Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Ascorbate Oxidase: An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 22.214.171.124.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.PaintingsBotany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) is an aphid-borne potyvirus, regarded as a major pathogen of cucurbits in most regions of the world where these crops are cultivated.Siamenoside IFrom Occident to Orient: From Occident to Orient is a 2007 compilation by English folk/rock singer-songwriter Roy Harper. It was initially released as a collectors item by Vinyl Japan to coincide with Harpers 2007 tour there.Multicopper oxidase: In molecular biology, multicopper oxidases are enzymes which oxidise their substrate by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear copper centre; dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. There are three spectroscopically different copper centres found in multicopper oxidases: type 1 (or blue), type 2 (or normal) and type 3 (or coupled binuclear).Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Watermelon mosaic virus: Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) also known as Marrow mosaic virus (Raychaudhuri and Varma, 1975; Varma, 1988), Melon mosaic virus (Iwaki et al., 1984; Komuro, 1962), and until recently Watermelon mosaic virus type 2 (WMV-2), is a plant pathogenic virus that causes viral infection (sometimes referred to as watermelon Mosaic disease) in many different plants.Taagepera Castle: The Taagepera Castle (German name: Wagenküll) is a mansion in Taagepera village, Helme Parish, Valga County, Estonia.Hardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Sieve tube elementIppolito de' MediciTropical Asia: Through a crop-based biodiversity, natural resources and animals (birds, fruits, and forests), Tropical Asia is economically and physiogeographically rich. There are 16 countries of Tropical Asia ranging in size from around 610 km² (Singapore) to 3,000,000 km² (India).Thief of ThievesTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.
(1/160) Identification of bacteria in pasteurized zucchini purees stored at different temperatures and comparison with those found in other pasteurized vegetable purees.
One hundred nineteen isolates from a commercial zucchini puree stored at 4, 10, and 20 to 25 degrees C were fingerprinted using repetitive sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) and classified into 35 REP types. One representative isolate of each REP type was subsequently identified by API50CHB/20E profile and partial rrs gene sequence analysis. Nine REP types were misidentified by the API system. Strains were misidentified as being in the Bacillus circulans (group 2) API taxon or in taxa with a low number of positive API characters such as Brevibacillus brevis. A phylogenetic analysis pointed to one new species of Bacillus and three new species of Paenibacillus among the misidentified REP types. Bacterial components in zucchini puree were compared phenotypically with those obtained in previous work on broccoli, carrot, leek, potato, and split pea purees, based on simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group method with averages cluster analysis. Out of 254 strains, 69 strains previously identified as B. circulans (group 2) or B. circulans/B. macerans/B. polymyxa were assigned to a new Paenibacillus taxon phylogenetically related to P. azotofixans. Storage conditions at 4 degrees C favored the development of "B. macroides/B. maroccanus" and Paenibacillus spp. in zucchini purees and Paenibacillus spp. in other purees. Storage conditions at 20 to 25 degrees C favored the development of B. subtilis group (B. licheniformis and B. subtilis) and B. cereus group strains. At 10 degrees C, Paenibacillus spp. were always present at high frequencies, whereas the occurrence of B. macroides/B. maroccanus (in zucchini purees), B. cereus, and B. pumilus varied with the experiment. (+info)
(2/160) A novel membrane protein that is transported to protein storage vacuoles via precursor-accumulating vesicles.
A novel protein, MP73, was specifically found on the membrane of protein storage vacuoles of pumpkin seed. MP73 appeared during seed maturation and disappeared rapidly after seed germination, in association with the morphological changes of the protein storage vacuoles. The MP73 precursor deduced from the isolated cDNA was composed of a signal peptide, a 24-kD domain (P24), and the MP73 domain with a putative long alpha-helix of 13 repeats that are rich in glutamic acid and arginine residues. Immunocytochemistry and immunoblot analysis showed that the precursor-accumulating (PAC) vesicles (endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles responsible for the transport of storage proteins) accumulated proMP73, but not MP73, on the membranes. Subcellular fractionation of the pulse-labeled maturing seed demonstrated that the proMP73 form with N-linked oligosaccharides was synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the protein storage vacuoles via PAC vesicles. Tunicamycin treatment of the seed resulted in the efficient deposition of proMP73 lacking the oligosaccharides (proMP73 Delta Psi) into the PAC vesicles but no accumulation of MP73 in vacuoles. Tunicamycin might impede the transport of proMP73 Delta Psi from the PAC vesicles to the vacuoles or might make the unglycosylated protein unstable in the vacuoles. After arrival at protein storage vacuoles, proMP73 was cleaved by the action of a vacuolar enzyme to form a 100-kD complex on the vacuolar membranes. These results suggest that PAC vesicles might mediate the delivery of not only storage proteins but also membrane proteins of the vacuoles. (+info)
(3/160) Calcium-mediated association of a putative vacuolar sorting receptor PV72 with a propeptide of 2S albumin.
PV72, a type I membrane protein with three epidermal-growth factor (EGF)-like motifs, was found to be localized on the membranes of the precursor-accumulating (PAC) vesicles that accumulated precursors of various seed storage proteins. To clarify the function of PV72 as a sorting receptor, we expressed four modified PV72s and analyzed their ability to bind the internal propeptide (the 2S-I peptide) of pro2S albumin by affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance. The recombinant PV72 specifically bound to the 2S-I peptide with a K(D) value of 0.2 microm, which was low enough for it to function as a receptor. The EGF-like motifs modulated the Ca(2+)-dependent conformational change of PV72 to form a functional pocket for the ligand binding. The binding of Ca(2+) stabilizes the receptor-ligand complex even at pH 4.0. The association and dissociation of PV72 with the ligand is modulated by the Ca(2+) concentration (EC(50) value = 40 microm) rather than the environmental pH. Overall results suggest that Ca(2+) regulates the vacuolar sorting mechanism in higher plants. (+info)
(4/160) Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.
