Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.BrazilSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IranAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.JapanChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.IndiaAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.NorwayHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Schools: Educational institutions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.TurkeyHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.GermanySeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.PakistanSedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.SwedenExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.GreenlandPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Sense of Coherence: A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.YemenRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.BangladeshLeisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.PortugalMexicoSwitzerlandBreakfast: The first meal of the day.NepalIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Diagnostic Self Evaluation: A self-evaluation of health status.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Housing: Living facilities for humans.SingaporePain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.VietnamCroatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.TaiwanHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.EstoniaWork: Productive or purposeful activities.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.ItalyGeriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.RussiaIndonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.DenmarkEmigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.

*  High risk prescribing in primary care patients particularly vulnerable to adverse drug events: cross sectional population...

Several areas of uncertainty would benefit from further research. The first relates to validity, or the degree to which an indicator measures what it claims to, in this case high risk prescribing. The indicators examined have strong face validity because they are all subject to explicit national guidance, and most are underpinned by a strong evidence base that quantifies the risk involved. For example, the current evidence from randomised controlled trials is that treating 100 people with dementia with an antipsychotic for 6-12 weeks is associated with one additional death. It is estimated that prescribing of antipsychotics in people with dementia is associated with 1620 additional strokes (half severe) and 1800 additional deaths per year in the United Kingdom. This might be acceptable if antipsychotics had large benefits in this population, but they do not.5 14 However, the evidence base underlying some other indicators is weaker, which makes explicit consideration of risks and benefits of a ...
bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d3514.full

*  THU0203 Cross-sectional assessment of damage in takayasu arteritis with a validated tool | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

Results The mean age, follow-up time and disease duration were 40±12 years, 71±68 mo and 98±92 mo, respectively. Type I (45%) was the most common type of vascular involvement. Cumulative doses/duration of GC and CYC were 12±11g/70±65 mo and 2,4±6,5g/2,6±7,1 mo, respectively; 40% of them had resistant course. Major vessel stenosis, absent pulses, claudication and hypertension were demonstrated in ≥50% of TA patients, as damage items. Osteoporosis (26%) and cataract (15%) were the main treatment related damages. Cumulative VDI scores in TA cohort were found to be 4.7±2.2, mainly (4.1±1.8) due to disease itself. MCS and PCS scores were calculated as 44±10 and 39±12, respectively. Poor SF-36 MCS scores were demonstrated in 66% and PCS scores in 79% of the patients. VDI scores were found to be correlated with disease duration (p,0.01, r=0.44), cumulative doses of GC (p,0.01, r=0.26) and CYC (p=0.02, r=0.21) and duration of GC (p,0,01 r=0.35). A negative correlation was observed between ...
ard.bmj.com/content/71/Suppl_3/224.1

*  "A Cross-Sectional Study of Suicidal Behaviors and Physical Activity am" by Emily Miller, Jodi L. Southerland et al.

Introduction. Suicide-related fatalities are the third leading cause of death among adolescents, resulting in approximately 4,600 deaths annually. According to findings from the 2005 National College Health Assessment, engagement in weekly physical activity (PA) reduced the risk of suicidal behaviors. Data from the 2010 middle school Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) administered by Tennessee Coordinated School Health this study investigates the cross-sectional relationships of PA with suicidal behaviors, while simultaneously considering explanatory variables such as personal characteristics, sedentary behaviors, drug use, extreme weight control behaviors (EWCB), body mass index (BMI) and weight misperception. Methods. This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2010 Tennessee Middle School YRBS conducted among 65,182 middle school students of which 60,715 students were included in the final analysis. Items assessed were PA, sports team engagement, PE class, sedentary ...
dc.etsu.edu/etsu-works/133/

