Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Cicer: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for the edible beans.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Lens Plant: A plant genus of the FABACEAE family known for the seeds used as food.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.DNA Shuffling: The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Verticillium: A mitosporic fungal genus commonly isolated from soil. Some species are the cause of wilt diseases in many different plants.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Cynara: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Sesamum: A plant genus of the family PEDALIACEAE that is the source of the edible seed and SESAME OIL.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Aluminum: A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Environment, Controlled: A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Cajanus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is used for food in NIGERIA.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Flowering Tops: Tops of plants when in flower, including the stems, leaves and blooms.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Rhizoctonia: A mitosporic Ceratobasidiaceae fungal genus that is an important plant pathogen affecting potatoes and other plants. There are numerous teleomorphs.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Orobanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Enhancement: The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Parrots: BIRDS of the large family Psittacidae, widely distributed in tropical regions and having a distinctive stout, curved hooked bill. The family includes LOVEBIRDS; AMAZON PARROTS; conures; PARAKEETS; and many other kinds of parrots.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.

*  Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance Program

Improving Farmers' Access to Agricultural Insurance in India. 2012. Feasibility Study. *. Index Based Crop Insurance Product ... Establish sustainable agricultural insurance programs and agricultural insurance pools through PPPs.. India's weather-based ... The Government of Netherlands, through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs, is a long-standing partner of DRFI on the Agricultural ... Promoting Access to Agricultural Insurance in Developing Countries: Agriculture Insurance Development Program (AIDP) Strategy ...

*  Full text of "Circular of the Maryland Agricultural College"

The crop of corn raised on 32 acres was 200 barrels. The crop of hay was 30 tons; oats, 300 bushels; pork, salted down, 2500 ... Botany; How Crops Feed and How Crops Grow, and Gardening for Profit; Exercises on' the Farm. School of Chemistry. - Organic and ... Tliey planted, replanted and thinned last year's crop of corn, and have planted the present crop. I recom- mend that work ... construction and use of agricultural implements and how to repair them, plant crops, &c., and generally, carry on the farming ...

*  Cobweb, a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review | Carrasco | Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research

... a serious pathology in mushroom crops: A review ... The end of the crop cycle is a crucial time for removal of any ... When not properly treated, conidia will spread within crops, magnifying infection and increasing losses (Adie et al., 2006; ... Cobweb appears more often at the end of the crop cycle (although the earlier it appears, the more devastating it can be) during ... Dactylium Nees) can cause cobweb disease in edible mushroom crops (Table 1). They correspond to the conidial or asexual stage ...

*  Crop evolution adaptation and yield | Natural resource management, agriculture, horticulture and forestry | Cambridge...

Highly recommended for agricultural collections." R.P. Poincelot, Choice ... 2. Crop yields and world food supply. 3. The domestication of crop plants. 4. Adaptation and the ecology of yield. 5. ... and root crops, both temperate and tropical. He also considers pasture plants, oilseeds, leafy crops, fruit trees, and others. ... an amazing book....The author truly breaks new ground and has created a whole new way to look at crop plant evolution and ...

*  Kenya Horticulture Development Program - SourceWatch

Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI). *Horticultural Crops Development Authority (HCDA). *Coast Development Authority ( ... Improved Performance of Agricultural Marketing Systems: "More than 100 KHDP monthly Horticulture Updates and Market News were ... New crops continuously targeted include vanilla, paprika, African "bird's eye chili", papaya, hybrid "jumbo" passion fruit, ... Services for Agricultural Trade Improved: An estimated 80,000 stakeholders now receive improved market information through the ...

*  "Logistical Challenges to Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a Bioenergy Crop" by Amy...

There's more to producing a crop like switchgrass for bioenergy than just growing it. Harvesting, storing, transporting, and ... Logistical Challenges to Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a Bioenergy Crop. Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering ... There's more to producing a crop like switchgrass for bioenergy than just growing it. Harvesting, storing, transporting, and ... "Logistical Challenges to Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a Bioenergy Crop" (2013) Available at: ...

*  allium | Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center

Outbreak of Iris Yellow Spot Virus in Onion Seed Crops in Central Oregon. Central Oregon Agricultural Research Center 2004 ...

*  Olive oil - Wikipedia

"Olive oil virgin, crops processed, production data for 2014". Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, ... Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the ... "Influence of Harvest Date and Crop Yield on the Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Cv. Picual" (PDF) ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00139225 - Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-83-385-1469, Agricultural Commissioner, San...

1983 at the Agricultural Commissioners Office (SIC-0721) in Paso Robles, California. The evaluation was requested by an ... Crop Planting, Cultivation, and Protection; pesticide; thallium sulfate; strychnine; organophosphate; dermatitis; hair loss; ... Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-83-385-1469, Agricultural Commissioner, San Luis Obispo County, Paso Robles, California. ... Exposures to thallium-sulfate (10031591) and other pesticides were investigated on October 19, 1983 at the Agricultural ...

