Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Metipranolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist effective for both beta-1 and beta-2 receptors. It is used as an antiarrhythmic, antihypertensive, and antiglaucoma agent.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Isoxsuprine: A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Prochlorperazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of NAUSEA; VOMITING; and VERTIGO. It is more likely than CHLORPROMAZINE to cause EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Breakfast: The first meal of the day.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Charcoal: An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Dialysis Solutions: Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.SulfonesDrug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.TriglyceridesAntihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

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The study was conducted among all MG patients in Norway and the contiguous regions of South- and North Holland in the ... Methods: We designed a population-based cross-sectional study including 858 patients, 373 from Norway and 485 from the ... Methods: We designed a population-based cross-sectional study including 858 patients, 373 from Norway and 485 from the ... Fig1: Overview over study procedure. The study was conducted among all MG patients in Norway and the contiguous regions of ...
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In this video from the NPOSI, Rob Shumer, co-PI of Programs of Study: A Cross-Study Examination of Programs in Three States, ... NPOSI - Rob Shumer - Career Guidance and Counseling - Cross-Study. You are here. Home > Publications & Resources > Videos > ... related to career guidance and counseling from this cross-site evaluation of the NRCCTE's three longitudinal field studies of ... NRCCTE researchers drew on the Center's portfolio of research studies on POS to address implementation barriers related to (1) ...
*  Cross-cultural studies - Wikipedia
Comparative cultural studies Cross-cultural Cross-cultural capital Cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural psychiatry Cross ... Cross-cultural studies is the third form of cross-cultural comparisons. The first is comparison of case studies, the second is ... Cross-cultural studies, sometimes called holocultural studies or comparative studies, is a specialization in anthropology and ... These studies are surveys of ethnographic data. Cross-cultural studies are applied widely in the social sciences, particularly ...
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... a cross-sectional study (also known as a cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, prevalence study) is a type of ... Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental). Unlike case-control studies, they can ... cross-sectional studies differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire population under study ... cross-sectional data. In economics, cross-sectional studies typically involve the use of cross-sectional regression, in order ...
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In a cross-sequential design (also called an "accelerated longitudinal" or "convergence" design), a researcher wants to study ... A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design. It aims ... as in a cross-sectional design, the researcher chooses a smaller time window (e.g. 20 years) to study multiple individuals of ... Rather than studying particular individuals across that whole period of time (e.g. 20-60 years) as in a longitudinal design, or ...
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The Centre for Cross Border Studies (CCBS) is a think tank based in Ireland. The Centre for Cross Border Studies was founded in ... In addition to publishing and commissioning works of cross-border policy research, The Centre for Cross Border Studies also ... The Centre for cross Border Studies Transfrontier Euro-Institut Network: CCBS Border People CCBS: Border People SCoTENS ICLRD. ... The scope of the centre's research encompasses all areas in which practical cross border cooperation between the Republic of ...
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Joint letter from John Bellinger and William Haynes to Jakob Kellenberger on Customary International Law Study', in ... A US government response to the International Committee of the Red Cross study Customary International Humanitarian Law. * ... A US government response to the International Committee of the Red Cross study Customary International Humanitarian Law ... "Joint letter from John Bellinger and William Haynes to Jakob Kellenberger on Customary International Law Study", in ...
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The Indigenous Studies Program located within the Center for Cross-Cultural Studies and College of Liberal Arts at UAF offers a ... Center for Cross-Cultural Studies. 201 Eielson Building. PO Box 756730. Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730. USA. Phone: (907) 474-1902. ... Ray Barnhardt, he helped to create the Center Cross-Cultural Studies at UAF. In so doing he introduced the construct of "Native ... Ways of Knowing" and contributed greatly to the academic field of Indigenous knowledge and broader cross-cultural sharing. ...
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He received his B.A. in Humanities, M.A. in Cross-Cultural Studies, and Ph.D. in Indigenous Studies - all from the University ... Center for Cross-Cultural Studies. 201 Eielson Building. PO Box 756730. Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730. USA. Phone: (907) 474-1902. ... He works closely with the Center for Cross-Cultural Studies as an Indigenous education faculty member. Dr. Topkok is active in ... Theresa Arevgaq John is an Associate Professor in the Department of Cross-Cultural Studies at the University of Alaska ...
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This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ... "Credit cards and money demand: a cross-sectional study," Working Papers 9112, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. ... This study investigates credit card holding and the household demands for several monetary assets in a simultaneous equations ...