*  Acetaminophen

Fever phobia is a phenomenon seem among parents who think fever is a health danger instead of an important physiological response and mechanism of defense against infection. Because of this parents tend to increase self medication which results in inappropriate use of antipyretics, and most commonly acetaminophen. The issue also comes from the fact that acetaminophen is dosed in children according to weight and not age, so the wrong measurement or guess of a child's weight leads misdosing. The appropriate dosage is 10-15 mg/kg/dose every 4-6 hours, and higher or more frequent doses can cause hepatotoxicity which is why correct dosing is so important.. For six months, from November 2012 to April 2013, an observational cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the dosage of acetaminophen administered to children with fever as mg/kg/dose and as a total daily quantity in mg/kg/day and to identify factors that may influences the accuracy of dosing. The clinical records of ...
dailydose.pharmacy.pitt.edu/tag/acetaminophen/

*  Plus it

A relationship has not been found between apple intake and asthma in the present cross-sectional study in children. However, there is some evidence to suggest that children who have a higher consumption of apple juice from concentrate and bananas exhibit a lower prevalence of current wheeze than children with a lower intake.. In contrast to studies in adults 8, 9, the present authors have not been able to replicate a significant negative association between apple intake and asthma in children. However, the present negative findings are consistent with previous studies 13-15, which showed no clear relationship between wheezing in children and fresh fruit intake despite a beneficial effect on lung function. It is not clear why the link observed in adult asthma was not replicated in children. The variation in the choice of outcome measures between studies and in the validity and reliability of food frequency questionnaires in ...
erj.ersjournals.com/content/29/6/1161

*  Community and public health posting MDP 40110 : a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice towards diabetes...

A cross sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practice toward diabetes mellitus and the distribution of diabetes mellitus among the population aged 35 and above was carried out at Kampung Babu, Debak, from 15 June to 30 July 2002 by fourth year medical students from the Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). 158 respondents who are chosen through universal sampling were interviewed face-to-face from door to door using semi-structured questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed by using SPSS for windows. About two third (65.2%) of the respondents were female due to the fact that most of the males work outstation. It was also found that half of respondents (52%) had not received any formal education. Screening clinic session on 138 respondents found that there were 10 diabetic patients, which gave the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adult population aged 35 and above, 7.2%. Out of total 10 cases, 4 were known cases, 6 were ...
ir.unimas.my/12354/

*  Cross-sectional studies | Article about Cross-sectional studies by The Free Dictionary

Looking for Cross-sectional studies? Find out information about Cross-sectional studies. The study of groups of individuals differing on the basis of specified criteria at the same point in time. a method of examining a varied population at one... Explanation of Cross-sectional studies
encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Cross-sectional studies

*  Plus it

For decades, the diagnosis of diabetes has been based on glucose criteria, either the FPG or the 75-g OGTT. In 1997, the first Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus revised the diagnostic criteria, using the observed association between FPG levels and presence of retinopathy as the key factor with which to identify threshold glucose level. The Committee examined data from three cross-sectional epidemiologic studies that assessed retinopathy with fundus photography or direct ophthalmoscopy and measured glycemia as FPG, 2-h PG, and A1C. These studies demonstrated glycemic levels below which there was little prevalent retinopathy and above which the prevalence of retinopathy increased in an apparently linear fashion. The deciles of the three measures at which retinopathy began to increase were the same for each measure within each population. Moreover, the glycemic values above which retinopathy increased ...
care.diabetesjournals.org/content/34/Supplement_1/S62

*  Higher education and more physical activity limit the development of obesity in a Swedish rural population The Skaraborg...

article{20d660d3-7d5d-43e0-98b6-f278e744069e, abstract = {Objective:To investigate the prevalence and the secular trends of obesity in a rural Swedish community with emphasis on the association with socioeconomic status and lifestyle.Design:The Skaraborg Project cross-sectional population surveys were conducted in Vara, a rural community in the southwest of Sweden, every fifth year between 1977 and 2002.Subjects:A total of 3365 residents (1634 men and 1731 women) aged 30-60 years.Measurements:Obesity was defined as body mass index,/=30 kg m(-2). Information on ethnicity, marital status, socioeconomic status and lifestyle was collected by a questionnaire.Results:In 1977-1982, the average prevalence of obesity was 14% in both men and women, and in 2002, the prevalence of obesity was 19% in men and 21% in women. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of obesity in 2002 was 1.48 (1.00, 2.20) in men and 1.41 (0.97, 2.05) in women. Without the simultaneous increase in the level of ...
https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/1021216