*  Acetal Resin | DuPont ™ Delrin ® | DuPont USA

Crop Protection. DuPont Crop Protection uses inclusive thinking to create answers in insect, weed and disease control that help ... Agricultural Products. * > Animal Nutrition & Disease Prevention. DuPont is helping to meet increased global demand for ... Growing success with Pioneer® brand agricultural seeds. Proven performance and plenty of options - that's what our product... ... DuPont Agriculture offerings deliver global nutrition through higher crop yields and healthier foods while developing solutions ...

*  October, 2012 | OMAFRA Field Crop News

Field Crop News" is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at "Field Crop News". ...

*  October, 2013 | OMAFRA Field Crop News

Field Crop News" is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at "Field Crop News". ...

*  October, 2016 | OMAFRA Field Crop News

Field Crop News" is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at "Field Crop News". ...

*  SCN | OMAFRA Field Crop News

Field Crop News" is an archive of information dedicated to the production of over 8.5 million acres of field crops in Ontario and a forum for which producers, researchers and industry personnel can share information and ideas. The crop technology team with the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), faculty at the University of Guelph and Ontario field crop producers continually work together to find ways to improve field crop production. The key learning and outcomes from these collaborations are captured at "Field Crop News". ...

*  Agricultural Crops - Springfield, PA -

Find Agricultural Crops local business listings in and near Springfield, PA. Get Agricultural Crops business addresses, phone numbers, driving directions, maps, reviews and more.

*  OMAFRA Field Crop Report - July 27, 2016 | OMAFRA Field Crop News

OMAFRA Field Crop Report -July 27, 2016 By: The OMAFRA Field Crop Team Cereals Winter wheat harvest is winding down and yields have been above average

*  Plant Breeders' Rights

Plant Breeders rights became an accepted branch of intellectual property with the adoption of the International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) in 1961.. The Convention protects the variety of the plant not the plant itself therefore the subject matter of protection is the variety and not the whole plant. A variety is a new plant that is distinct from any other variety that is known to agriculture or published in any botanical literature. A variety is 'known to agriculture' if man has cultivated it. A variety is 'known to botanical literature' if it has been recorded. Therefore any person who discovers a new plant variety that is wild, that man can use or domesticate, can apply to the competent authority for a Grant of a Plant Breeder's Right.. The UPOV Convention 1961 was subsequently amended in 1978 and 1991. Kenya was the first country in Africa to domesticate the UPOV Convention. Kenya's Seed and Plant Varieties Act Chapter 326 is modeled on UPOV 1961. South ...

*  THE HOCKEY SCHTICK: Analysis finds increased CO2 and warming beneficial for agricultural crops

As the air's CO2 content rises, most plants exhibit increased rates of photosynthesis and biomass production (see our Plant Growth Database[1]), which should enhance the amount of food, fiber and timber production that can be utilized to feed, clothe and shelter earth's expanding human population. However, some individuals have suggested that the growth-promoting effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment may be largely negated by the global warming that is predicted to occur in the near future by a number of state-of-the-art climate models, which outcome could compromise our ability to sustain a greater human population without increasing arable land acreage. Thus, we turn to the scientific literature to see if plants will - or will not - continue to exhibit CO2-induced growth increases under conditions of predicted future warming, which we do here by reviewing what has been learned about the photosynthetic and growth responses of CO2-enriched agricultural crops grown at both ...

*  Rosalind Peterson -- Chemicals, Photosynthesis & Solar Power Connection NOAA lists more than fifty current and ongoing weather modification programs being implemented across the United States on a yearly basis. In addition to the programs listed by NOAA, there are private, university, military, and ongoing government sponsored atmospheric testing and heating programs underway in Alaska and across the United States. Artificial weather modification can impact all of us by chemically polluting our water supplies, changing agricultural crop production cycles and micro-climates, reducing crop production, and water availability. Since most experimental weather modification programs use chemicals released into the atmosphere the public could be subjected to increasingly toxic or unknown substances that could adversely impact agricultural crops, pollute drinking water supplies, and cause declining tree health. If the weather is changed in one state, region or county it changes local micro-climates needed for ...

*  Graduate Courses | Agronomy Department

ALS 5155: Global Agroecosystems (3) This course focuses on the principles of agroecology and presentation of topics that integrate ecological with agricultural principles to optimize resource conservation, productivity, societal benefit, and profitability.. AGR 5215C: Integrated Field Crop Science (3) Intensive introduction to practical field crop production and management of common, as well as under-exploited, field crops. Offered summer A term.. AGR 5230C: Florida Grassland Agroecosystems (4) Comprehensive overview of planted and native grassland ecosystems in Florida emphasizing their growth, species diversity, management, and use by ruminant animals. Offered spring term.. AGR 5266C: Field Plot Techniques (3) Prereq: STA 3023. Techniques and procedures used in design and analysis of field plot, greenhouse, and laboratory research experiments. Application of research methodology, the analysis and interpretation of research results. Offered fall term.. AGR 5277C: Tropical ...