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We study the determinants of employment and wages in the public sector, using a new set of panel data for 34 LDCs and 21 OECD ... We study the determinants of employment and wages in the public sector, using a new set of panel data for 34 LDCs and 21 OECD ... "Fiscal Decentralization and Public Sector Employment: A Cross-Country Analysis," International Center for Public Policy Working ... Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0903, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia ...
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Home , Faculty of Arts , Women and Gender Studies , Cross-Supervision Pay Procedures ... The Dean of Graduate Studies' office will process the payment through MSVU Payroll. You will need to fill out the following for ... The form for "appointment of thesis supervisor (external)" must be filed with the Office of the Dean of Graduate Studies at ... The Dean of Graduate Studies' office will confirm that the "appointment of thesis supervisor (external)" form is on file and ...
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... (BOK) Prisca von Dorotka Bagnell, Patricia Spencer Soper Del ... This thought-provoking study belongs to the genre known as humanistic gerontology and it explores the attitudes toward aging as ...
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The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The Impact of Macromastia on Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study. Felecia Cerrato, Michelle L. Webb, Heather Rosen, Laura ... RESULTS: Ninety-six subjects with macromastia and 103 control subjects participated in this study. Age was similar between ...
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This study is important because it investigates a health problem that has not been well studied.View original paper by ... PerúWe have read with great interest the study of Karukunchit et al published in Patient Preference and Adherence. ... Associated factors vs risk factors in cross-sectional studies David Antay-Bedregal,1 Evelyn Camargo-Revello,1 German F ... This study is important because it investigates a health problem that has not been well studied.. View original paper by ...
*  Cross-Institutional Study - Courses - ACU (Australian Catholic University)
Cross-Institutional Study Courses. If you are enrolled in a program at another university you can apply to study one or more ... Postgraduate Health Sciences - Cross-institutional Study Available to:. Domestic students only.. Location:. *Ballarat ... Undergraduate Health Sciences - Cross-institutional Study Available to:. Domestic students only.. Location:. *Ballarat ... Postgraduate Theology - Cross-institutional Study Available to:. Domestic students only.. Location:. *Adelaide ...
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Make research projects and school reports about Cross-Sectional Study easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Cross-Sectional Study at ... CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY. A cross-sectional study is the simplest ... The distinction between a cohort study and a repeated cross-sectional study is that a cohort study is conducted with the same ... The U.S. National Health Surveys are a form of cross-sectional study. Like many other cross-sectional studies, they can ...
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Thalassemia and Other Haemoglobinopathies: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh. M. Mesbah Uddin, Sharif Akteruzzaman, Taibur ... Study Subjects. A total of 600 individuals were recruited in this study. The samples were collected from different hospitals ... This study found 9.2% Hb E disease and 12.1% Hb E trait among the overall study subjects. The haematological parameters in HbE ... except that they showed greater elevation in HbE and F among all the groups studied. Many other studies also reported E-β- ...
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Risk of macular degeneration in users of statins: cross sectional study BMJ 2001; 323 :375 ... Risk of macular degeneration in users of statins: cross sectional study. BMJ 2001; 323 doi: ... Contributors: NFH, CRG, DIWP, and CNM formulated the design of the study. NFH and CRG carried out the fieldwork. HS analysed ... Funding This study was funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council. ...
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This software is developed by INCLEN for facilitating cross-sectional studies. This technology is functional on web through PHP ... Presently this software is used by INCLEN in the assessment of Home Based Neonatal Care (HBNC) - A cross sectional Program ...
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Competition Bureau urged to study cross-border price gap The Competition Bureau should look into price differences between ... Competition Bureau urged to study cross-border price gap. Competition Bureau urged to study cross-border price gap. The ... Competition Bureau urged to study cross-border price gap. * Search this thread ... A study, into something most of us already know.. The most they can do with this study is issue a report of their findings and ...
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... nuclear families number of living number of rooms nutritional status path analysis poor positive relationship present study ... Religions religious and caste respondents belonging rural areas sanitation index significant social socio-economic status study ...
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The journal publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to molecular pathology, ... Study Design and Participants. This was a cross-sectional study of 849 women diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2009 ... Obesity and Prognostic Variables in Colombian Breast Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study. Javier Cuello-López,1 Ana ... A cross-sectional study including 849 women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2009 and 2014. Based on body mass index, ...
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... operationalized in this study as people of Latino descent between the ages of 18-25, are using their mobile phone for various ... Article discussing a cross-cultural study designed to analyze how young people, ... Article discussing a cross-cultural study designed to analyze how young people, operationalized in this study as people of ... Article discussing a cross-cultural study designed to analyze how young people, operationalized in this study as people of ...

Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Koeppe's nodules: Koeppe's nodules are small nodules seen at the inner margin of the iris in patients with granulomatous anterior uveitis, which occurs in conditions such as sarcoidosis and tuberculosis.Neil T.TemazepamFirst pass effect: The first-pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation. It is the fraction of drug lost during the process of absorption which is generally related to the liver and gut wall.Stable nucleic acid lipid particle: Stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs) are microscopic particles approximately 120 nanometers in diameter, smaller than the wavelengths of visible light. They have been used to deliver siRNAs therapeutically to mammals in vivo.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.ProchlorperazineBioequivalence: Bioequivalence is a term in pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of two proprietary preparations of a drug. If two products are said to be bioequivalent it means that they would be expected to be, for all intents and purposes, the same.Drug interaction: A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance (usually another drug) affects the activity of a drug when both are administered together. This action can be synergistic (when the drug's effect is increased) or antagonistic (when the drug's effect is decreased) or a new effect can be produced that neither produces on its own.FenoterolAortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.BambuterolListerineAnxiolytic: An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is in contrast to anxiogenic agents, which increase anxiety.Charcoal biscuit: A charcoal biscuit is a biscuit based on a powdered willow charcoal or activated carbon mixed with ordinary flour, and made into dough with butter, sugar and eggs.Ventolin (EP): "Ventolin" is a piece of electronic music composed by Cornish musician Richard D James. It is noted for its harsh, abrasive sound.Effervescent tablet: Effervescent or carbon tablets are tablets which are designed to break in contact with water or another liquid, releasing carbon dioxide in the process.British Pharmacopeia 2003 Rapid breakdown often may cause the tablet to dissolve into a solution, and is also often followed by a froth.Interbeat interval: Interbeat interval is a scientific term used in the study of the mammalian heart.PhosphorylethanolamineCapsugelErythromycinBentazepamIbuprofenTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingAtenololConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.BudesonideBronchodilator: A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties.Sustained release dosage forms: Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a predetermined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. This can be achieved through a variety of formulations, including liposomes and drug-polymer conjugates (an example being hydrogels).Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.OmeprazoleBronchoconstriction: Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.Nonbenzodiazepine: Nonbenzodiazepines (sometimes referred to colloquially as "Z-drugs") are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature. Nonbenzodiazepines pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore employ similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.Rumack-Matthew nomogram: The Rumack-Matthew nomogram, also known as Rumack-Matthews nomogram or the Acetaminophen nomogram is an acetaminophen toxicity nomogram plotting serum concentration of acetaminophen against the time since ingestion in an attempt to prognosticate possible liver toxicity as well as allowing a clinician to decide whether to proceed with N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment or not. It is a logarithmic graph starting not directly from ingestion, but from 4 hours post ingestion after absorption is considered likely to be complete.MidazolamSwiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).BevantololPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Dialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Cancer pain: Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response. Most chronic (long-lasting) pain is caused by the illness and most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures.Sulfone: A sulfone is a chemical compound containing a sulfonyl functional group attached to two carbon atoms. The central hexavalent sulfur atom is double bonded to each of two oxygen atoms and has a single bond to each of two carbon atoms, usually in two separate hydrocarbon substituents.Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist: Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs, more specifically β2-agonists) are usually prescribed for moderate to severe persistent asthma patients or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They are designed to reduce the need for shorter-acting β2-agonists such as salbutamol, as they have a duration of action of approximately 12 hours in comparison with the 4- to 6-hour duration of salbutamol, making them candidates for sparing high doses of corticosteroids or treating nocturnal asthma and providing symptomatic improvement in patients with COPD.PropranololSubcutaneous injectionDietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Alcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.CelecoxibTriglycerideLidanserin: Lidanserin (INN; ZK-33,839) is a drug which acts as a combined 5-HT2A and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It was developed as an antihypertensive agent but was never marketed.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor: A Broad-Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor or BSCI (also termed Chemotide or Somatotaxin ) is a type of experimental anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits the action of the pro-inflammatory proteins chemokines.Midnight: Midnight is the transition time period from one day to the next: the moment when the date changes. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise, varying according to the seasons.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Animal fatNathan W. LevinHypertensionBiomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.