*  Genital warts in men: a large population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish men | Sexually Transmitted Infections

Results Ever having had clinically diagnosed genital warts was reported by 7.9% of the men. The median age at first occurrence was 22 years. Genital warts within the previous 12 months were reported by 0.92% of the men, with a peak of 1.83% among men aged 21-24 years. The likelihood of reporting genital warts was strongly correlated with the lifetime number of sex partners (OR 8.0; 95% CI 6.0 to 10.8 for ≥15 partners vs 1-2 partners). Other factors associated with an increased risk for genital warts included ever having smoked and having had other sexually transmitted infections.. ...
sti.bmj.com/content/early/2012/08/31/sextrans-2012-050512

*  The prevalence of and risk factors for back pain among home care nursing personnel in Hong Kong | PolyU Institutional Research...

Background: There is a large gap in research with regard to back pain (BP) among home care nursing personnel (HCNP); only seven studies have been conducted worldwide. There is a need to identify the magnitude of and risk factors for BP that are unique to Hong Kong (HK) HCNP. Methods: A total population sampling technique was employed in this cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analyses were used to control for potentially confounding variables. Results: The 12-month prevalence of upper and lower BP was 71.2% (n = 265). Three predictors were identified: physical risk factors in the office (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 1.55-8.24), static postures (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.04-1.90), and psychological job demands (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.22). Conclusion: HCNP in HK have a high prevalence of BP. BP in HK HCNP is independently attributable to physical work factors in the office, static postures, and psychological job ...
ira.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/10397/10696

*  Plus it

In the present study, we conducted a series of cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal analyses aimed at further delineating the potential role of inflammation in the development of type 2 diabetes. We found that among Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance, a high WBC predicted the development of diabetes. Moreover, we demonstrated that a high WBC was associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity. Collectively, these data suggest a role of inflammation in the development of insulin resistance and subsequent type 2 diabetes.. The cross-sectional relationship between WBC and adiposity confirms previous findings in Pima Indians (1) and other populations (1,5,16-18). In accordance with two previous series (19,20), we found that the inverse relationship between WBC and insulin sensitivity was independent of the degree of obesity. By contrast, a previous smaller study in Pima Indians (1) found that the relationship between WBC and ...
diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/2/455

*  Repositório da Universidade de Lisboa: Cardiovascular risk profile of high school students: a cross-sectional study

Disease prevention should begin in childhood and lifestyles are important riskdeterminants of cardiovascular disease. Awareness and monitoring of risk is essential in pre-ventive strategies.Aim: To characterize cardiovascular risk and the relationships between certain variables in adolescents.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 854 adolescent schoolchildren were surveyed, mean age16.3±0.9 years. Data collection included questionnaires, physical examination, charts for 10-year relative risk of mortality, and biochemical assays. In the statistical analysis continuousvariables were studied by the Student's t test and categorical variables by the chi-square testand Fisher's exact test, and each risk factor was entered as a dependent variable in logisticregression analysis.Results: Physical activity was insufficient in 81% of students. The daily consumption of soup,salad or vegetables, and fruit was, respectively, 37%, 39% and 21%. A minority (6%) took ≤3and 77% took ≥5 meals a ...
repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/12096

*  Older persons with dementia at risk for institutionalization in eight European countries: a cross-sectional study on the...

