Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.BrazilSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IranAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.JapanChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.IndiaAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.NorwayHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Schools: Educational institutions.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.TurkeyHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.GermanySeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.United StatesLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.PakistanSedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.SwedenExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.GreenlandPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Serbia: A republic located south of HUNGARY, west of ROMANIA and BULGARIA, and part of the former YUGOSLAVIA. The capital is Belgrade.Sense of Coherence: A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.YemenRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.BangladeshLeisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.PortugalMexicoSwitzerlandBreakfast: The first meal of the day.NepalIncome: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Diagnostic Self Evaluation: A self-evaluation of health status.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Housing: Living facilities for humans.SingaporePain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.VietnamCroatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.TaiwanHealth Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.EstoniaWork: Productive or purposeful activities.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.ItalyGeriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.RussiaIndonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.DenmarkEmigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Habits: Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.

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Our cross-sectional study has some limitations. First, the cross-sectional design does not allow establishment of a cause- ... Our cross-sectional study shows for the first time that higher sclerostin levels are associated independently with AD in T2DM ... Our cross-sectional study included 78 T2DM patients with diagnosis of diabetes according to American Diabetes Association ... RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional study including 78 T2DM patients (45.3% females, mean age 59 ± 5.7 ...

*  ChiroACCESS: Episodic Tension-type Headache: Diagnosis

A study of the same group of people at more than one point in time. (This type of study contrasts with a cross-sectional study ... Cross-Sectional Study. The observation of a defined population at a signal point in time or time interval. Exposure and outcome ... Case-Control Study. A study which involves identifying patients who have the outcome of interest (cases) and control patients ... A population study. Pain 1993 Feb;52(2):193-9. [ Medline ID 8455967 ] 6. Jensen R, Rasmussen BK. Muscular disorders in tension- ...

*  Effects of preventive oral supplementation with iron or iron with folic acid for women following childbirth - Neufeld - 2012 -...

Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross-sectional study. BMJ 2000;321:1255-9. *CrossRef ... Cross-over trials. We will not include cross-over trials.. Studies with more than two treatment groups. For studies with more ... Randomised and quasi-randomised studies with randomisation at either individual or cluster level. Studies using a cross-over ... For included studies, we will note levels of attrition. We will explore the impact of including studies with high levels of ...

*  Researchers Suggest of Lowering BMI Criteria for Obesity Surgery

The survey was a cross-sectional study conducted from 1988 to 1994. All 17,234 participants had a BMI greater than 20. BMI is a ... Study Explores the Possibility of Weight-loss Surgery to Cure Diabetes. Brain cells damaged by obesity may contribute to Type 2 ... The study, appearing in the December issue of the journal Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, is among the first to ... The study findings show that some morbidly obese patients have better cardiovascular disease risk profiles than those who are ...

*  Psychosis following head injury: a critical review | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

The association between head injury and schizophrenia was assessed in just one large cross sectional survey.16 Such study ... The main weaknesses are intrinsic to the cross sectional study design. Since outcome (psychiatric disorder) and exposure (head ... the cross sectional survey; and the case-control study. ... One large US cross sectional survey16 was also essentially ... The study of Nielsen and colleagues23 stands apart from others in this category of study design, in terms of its size and ...

*  Kai-Håkon Carlsen - Institutt for klinisk medisin

Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, an analysis of athletes' records was carried out in databases of the Portuguese ... Methods: Forty athletic subjects were enrolled in a cross sectional study. After 15 minutes resting in semi-darkness subjects ... a cross-sectional cohort study. Allergy. European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. ISSN 0105-4538. 68, s 159- 159 ... Introduction: Clusters of asthma in athletes have been insufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study aimed to ...

*  A Survey: Knowledge And Attitudes Towards Blood Donation Between Post-secondary Students Who Are Taking Health-care And Non...