(1/7712) Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade.

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

(2/7712) Energy cost of propulsion in standard and ultralight wheelchairs in people with spinal cord injuries.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wheelchair- and subject-related factors influence the efficiency of wheelchair propulsion. The purpose of this study was to compare wheelchair propulsion in ultralight and standard wheelchairs in people with different levels of spinal cord injury. SUBJECTS: Seventy-four subjects (mean age=26.2 years, SD=7.14, range=17-50) with spinal cord injury resulting in motor loss (30 with tetraplegia and 44 with paraplegia) were studied. METHOD: Each subject propelled standard and ultralight wheelchairs around an outdoor track at self-selected speeds, while data were collected at 4 predetermined intervals. Speed, distance traveled, and oxygen cost (VO2 mL/kg/m) were compared by wheelchair, group, and over time, using a Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: In the ultralight wheelchair, speed and distance traveled were greater for both subjects with paraplegia and subjects with tetraplegia, whereas VO2 was less only for subjects with paraplegia. Subjects with paraplegia propelled faster and farther than did subjects with tetraplegia. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The ultralight wheelchair improved the efficiency of propulsion in the tested subjects. Subjects with tetraplegia, especially at the C6 level, are limited in their ability to propel a wheelchair.  (+info)

(3/7712) Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids.

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

(4/7712) Antiproteinuric efficacy of verapamil in comparison to trandolapril in non-diabetic renal disease.

BACKGROUND: Non-dihydropyridine calcium antagonists such as verapamil are equally effective in reducing proteinuria as ACE inhibitors in hypertensive patients with diabetic nephropathy. To date it is unknown whether verapamil elucidates such an antiproteinuric capacity in non-diabetic renal disease. METHODS: We performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, random cross-over study which compared the antiproteinuric effect of 6 weeks treatment with verapamil SR (360 mg) to that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril (4 mg), and their fixed combination vera/tran (180 mg verapamil SR and 2 mg trandolapril) in 11 non-diabetic patients with proteinuria of 6.6 (5.1-8.8) g/day, a creatinine clearance of 87 (74-106) ml/min, and a 24-h blood pressure of 136/85 (126/76-157/96) mmHg at baseline. RESULTS: Twenty-four-hour mean arterial pressure did not change during verapamil, whereas both trandolapril and vera/tran induced a significant reduction in MAP. Verapamil showed no significant effects on renal haemodynamics. Trandolapril and vera/tran did not significantly change GFR, but ERPF increased and FF decreased during both treatments (P<0.05). The antiproteinuric response of verapamil was significantly less compared to that of trandolapril and vera/tran (-12% (-17/-1) vs -51% (-56/-25) and -41% (-50/-19) respectively). The blood pressure and antiproteinuric response during verapamil tended to be greater in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients, although this difference was not significant. Baseline blood pressure was related to the change in blood pressure during verapamil (r = -0.70; P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The antiproteinuric and antihypertensive response of verapamil is less than that of the ACE inhibitor trandolapril in patients with non-diabetic renal disease. In contrast to the antiproteinuric response of trandolapril, the antiproteinuric reponse of verapamil seems to be completely dependent from effective blood pressure reduction. The fixed combination of verapamil and ACE inhibition at half doses has similar effects as ACE inhibition at full dose.  (+info)

(5/7712) A nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, reduces cue-induced cocaine craving in cocaine-dependent subjects.