Sue Tucker, Christian Brand, Caroline Sutcliffe, David Challis, Kai Saks, Hilde Verbeek, Esther Cabrera, Staffan Karlsson, Helena Leino-Kilpi, Astrid Stephan, Maria E. Soto, Gabriele Meyer, Astrid Stephan, Anna Renom-Guiteras, Dirk Sauerland, Ansgar Wübker, Patrick Bremer, Jan P.H. Hamers, Basema Afram, Hanneke C. Beerens, Michel H.C. Bleijlevens, Hilde Verbeek, Sandra M.G. Zwakhalen, Dirk Ruwaard, Ton Ambergen, Ingalill Rahm Hallberg, Ulla Melin Emilsson, Staffan Karlsson, Christina Bokberg, Connie Lethin, David Challis, Caroline Sutcliffe, David Jolley, Sue Tucker, Ian Bowns, Brenda Roe, Alistair Burns, Helena Leino-Kilpi, Jaana Koskenniemi, Riitta Suhonen, Matti Viitanen, Seija Arve, Minna Stolt, Maija Hupli, Kai Saks, Ene-Margit Tiit, Jelena Leibur, Katrin Raamat, Angelika Armolik, Teija Tuula Marjatta Toivari, Adelaida Zabalegui, Esther Cabrera, Ester Risco, Carme Alvira, Marta Farre, Susana Miguel, Maria Soto, Agathe Milhet, Sandrine Sourdet, Sophie Gillette, Bruno Vellas, What Makes ...
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jan.12493/full

*  A cross-sectional study of socio-economic and environmental factors affecting nutritional status of children below seven years...

Malnutrition is implicated in more than half of all child deaths (below seven) worldwide. Most of the malnourished children are from developing countries and two thirds of those are living in South East Asia. A cross-sectional study was carried out on the nutritional status of children under seven years old and the possible aetiological factors such as socioeconomic characteristics, cultural practices, immunization, morbidity and feeding patterns. The nutritional status of 28 male and 32 female children under seven years old in from three longhouses in Debak was assessed. The length/height and body weight of the children were recorded and the mothers were interviewed using questionnaires. The results show that 25% of the children were stunted, 10% were wasted and 30% were underweight. There were no significant associations between the various anthropometric indicators with factors such as gender, mothers' educational level and income per capita. The only exception of ...
ir.unimas.my/12353/

*  Prevalence, treatment and control of dyslipidaemia in Switzerland: still a long way to go.

There is little information regarding the prevalence and management of dyslipidaemia in Switzerland. Cross-sectional population-based study of 3238 women and 2846 men aged 35-75. Dyslipidaemia prevalence, treatment and control were define
biomedsearch.com/nih/Prevalence-treatment-control-dyslipidaemia-in/20700055.html

*  Natália D Linhares

Laboratório de Genômica Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Laboratório Gene - Núcleo de Genética Médica, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address ...
https://pubfacts.com/author/Natalia D Linhares

*  Pre-Hypertension Cued by Genes | Medpage Today

Heredity appears to play a substantial role in pre-hypertension -- a risk factor for high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and death -- according to a large cross-sectional study.
medpagetoday.com/cardiology/hypertension/33069

*  College students and use of K2 : an emerging drug of abuse in young persons

7 This study was limited by its cross sectional design. We cannot infer whether K2 us e preceded or followed hookah tobacco use, for example. Additionally, outcome variables were assessed with self report, rather than biochemical validation, and the sample was drawn from only one large university. In this study, a n overall 36% response rate was obtained ; this rate was 41% for females versus with 31% for males. This response rate is expected for this type of survey; in fact, systematic reviews have demonstrate d 36% average response rates for 31 studies usin g email survey over 14 years [10, 12] Additionally, it i s possible that non response in this survey resulted in a more conservative estimate of K2 use in this population because responses obtained from these types of surv eys are generally higher from female, higher achieving, less risk taking sociodemographic groups [13] In conclusion we found that K2 had been used by nearly one in ten college ...
ufdc.ufl.edu/AA00004613/00001

*  RI UFLA (Universidade Federal de Lavras): Desenvolvimento de um modelo para o biospeckle na análise de sementes de feijão ...

