characteristic banding patterns (PCR types), with 21 TRS-1 PCR types recognized from 101 clinical isolates. Four simple patterns representing 1 to 4 copies of TRS-1 accounted for 75 (75%) of all 101 strains, whereas more complex patterns were observed for 21 (20%) of the 101 isolates. The copy number of TRS-2 was 0 to 3 repeats per cistron, with a majority of isolates having two copies of this element. Eleven isolates were polymorphic for TRS-2, and in combination, 23 separate PCR types were recognized by amplification of both TRS-1 and TRS-2. The PCR patterns from both elements were stable and reproducible. Elements with homology to TRS-1 were present in three phylogenetically related species, Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton gourvilii, and Trichophyton soudanense, but these elements were not identified in other dermatophyte taxa. There was no clear correlation of PCR type with specimen (skin or nail tissue), but certain PCR types appeared to show a bias in geographic distribution. This new method of typing T. rubrum will enable important questions about pathogenesis and epidemiology of this fungus to be addressed.  (+info)



sequences


  • Origin and relationships of Saintpaulia (Gesneriaceae) based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. (omicsonline.org)
  • Chirita spadiciformis W. T. Wang) were examined using comparative nucleotide sequences from the two internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. (omicsonline.org)
  • Repetitive DNA sequences have been extensively studied in large plant genomes, corresponding up to 83% and 92% of Triticum aestivum and Secale cereale genomes, respectively [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Alternaria species pathogenic to crucifers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of Leucojum and Galanthus (Amaryllidaceae) based on plastid matK and nuclear ribosomal spacer (ITS) DNA sequences and morphology. (wikipedia.org)

nuclear


  • However, recent research utilizing different mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers has allowed researchers to begin to reassess zoanthid species identification [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 1994. Nuclear ribosomal DNA variation and pathogenic specialization in Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins. (wikipedia.org)

subunit


  • Surprisingly, the results from analyses utilizing three DNA markers (mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA) showed the presence of at least eleven species, of which up to four appear undescribed. (hindawi.com)

internal


  • Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions of the genus Alternaria, and the significance of filament-beaked conidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny of Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins on the basis of variation in internal transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)

region


  • Real-time quantitative PCR method was used to show that the internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) levels are proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. (readabstracts.com)

genomes


  • Through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with OPH20 10-mer primer we unraveled clear alterations corresponding to the loss of specific bands from both parental genomes. (mdpi.com)