A cross-sectional study was used to achieve the study purpose. The validated questionnaire related to the study topics towards ... Hong Kong Red Cross conducted various campaigns to recruit new blood donors and promote blood donation practice for the ... LO Hiu Man is a nursing student studying Bachelor Degree of Health Sciences (Major in Nursing) at Tung Wah College in Hong Kong ... This study aimed to examine knowledge and attitudes towards blood donation between healthcare and non-healthcare students. ...

*  Cigarette Smoking and Fat Distribution in 21, 828 British Men and Women: A Population-based Study - Canoy - 2005 - Obesity -...

We recognize the inherent limitations of observational studies. Moreover, the cross-sectional nature of our study does not ... A cross sectional study in the Norfolk cohort of the European Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk). J Epidemiol Community ... a cross-sectional study in 11, 825 Dutch women participating in the DOM-project. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 14: 753-761. ... a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013), Epidemiology and Health, ...

*  Estimation Of Risk Factors In Relation To Catastrophic Decline Of Walking Status In Older Adults After Hip Fracture Surgery

The purpose of this study is to investigate walking recovery after hip fracture surgery with the aim of identifying risk ... 120 participants older than 65 years were included in this cross-sectional study. The walking status was investigated at 3 to 6 ... The purpose of this study is to investigate walking recovery after hip fracture surgery with the aim of identifying risk ...

*  Systematic reviews, systematic error and the acquisition of clinical knowledge

Systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of location and citation counts. BMC Med. 2003;1:2. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-1-2. [ ... A case study [40], during which the conduct and management of a systematic review of studies concerning interventions for ... the selection of studies with highest internal validity -- or if not many studies can be found, the sub-grouping of available ... doi: 10.1192/bjp.180.1.8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]. *Doust J, Del Marc C. Why do doctors use treatments that do not work? BMJ. 2004 ...

*  ABN Abstracts | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

A cross sectional study was performed to investigate dynamic differences between patients and controls. ... The cross sectional analysis demonstrated fMRI activity in the insula, corpus striatum, lateral temporal, orbitofrontal and ... In each section the total lesion load and the cross sectional area of the cord were measured. Multiple regression models were ... Human studies have contributed less direct evidence from a number of "in vivo" imaging studies. ...

*  final study design (2) by Memo Nesta - issuu

Title: final study design (2), Author: Memo Nesta, Name: final study design (2), Length: 56 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2012-12- ... In cross-sectional studies, we are looking for both exposure and outcome In case-control studies, we know the outcome, looking ... study.  Diagnosis: demonstrating whether a new diagnostic test is valid and reliable. preferred study is cross sectional ... Example of a Cross-Sectional Study Association between garlic consumption and CAD in the Family Practice Clinic ...

*  角谷寛 - 研究者 - researchmap

A Cross-sectional Study on Working Hours, Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms in Japanese Shift Workers. ... Mastication and risk for diabetes in a Japanese population: a cross-sectional study. ... A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study.. Murase K, Tabara Y, Ito H, Kobayashi M, Takahashi Y, Setoh K, Kawaguchi T, ... This descriptive study was conducted to examine the changes in the symptom frequency in patients with rapid eye movement (REM) ...

*  Paediatrics | BMJ Open

A cross-sectional study of two large secondary care NHS hospitals in England Alice James, Laura Birch, Peter Fletcher, Sally ... study protocol Keith Owen Yeates, Miriam Beauchamp, William Craig, Quynh Doan, Roger Zemek, Bruce H Bjornson, Jocelyn Gravel, ... Risks for comorbidity in children with atopic disorders: an observational study in Dutch general practices David H J Pols, ... a population-based cohort study Daniel B Horton, Kevin Haynes, Michelle R Denburg, Mihir M Thacker, Carlos D Rose, Mary E Putt ...

*  Large-scale investment in green space as an intervention for physical activity, mental and cardiometabolic health: study...

The association between neighbourhood greenspace and type 2 diabetes in a large cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2014;4:e006076 ... A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia. BMJ Open 2013;3:pii: e002713. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-002713. ... but evidence from tends to be based on cross-sectional designs. This protocol describes a study that will evaluate a large- ... 9 The vast majority of studies have been cross-sectional, which means that putative interventions, such as an increase in the ...