We have previously shown that nicotine enhances cue-induced cocaine craving. In the present study, the effects of a nicotine antagonist, mecamylamine, on cue-induced cocaine craving were investigated. Twenty-three cocaine-dependent patients, all cigarette smokers, were randomly assigned to mecamylamine (2.5 mg tablet) or placebo in a single-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blind study. Craving and anxiety were measured before and after cocaine cues with visual analog scales for desire to use cocaine and mood. Skin conductance, skin temperature and heart rate were recorded before and during cocaine cues. Following exposure to cocaine cues, all patients reported an increase in cocaine craving and anxiety relative to the precue measures. Cue exposure also produced an increase in skin conductance and decrease in skin temperature. The cue-induced increase in cocaine craving was reduced, while the cue-induced skin conductance and temperature responses were unaffected, by mecamylamine. These findings show that cue-induced cocaine craving is attenuated by mecamylamine. Further study on the use of mecamylamine in relapse prevention programs are suggested.  (+info)

(6/7712) Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity.

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

(7/7712) The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to it systemic effects.

Salmeterol is approximately eight times as potent as salbutamol for systemic effects. This may be because the drug is eight times more potent on receptors or there may be differences in systemic bioavailability. The systemic effects of salbutamol are limited by its fairly high first-pass metabolism, but the oral bioavailability of salmeterol is unknown. The contribution of the swallowed fraction of an inhaled dose of salmeterol to its systemic effects were analysed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Twelve healthy subjects were given inhaled salmeterol 400 microg, inhaled salmeterol 400 microg plus oral activated charcoal or inhaled placebo plus oral activated charcoal on three separate days. Cardiac frequency (fC), Q-T interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), plasma potassium and glucose concentrations were measured for 4 h following the inhaled drug. Salmeterol with and without oral charcoal produced significant changes for all measures compared to placebo. The magnitude of effect following salmeterol alone was significantly greater than that following salmeterol plus charcoal for fC and glucose (mean (95% confidence interval) differences 8 (2-13) beats x min(-1), 0.59 (0.04, 1.13) mmol x L(-1), respectively) and nonsignificantly greater for QTc interval and potassium concentration. The differences between salmeterol given with and without charcoal suggest that 28-36% of the systemic response to salmeterol administered from a metered-dose inhaler are due to drug absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, most of the systemic effects are due to the inhaled fraction of the drug.  (+info)

(8/7712) Neonatal examination and screening trial (NEST): a randomised, controlled, switchback trial of alternative policies for low risk infants.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of one rather than two hospital neonatal examinations in detection of abnormalities. DESIGN: Randomised controlled switchback trial. SETTING: Postnatal wards in a teaching hospital in north east Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: All infants delivered at the hospital between March 1993 and February 1995. INTERVENTION: A policy of one neonatal screening examination compared with a policy of two. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Congenital conditions diagnosed in hospital; results of community health assessments at 8 weeks and 8 months; outpatient referrals; inpatient admissions; use of general practioner services; focused analysis of outcomes for suspected hip and heart abnormalities. RESULTS: 4835 babies were allocated to receive one screening examination (one screen policy) and 4877 to receive two (two screen policy). More congenital conditions were suspected at discharge among babies examined twice (9.9 v 8.3 diagnoses per 100 babies; 95% confidence interval for difference 0.3 to 2.7). There was no overall significant difference between the groups in use of community, outpatient, or inpatient resources or in health care received. Although more babies who were examined twice attended orthopaedic outpatient clinics (340 (7%) v 289 (6%)), particularly for suspected congenital dislocation of the hip (176 (3.6/100 babies) v 137 (2.8/100 babies); difference -0.8; -1.5 to 0.1), there was no significant difference in the number of babies who required active management (12 (0.2%) v 15 (0.3%)). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more suspected abnormalities, there was no evidence of net health gain from a policy of two hospital neonatal examinations. Adoption of a single examination policy would save resources both during the postnatal hospital stay and through fewer outpatient consultations.  (+info)