We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. (+info)
(5/160) Differential effects of satellite RNA on the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs and their encoded proteins in tobacco vs zucchini squash with two strains of CMV helper virus.
The presence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellite RNA usually reduces the yield of accumulated helper virus, although more so in solanaceous than in cucurbit hosts. The accumulation of viral RNA and viral-encoded proteins of two strains of CMV (Fny- and Sny-) known to differ in their ability to support satellite RNA in zucchini squash was examined in squash and tobacco to determine the effect of satellite RNA on the accumulation of viral-associated components. In the absence of satellite RNA, Fny- and Sny-CMV showed similar levels of accumulation of RNA at 7 days postinoculation (p.i.), but by 14 days p.i. the Fny-CMV RNAs accumulated to lower levels than did both strains at 7 days p.i., in either host. The levels of accumulated Sny-CMV-encoded proteins were higher than those encoded by Fny-CMV in tobacco, but not squash plants, at 7 days p.i. At 14 days p.i., for Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV, there were differences in the levels of accumulation of most CMV-encoded proteins in both hosts, more exacerbated in tobacco vs squash. The effect of satellite RNA was to intensify these differences; that is, by 7 days p.i., satellite RNA reduced the accumulation of Fny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins in both tobacco and squash but had little or no effect on the accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs or encoded proteins. By 14 days p.i., the levels of accumulation of all Fny-CMV RNAs and encoded proteins were severely reduced in both hosts, and the levels of accumulation of Sny-CMV RNAs 1 and 2 and their encoded proteins were also reduced in tobacco, but not squash. Sny-CMV did not support satellite RNA accumulation in squash plants or protoplasts. Satellite RNA did not appear to have a direct effect on the movement of either CMV strain. Rather, accumulation studies in tobacco protoplasts indicated that the difference in response of Fny-CMV vs Sny-CMV to satellite RNA in tobacco was due to the extent to which satellite RNA affected the levels of RNA 1, and to a lesser extent RNA 2, and their encoded proteins, 1a and 2a, both components of the CMV replicase. (+info)
(6/160) Analysis of the complexity of protein kinases within the phloem sieve tube system. Characterization of Cucurbita maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1.
In angiosperms, functional, mature sieve elements lack nuclei, vacuoles, ribosomes, and most of the endomembrane network. In this study, the complexity, number, and nature of protein kinases within the phloem sap of Cucurbita maxima were investigated to test the hypothesis that the enucleate sieve tube system utilizes a simplified signal transduction network. Supporting evidence was obtained in that only five putative protein kinases (three calcium-independent and two calcium-dependent protein kinases) were detected within the phloem sap extracted from stem tissues. Biochemical methods were used to purify one such calcium-dependent protein kinase. The gene for this C. maxima calmodulin-like domain protein kinase 1 (CmCPK1), was cloned using peptide microsequences. A combination of mass spectrometry, peptide fingerprinting, and amino-terminal sequencing established that, in the phloem sap, CmCPK1 exists as an amino-terminally cleaved protein. A second highly homologous isoform, CmCPK2, was identified, but although transcripts could be detected in the companion cells, peptide fingerprint analysis suggested that CmCPK2 does not enter the phloem sap. Potential substrates for CmCPK1, within the phloem sap, were also detected using an on-membrane phosphorylation assay. Entry of CmCPK1 into sieve elements via plasmodesmata and the potential roles played by these phloem protein kinases are discussed. (+info)
(7/160) Kinetic mechanism and order of substrate binding for sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from squash (Cucurbita moschata).
sn-Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (G3PAT, EC 126.96.36.199), a component of glycerolipid biosynthesis, is an important enzyme in chilling sensitivity in plants. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme from squash (Cucurbita moschata), without bound substrate, has been determined [Turnbull et al. (2001) Acta Crystallogr. D 57, 451-453; Turnbull et al. (2001) Structure 9, 347-353]. Here we report the kinetic mechanism of plastidial G3PAT from squash and the order of substrate binding using acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates. The reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary complex with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol-3-phosphate. We have also determined that the reaction will proceed with C(4:0)-CoA, C(6:0)-CoA and C(12:0)-ACP substrates, allowing a wider choice of acyl groups for future co-crystallisation studies. (+info)
(8/160) Subcellular localization of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and high-mannose type free N-glycans in plant cell.
Subcellular distribution of plant endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (endo-beta-GlcNAc-ase) and high-mannose type free N-glycans produced by the endoglycosidase has been analyzed using cotyledons of pumpkin seedlings as the model plant cells. Each organelle in the cotyledons was fractionated by ultracentrifugation with the sucrose density gradient system and the endo-beta-GlcNAc-ase activity in each fraction was assayed with fluorescence labeled N-glycans as substrates. The endoglycosidase activity was exclusively recovered in the soluble fraction (cytosol fraction) but not in other specific organellar fractions, suggesting that the endoglycosidase would reside predominantly in the cytosol. The quantitative analysis of high-mannose type free N-glycans occurring in each fraction showed that more than 70% of the free N-glycans was recovered from the soluble fraction, suggesting the endoglycosidase would work in the cytosol and the resulting free N-glycans would accumulate in the same fraction. The pumpkin endo-beta-GlcNAc-ase (endo-CM) partially purified from the cotyledons showed optimum activity around pH 6.5, supporting this enzyme would reside in the cytosol. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of substrate specificity of endo-CM using various high-mannose type N-glycans showed that the pumpkin enzyme, as well as other plant endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases, were highly active toward the high-mannose type glycans bearing the Man(alpha1)-2Man(alpha1)-3Man(beta1)-structural unit. (+info)