*  The AMEDEO Literature Guide

Association of Rift Valley fever virus infection with miscarriage in Sudanese women: a cross-sectional study.. Lancet Glob ... a population-based cross-sectional study.. J Viral Hepat. 2017 Nov 28. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12829.. PubMed Text format Abstract ... A cross-sectional, community-based analysis.. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002460.. PubMed Text format Abstract available. PLoS One. * ... New Models to Study Hepatitis E Virus Replication and Particular Characteristics of Infection: The Needle Hides in the Hay ...

*  Correlation Between Various Adipokines and Vascular Inflammation Measured by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) With 18F-fluoro...

Other: Cross sectional study This is not intervention study. The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship between ... Study Design:. Observational Model: Case-Only. Time Perspective: Cross-Sectional. Official Title:. Correlation Between Various ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your ...

*  ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical Articles

Prevalence of diabetes and its risk factors: a cross-sectional study in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Dhara Prajapati, Geeta Kedia. Int J ... Study of ocular manifestations in children of thalassemia. Dhara K. Gosai, K. M. Mehariya, Jigarkumar B. Gosai. Int J Res Med ... Study of clinical profile of childhood extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Dhara K. Gosai, Jigar B. Gosai, Omprakash S. Shukla. Int J ... Comparative Study of Myofascial Release and Cold Pack in Upper Trapezius Spasm. Ekta S. Chaudhary, Nehal Shah, Neeta Vyas, ...

*  Corrections Department NZ - Transforming intervention and support for at-risk prisoners

Vollm, B.A., Dolan M.C. (2009) Self-harm among UK female prisoners: a cross-sectional study. The Journal of Forensic Psychiatry ... Benchmarking Study of Home Detention Programs in Australia and New Zealand *About Time: Turning people away from a life of ... A 2015 study of prisoner substance use and mental health disorders, found 91% of those assessed had been diagnosed with a ... A 1999 co-morbidity study found that up to 70% of New Zealand's prisoners had drug and/or alcohol problems. A significant ...

*  Interferon-α coincides with suppressed levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX3) in systemic lupus erythematosus and regulates leucocyte...

In a Swedish cross-sectional study, circulating OPN levels were found to be raised in SLE (Paper III). In patients with recent- ... Further studies of these proteins may help to better understand SLE pathogenesis and to optimize treatment of patients. ... In Paper IV, OPN was instead analyzed in an international longitudinal multi-center study based on patients with recent-onset ... The extrahepatically produced pentraxin 3 (PTX3) shares waste disposal functions with CRP, but has not been studied extensively ...

*  Plus it

... the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Lancet2014;384:857-68. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60932-6 ... Nerves studied were median and ulnar (sensory and motor conduction studies), tibial and fibular (motor conduction studies), and ... Comparison with other studies. In microcephaly a baby's head is smaller than that of a baby of the same sex and age. ... What this study adds. *. This case series provides detailed information about the clinical, imaging, and electromyographic ...

Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.University of CampinasList of universities in Iran: This is a list of universities in Iran.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Niigata UniversityLayout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Addis Ababa Fistula HospitalTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Overweight PoochComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.Hospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]HypertensionRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Halfdan T. MahlerSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictGlobal Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Seroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Quantitative computed tomographyMakerere University School of MedicineParent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.K-Mix 2: K-Mix 2 is a high energy food, used for the treatment of severe malnutrition. It was developed by UNICEF in response to the Biafran crisis, and was widely used in later famines in India and Africa.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.

(1/42185) Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe.

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

(2/42185) Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation.

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

(3/42185) Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV.

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

(4/42185) Post-shift changes in pulmonary function in a cement factory in eastern Saudi Arabia.

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1992 in the oldest of three Portland cement producing factories in Eastern Saudi Arabia. The respirable dust level was in excess of the recommended ACGIH level in all sections. Spirometry was done for 149 cement workers and 348 controls, using a Vitalograph spirometer. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% were calculated and corrected to BTPS. A significantly higher post-shift reduction FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and FEF25-75% was observed in the exposed subjects. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between post-shift changes and exposure to cement dust but failed to support any relationship with smoking. These findings may indicate an increase in the bronchial muscle tone leading to some degree of bronchoconstriction as a result of an irritant effect induced by the acute exposure to cement dust.  (+info)

(5/42185) Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain.