  • prevalence
  • Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). (
  • These studies gather information about the prevalence of health-related states and conditions, but they cannot distinguish between newly occurring and long-established conditions. (
  • Comparative
  • Unlike comparative studies, which examines similar characteristics of a few societies, cross-cultural studies uses a sufficiently large sample so that statistical analysis can be made to show relationships or lack of relationships between the traits in question. (
  • Comparative cultural studies Cross-cultural Cross-cultural capital Cross-cultural communication Cross-cultural psychiatry Cross-cultural psychology Cultural bias Cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Human Relations Area Files Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck's values orientation theory Standard cross-cultural sample Avner Ben-Zaken, "From "Incommensurability of Cultures" to Mutually Embraced Zones" in Cross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges In the Eastern Mediterranean 1560-1660 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010)], pp. 163-167. (
  • HRAF also sponsors and edits the quarterly journal, Cross-Cultural Research: The Journal of Comparative Social Science, and organizes and edits encyclopedias. (
  • behavior
  • Such a study would throw some light on the relationship of both occupational exposures and smoking behavior to respiratory symptoms and respiratory function. (
  • In the 1970s and 1980s, research began focusing on the impact of children's behavior on relationships, which influenced the study of the effectiveness of teaching children social skills that are age, gender, and context specific. (
  • Examining influences on scientific and ethological inquiries", Interpretation and explanation in the study of animal behavior, Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, pp. 56-73. (
  • The Institute of Human Relations had sponsored HRAF's precursor, the Cross-Cultural Survey (see George Peter Murdock), as part of an effort to develop an integrated science of human behavior and culture. (
  • research
  • NRCCTE researchers drew on the Center's portfolio of research studies on POS to address implementation barriers related to (1) career guidance and counseling and (2) business, community, and postsecondary partnerships identified by states. (
  • 1998. Cross-Cultural Research. (
  • de Munck V. Cultural Units in Cross-Cultural Research // Ethnology 39/4 (2000): 335-348. (
  • Cross-Cultural Research Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology World Cultures Structure and Dynamics eJournal of the Anthropological and Related Sciences Transtext(e)sTranscultures: Trilingual Journal of Global Cultural Studies Social Evolution & History Society for Cross-Cultural Research Institut d'études Transtextuelles et Transculturelles (IETT), Institute for Transtextual and Transcultural Studies, Lyons, France. (
  • The Centre for Cross Border Studies was founded in 1999 with the purpose of undertaking policy research in the field of cross-border cooperation within Ireland and further afield. (
  • In addition to publishing and commissioning works of cross-border policy research, The Centre for Cross Border Studies also engages in a range of practical activities with the intention of facilitating cross-border cooperation. (
  • Use of PhenX measures facilitates combining data from a variety of studies, and makes it easy for investigators to expand a study design beyond the primary research focus. (
  • Other researchers, interested in this new research study, analyzed Thurstone's data, discovering that those that scored high in one category often did well in the others. (
  • economics
  • While students are chosen by the quality of their school studies and their extracurricular activities for some courses like economics, other departments such as physics, informatics and meteorology do not preselect for their courses, with the view that students will be subject to natural selection during courses. (
  • Units
  • ACTh students enrolled in a Master's degree by coursework may be permitted to complete up to two units of study in the Moore College MA (Theology). (
  • ITT is also simpler than other forms of study design and analysis because it does not require observation of compliance status for units assigned to different treatments or incorporation of compliance into the analysis. (
  • aims
  • Simply put, it is a study that aims to describe the relationship between diseases (or other health-related states) and other factors of interest as they exist in a specified population at a particular time, without regard for what may have preceded or precipitated the health status found at the time of the study. (
  • form
  • Cross-cultural studies is the third form of cross-cultural comparisons. (
  • The form for "appointment of thesis supervisor (external)" must be filed with the Office of the Dean of Graduate Studies at MSVU. (
  • Once the student registers for and begins their work on the thesis, the form "Chit Notification" should be completed and submitted to the Office of the Dean of Graduate Studies. (
  • The Dean of Graduate Studies' office will confirm that the "appointment of thesis supervisor (external)" form is on file and everything is in order. (
  • data
  • We study the determinants of employment and wages in the public sector, using a new set of panel data for 34 LDCs and 21 OECD countries from 1972-992, by estimating equations suggested by an efficiency wage model. (
  • area