O biospeckle é uma figura de interferência formada pela reflexão difusa da luz coerente espalhada ao interagir com um objeto que apresenta algum tipo de atividade, biológica ou não. O padrão de interferência se modifica ao longo do tempo devido às estruturas responsáveis pelo espalhamento estarem em atividade. Esse fenômeno tem sido estudado com o intuito de se desenvolver um método rápido e não destrutivo para avaliação de materiais biológicos. A obtenção de um modelo simples que descreva os aspectos essenciais do fenômeno é um importante passo para o domínio da técnica. Neste trabalho é apresentado um modelo para descrever a formação do biospeckle, desenvolvido a partir de hipóteses simples sobre como o tecido biológico difrata a luz coerente e qual o efeito da atividade biológica sobre a difração. Foram comparados os resultados da simulação do modelo com resultados experimentais obtidos de sementes. O modelo reproduz com sucesso algumas das características ...
repositorio.ufla.br/handle/1/6389

*  A Semi-parametric Method for Describing the Age-specific Distribution of Clinical Measurements in Cross-sectional Study - 広島大学...

Age-specific distribution of clinical measurements in cross-sectional study is described in this paper. Since the distribution of measurements usually varies with age, a model with an agedependent structure is needed. We propose here a statistical method for describing the age-specific distribution using an extension of the power-normal-model. The age-dependent parameters are to be estimated through a nonparametric smoothing technique based on the local likelihood method. As a consequence, we can compute a smoothed percentile curve of measurements with reference to age. Several kinds of clinical measurements are analyzed to determine the proposed method ...
ir.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/ja/00034922

*  Meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies with both one and two study groups

Hello, I have a question about a meta-analysis I would like to run, comparing outcome measure Y in 'patients' groups (patients) and 'healthy' groups. I included cross-sectional studies in which Y is measured in either a patient group, a control group (healthy population), or both. That means some studies report a comparison, but some studies just report mean data for only one group. For the studies with a comparison, I also have the group means. So basically I have a bunch of 'patient'
talkstats.com/showthread.php/61238-Meta-analysis-of-cross-sectional-studies-with-both-one-and-two-study-groups?p=176192

*  Cross-sectional study (design)

A type of research design involving the collection of information from any given sample of elements selected from the population of interest at a single point in time. They may be either single cross-sectional or multiple cross-sectional. In single cross-sectional designs only one sample of elements is drawn from the target population and information is obtained from this sample only once. In multiple cross-sectional designs there are two or more samples of respondents, and information from each sample is drawn only once ...
design-marketing-dictionary.blogspot.com/2009/11/cross-sectional-study-design.html

*  BeyeNETWORK: Multivariate Analysis Using Parallel Coordinates

To recognize the worth of a parallel coordinates display, you cannot think of it as a normal line graph. Lines are predominantly used to encode time-series data. The up and down slopes of the lines indicates change through time from one value to the next. The lines in parallel coordinate displays, however, don't indicate change. Instead, a single line in a parallel coordinates graph connects a series of values - each associated with a different variable - that measure multiple aspects of something, such as a person, product, or country. The example in Figure 1 consists of 3,138 lines: one for each county in the United States. This graph has seven vertical axes arranged from left to right along the X-axis, each for a different variable that measures some aspect of U.S. counties, including median home value, the number of farm acres, the average per capita income, and so on. Notice that the units of measure differ among these variables, including dollars, counts, acres, percentages, and years. In ...
b-eye-network.com/print/3355

*  Multicenter Cross Sectional Study of Primary Intestine Lymphoma

The purpose of this study is to determine whether whether surgical resection followed by chemotherapy is superior to systemic chemotherapy alone in term
knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01043302/

Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.University of CampinasList of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Niigata UniversityLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Overweight PoochComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Hospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]HypertensionRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Halfdan T. MahlerSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Quantitative computed tomographyMakerere University School of MedicineParent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.

(1/42185) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(2/42185) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(3/42185) Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV.

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

(4/42185) Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

(5/42185) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

(6/42185) Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

(7/42185) Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

(8/42185) Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas.

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)



No FAQ available that match "Cross-Sectional Studies"

Clic on a term on the left