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

(6/42185) Maternal second trimester serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha-soluble receptor p55 (sTNFp55) and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia is characterized by diffuse vascular endothelial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which plays a key role in the cytokine network responsible for immunoregulation, is also known to contribute to endothelial dysfunction and other metabolic disturbances noted in preeclampsia. Results from cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study indicate that TNF-alpha (or its soluble receptor, sTNFp55) is increased in the peripheral circulation and amniotic fluid of women with preeclampsia as compared with normotensive women. Between December 1993 and August 1994, prediagnostic sTNFp55 concentrations (a marker of excessive TNF-alpha release) were measured in 35 women with preeclampsia and 222 normotensive women to determine whether elevations precede the clinical manifestation of the disorder. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Mean second trimester (15-22 weeks' gestation) serum sTNFp55 concentrations, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were 14.4% higher in preeclamptic women than in normotensive controls (716.6 pg/ml (standard deviation 193.6) vs. 626.4 pg/ml (standard deviation 158.0); p = 0.003). The relative risk of preeclampsia increased across successively higher quintiles of sTNFp55 (odds ratios were 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, and 3.7, with the lowest quintile used as the referent; p for trend = 0.007). After adjustment for maternal age, adiposity, and parity, the relative risk between extreme quintiles was 3.3 (95% confidence interval 0.8-13.4). These findings indicate that the level of TNF-alpha in maternal circulation is increased prior to the clinical manifestation of the disorder, and they are consistent with the hypothesized role of cytokines in mediating endothelial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Further work is needed to identify modifiable risk factors for the excessive synthesis and release of TNF-alpha in pregnancy, and to assess whether lowering of TNF-alpha concentrations in pregnancy alters the incidence and severity of preeclampsia.  (+info)

(7/42185) Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and associated risk factors in American Indians: the Strong Heart Study.

Studies of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in minority populations provide researchers with an opportunity to evaluate PAD risk factors and disease severity under different types of conditions. Examination 1 of the Strong Heart Study (1989-1992) provided data on the prevalence of PAD and its risk factors in a sample of American Indians. Participants (N = 4,549) represented 13 tribes located in three geographically diverse centers in the Dakotas, Oklahoma, and Arizona. Participants in this epidemiologic study were aged 45-74 years; 60% were women. Using the single criterion of an ankle brachial index less than 0.9 to define PAD, the prevalence of PAD was approximately 5.3% across centers, with women having slightly higher rates than men. Factors significantly associated with PAD in univariate analyses for both men and women included age, systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin A1c level, albuminuria, fibrinogen level, fasting glucose level, prevalence of diabetes mellitus, and duration of diabetes. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict PAD for women and men combined. Age, systolic blood pressure, current cigarette smoking, pack-years of smoking, albuminuria (micro- and macro-), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and fibrinogen level were significantly positively associated with PAD. Current alcohol consumption was significantly negatively associated with PAD. In American Indians, the association of albuminuria with PAD may equal or exceed the association of cigarette smoking with PAD.  (+info)

(8/42185) Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas.

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)



Cohort

  • Weight-for-length, early weight-gain velocity and atopic dermatitis in infancy and at two years of age: A cohort study. (uio.no)
  • The health effects of vitamin D can be and have been determined from a variety of studies including ecological, observational (case-control and cohort), and cross-sectional studies. (preventdisease.com)

Observational

  • MATERIAL AND METHODS A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional students of the Catholic University San Antonio of Murcia. (semanticscholar.org)

descriptive

  • A case series is a descriptive study of a group of people, who usually receive the same treatment or who have the same disease. (www.nhs.uk)

dementia

  • Pulse wave velocity was estimated using applanation tonometry in 409 dementia- and stroke-free participants of the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (24 to 92 years of age, 62.3% women). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

prospective

  • 1 , 2 In cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal studies, inverse associations between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive performance level are observed over a wide range of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial BP levels. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