  • The Toolkit can be particularly helpful when an investigator wants to expand a study to include measures that are outside his or her primary area of expertise. (
  • The region encompasses the towns of Kalgoorlie, Boulder, Coolgardie, Kambalda, Southern Cross and other smaller settlements within this area. (
  • Part 6, Youanmi - Leonora study area. (
  • Part 11, Boorabbin - Southern Cross study area. (
  • work
  • PhenX protocols are available as REDCap Instrument Zip files, and work is underway to map PhenX variables to all studies in dbGaP. (
  • The university allows a broad band of education with the possibility of cross studies and work. (
  • In addition to his work in operas, Cross has worked as a recitalist and a concert soloist, notably appearing in concerts with several major symphony orchestras, including the Philadelphia Orchestra, the San Francisco Symphony, the Seattle Symphony, and the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra among others. (
  • Journal
  • Together with Douglas R. White, he developed the widely used Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, currently maintained by the open access electronic journal World Cultures. (
  • Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 3-30. (
  • analysis
  • Fiscal Decentralization and Public Sector Employment: A Cross-Country Analysis ," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0903, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University. (
  • The new "Register Your Study" feature allows registered users to share their study with other registered users or find other studies using the same protocols and identify opportunities for cross-study analysis. (
  • allowed to finish their studies
  • Students already enrolled for a diplom degree when the transition began were allowed to finish their studies, but new students are only allowed to apply for a bachelor or master's degree. (
  • Students working towards a diplom degree were allowed to finish their studies while new students could apply for a bachelor's or master's degree. (
  • students
  • It maintains the Border People web portal, which is designed to provide practical information for cross-border workers and students on the island of Ireland as well as those crossing the border to live in the other jurisdiction. (
  • International study opportunities for students. (
  • International students who would like to take cross institutional studies at Moore College should first check their student visa conditions. (
  • provide
  • In this table, over a span of 10 years, from 1990 to 2000, 7 overlapping cohorts with different starting ages could be studied to provide information on the whole span of development from ages 20 to 60. (
  • common
  • The first is comparison of case studies, the second is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation,[clarification needed] and the third is comparison within a sample of cases. (
  • In one common crossed study, 10 parts might each be measured two times by two different operators. (
  • Program
  • After joining Wesleyan University in 2000 as an assistant professor, she became chair of the philosophy department in 2010, professor in the feminist, gender and sexuality studies program in 2011, and the William Griffin Professor of Philosophy in 2015. (
  • She also co-coordinates Wesleyan animal studies, a summer fellowship program. (
  • known
  • This thought-provoking study belongs to the genre known as humanistic gerontology and it explores the attitudes toward aging as expressed by society. (
  • take
  • In Cross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges in the Eastern Mediterranean 1560-1660 Avner Ben-Zaken has argued that cross-cultural exchanges take place at a cultural hazy locus where the margins of one culture overlaps the other, creating a "mutually embraced zone" where exchanges take place on mundane ways. (
  • tend
  • For example, if people who have a more refractory or serious problem tend to drop out of a study at a higher rate, even a completely ineffective treatment may appear to be providing benefits if one merely compares the condition before and after the treatment for only those who finish the study (ignoring those who were enrolled originally, but have since been excluded or dropped out). (
  • researchers
  • The collections are primarily organized by major geographical region, and then by culture or archaeological tradition, so researchers can access information about particular cultures, particular regions of the world, or do a worldwide or regional cross-cultural comparison. (
  • population
  • The present study was undertaken to evaluate the spectrum and pattern haemoglobinopathies in a selected population of Bangladesh. (
  • Society
  • Lori Gruen is the William Griffin Professor of Philosophy, and Professor of Feminist, Gender and Sexuality Studies and Science in Society, at Wesleyan University. (
  • another
  • The study will say they find nothing wrong with it so that next time somebody brings this up so that there will be yet another study. (
  • More recently however, another sample of the writing was discovered in the inscriptions on a bronze processional cross found at Herat (in present-day Afghanistan). (
  • social
  • Korotayev, Andrey, World Religions and Social Evolution of the Old World Oikumene Civilizations: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. (
  • The study of social competence began in the early 20th century. (
  • education
  • He is one of the co-chairs for the Alaska Native Studies Council and serves on the University of Alaska Teacher Education Council. (