Design

  • Using linear regression analyses in a cross-sectional design, associations between pulse wave velocity, age, and the interaction of pulse wave velocity and age were examined in relation to a Global composite score, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Similarities test (abstract reasoning) and four cognitive domains indexed by multiple cognitive measures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DESIGN A cross-sectional study was conducted in three immigrant groups. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Method The study design was a cross-sectional. (blogspot.com)

national

  • It is no surprise therefore that closely following the community consumption survey described above came the ANAIDUS (Australian National AIDS and Injecting Drug Use Study, 1991). (edu.au)
  • It was the first national study to attempt to collect sero-prevalence data on HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users and had as its prime focus ' to provide baseline data, inform policy, and provide information of use to those who are planning and implementing interventions to prevent the spread of HIV' (page 103, ANAIDUS, 1991). (edu.au)
  • This national cross sectional study of 2500 people who injected drugs found a low overall national prevalence of HIV among those whose only risk factor was injecting. (edu.au)

validity

  • This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of the EASYCare-2010 instrument in community-dwelling Portuguese older people attended in Primary Health Care centres. (elsevier.es)
  • The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (clinicaltrials.gov)

participation

  • Subject is deemed unable to comply with requirements of study participation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • When a site is assigned to identify HIV positive adolescents not in care by snowball sampling, all HIV positive persons in care at the site will be invited to refer other adolescents known to them as HIV positive, but not in care, for possible participation in the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)

population

  • A before and after study measures particular characteristics of a population or group of individuals at the end of an event or intervention and compares them with those characteristics before the event or intervention. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The research has just been published in the international journal BMJ Open, and is the first time partner aggression and drinking has been studied in a sample of the general population in New Zealand. (healthcanal.com)
  • This is an early exploratory cross-sectional study designed to both assess the burden of disease and apply novel techniques in this unique population. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Joint associations of folate, homocysteine and MTHFR, MTR and MTRR gene polymorphisms with dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population: a cross-sectional study. (nih.gov)
  • The study also identified that many IDU had already changed their injecting behaviours in response to the threat of HIV/AIDS, assisted by government policy supporting the provision of clean injecting equipment to control the transmission of HIV/AIDS among Australia's IDU population. (edu.au)

research

  • In this study, as in overseas research, if one or both partners had a pattern of heavy drinking episodes (so-called binge drinking) then physical aggression was more common. (healthcanal.com)
  • To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • He has worked on a number of research projects including a Cochrane systematic review examining animal assisted therapy in mentally ill patients, a systematic review looking at methods used for the estimation of pet ownership and developing a critical appraisal tool for examining cross sectional studies. (peerj.com)
  • Persons so authorized will explain the nature of the research study and request permission from the client for subsequent contact by research personnel from the AMTU site. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Printed information containing a brief description of the research in English and in Spanish and contact information of site study personnel will be provided to in-care adolescents at the site for distribution to those known HIV positive adolescents who are not in care. (clinicaltrials.gov)

collect

  • This study will collect information on health status and risk behaviors, as well as basic demographic and biomedical information for a group of HIV positive adolescents receiving care at the ATN sites. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Eligible

  • All HIV-infected adolescents and young adults engaged in care at the 15 sites and their affiliates who are between 12 and 24 years of age, inclusive, are aware of their HIV status and understand written and/or verbal English will be eligible for inclusion in the study. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Methods

  • This study will also compare three methods for recruitment of out-of-care youth using a randomized permuted block list of possible sequences. (clinicaltrials.gov)

case-control

  • A case-control study is an epidemiological study that is often used to identify risk factors for a medical condition. (www.nhs.uk)

evaluate

  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the oxidative stress at venous insufficiency and to provide preliminary knowledge about the role of prolidase enzyme in varicose vein formation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new treatment of recurrent varicose vein after stripping of the great saphenous vein with rigid radiofrequency needles. (readbyqxmd.com)

researchers

  • To better understand the prevalence and effects of heart disease in people with HIV, researchers are interested in comparing heart imaging and metabolism studies to see if there are differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A likely guess would be grape juice, since researchers have long proven the heart health benefits of red wine, but a study published January 28 in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry shows drinking cranberry juice can lower blood pressure. (preventdisease.com)

people

  • This type of study can describe characteristics or outcomes in a particular group of people, but cannot determine how they compare with people who are treated differently or who do not have the condition. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study identifies a group of people and follows them over a period of time to see how their exposures affect their outcomes. (www.nhs.uk)
  • To study metabolism and heart function in people with HIV compared with healthy HIV-negative volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • People who are usually happy, enthusiastic and content are less likely to develop heart disease than those who tend not to be happy, according to a major new study published today. (preventdisease.com)

patients

  • This type of study compares a group of patients who have that condition with a group of patients that do not have it, and looks back in time to see how the characteristics of the two groups differ. (www.nhs.uk)
  • HealthDay News - Soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) has slightly better diagnostic value than angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) for sarcoidosis in patients with uveitis, according to a study published online November 9 in JAMA Ophthalmology . (empr.com)
  • Fahriye Groen-Hakan, MD, from Erasmus University in the Netherlands, and colleagues conducted a cross-sectional retrospective study using data from 249 patients with uveitis. (empr.com)
  • This cross-sectional study demonstrates that sIL-2R is a useful marker for diagnosing sarcoidosis in patients with uveitis and has slightly better diagnostic value than ACE," the authors write. (empr.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the genotypic distribution of these gene polymorphisms between patients with acromegaly and controls. (nih.gov)
  • The proposed study is a cross sectional study intended to be conducted at each of the 15 Adolescent Medicine Trials Units (AMTUs) participating in the ATN and to enroll all participating patients followed at each site. (clinicaltrials.gov)

severe

  • The study included all forms of physical aggression not just the most serious, as violence in partnerships commonly escalates from less severe aggression. (healthcanal.com)
  • Acupuncture may be an effective way of easing severe period pain, a South Korean review of 27 studies suggests. (preventdisease.com)

differences

  • The study found evidence of differences in men's and women's experiences of partner aggression. (healthcanal.com)

medical

  • This is the second phase of a two-phase, cross-sectional study of linkage to medical care of HIV positive youth. (clinicaltrials.gov)

users

  • This was a cross sectional survey of injecting drug users, conducted in 1989, and designed to describe the variables associated with the risk of HIV among IDU in Australia. (edu.au)

sample

  • The sample for this transversal study ( N = 244) was collected from Portuguese Primary Health Care Centers. (elsevier.es)
  • The study was conducted in order ' to address the need for large probability sample surveys related to adult self-reported drug consumption' (pp iii, Blaze-Temple et al, 1987). (edu.au)

type

  • For example, this type of study might be used to look at the effects of changes in air pollution levels on the short-term risk of asthma attacks. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This type of study is normally used to look at the effect of suspected risk factors that cannot be controlled experimentally, for example the effect of smoking on lung cancer. (www.nhs.uk)

Health

  • Higher consumption of antioxidants in the diet in order to lower the rate of diabetes should be made a public health priority, according to a new study. (preventdisease.com)

among

  • At around the same time this study was being conducted in 1986, the first needle and syringe provision program was being pilot tested in Sydney (ANEX, 2014), and the testing of used syringes collected at the site confirmed that HIV was present among IDU using this facility. (edu.au)

results

  • A confidence interval (CI) expresses the precision of an estimate and is often presented alongside the results of a study (usually the 95% confidence interval). (www.nhs.uk)
  • Supplements of the omega-3 fatty acid DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) may alter the function of the brain associated with working memory, according to results of a new study with healthy boys. (preventdisease.com)

effect

  • To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). (readbyqxmd.com)

risk

  • Case crossover studies look at the effects of factors that are thought to increase the risk of a particular outcome in the short term. (www.nhs.uk)