*  The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production (Hardback) - Routledge

The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production presents the state of knowledge on environmental factors in root growth and development and their effect on the improvement of the yield of annual crops. This book addresses the role of roots in crop production…

*  C4 photosynthetic trait discovery | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

To meet projected demand for food, fibre and energy, crop productivity needs to continue on an upward trajectory. The world population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050 which will require food production to nearly double to maintain today's standards. Current trends suggest that productivity improvements for the world's four major crops will fall well short of this goal [1]. Agricultural producers draw on a multitude of technologies to ensure efficient, sustainable, stable and high-quality crop production. Genetics has been the foundation of crop improvement since the dawn of agriculture. New genome technologies have transformed genetics into an information-rich (driven) discipline.. Photosynthesis is a viable plant productivity improvement target [2-5]. Since its discovery [6], C4 photosynthesis has become widely recognized as an effective photosynthetic mechanism for hot, dry climates, increasing both nitrogen and water use efficiency [7]. The desire to transfer the C ...

*  Let's compare organic amendments | OMAFRA Field Crop News

A livestock farmer appreciates the value that manure has to their cropping system. In the past, cash crop producers, who did not have access to such a

*  Polling the anti-GM vote - Pharyngula

Yes? And? It's a tool, sure, but that can't possibly be an objection to a tool being unusable for sustainable agriculture. And focusing on genetically modified plants is odd: all of our crops are genetically modified, often beyond recognition. Modern corn looks almost nothing like teosinte, and is the product of thousands of years of human meddling with crops…this argument reduces to a complaint that the very subtle fine-tuning of specific genes with modern molecular techniques is somehow more troubling than the wholesale radical modification of a whole species by extreme artificial selection. I just don't get it, unless it's just some crazy Luddite bias. There are legitimate complaints about how agribusiness can use genetic modification to lock up strains for selfish economic reasons, but the topic of the debate isn't about abuses of the technique - it's about the potential for genetic engineering to improve sustainability.. Anyway, it's a debate with an internet poll ...

*  New method for associating genetic variation with crop traits | EurekAlert! Science News

A new technique developed at the John Innes Centre will allow plant breeders to introduce valuable crop traits even without access to the full genome sequence of that crop. The technique, published in the journal Nature Biotechnology, links important agronomic traits in crop plants with active regions of the genome. Instead of requiring knowledge of the crop's complete genome, it identifies only expressed genes.

Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Plant perception (physiology): Plant perception is the ability of plants to sense and respond to the environment to adjust their morphology, physiology and phenotype accordingly. Other disciplines such as plant physiology, ecology and molecular biology are used to assess this ability.Agracetus: The Agracetus Campus of Monsanto Company is the world's largest soybean transformation laboratory. It has over 21,700 employees worldwide, and an annual revenue of USD$11.Southern corn leaf blight: Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is a fungal disease of maize caused by the plant pathogen Bipolaris maydis (also known as Cochliobolus heterostrophus in its teleomorph state).Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".List of varieties of genetically modified maize: This is a partial list of varieties of maize that have been modified.Tomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Herbicide: Herbicide(s), also commonly known as weedkillers, are pesticides used to control unwanted plants. Selective herbicides control specific weed species, while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed.Gossypium herbaceum: Gossypium herbaceum, commonly known as Levant cotton, is a species of cotton native to the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Arabia where it still grows in the wild as a perennial shrub. It is a sister-species of Gossypium arboreum.Weedy rice: Weedy rice, also known as red rice, is a variety of rice (Oryza) that produces far fewer grains per plant than cultivated rice and is therefore considered a pest. The name "weedy rice" is used for all types and variations of rice which show some characteristic features of cultivated rice and grow as weeds in commercial rice fields.Canadian Renewable Fuels Association: The Canadian Renewable Fuels Association (CRFA) is a non-profit organization in Canada, created in 1984. Its stated purpose is to "promote renewable fuels for transportation through consumer awareness and government liaison activities", and its membership includes "representatives from all levels of the ethanol and biodiesel industry", including agricultural associations and producers of ethanol and biodiesel.Sweet sorghumWheat middlings: Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) is the middle of three grades into which flour and meal are classified: patents, middlings, and clears. Middlings are often used in animal feed.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Biopesticide: Biopesticides, a contraction of 'biological pesticides', include several types of pest management intervention: through predatory, parasitic, or chemical relationships. The term has been associated historically with biological control - and by implication - the manipulation of living organisms.Endodermis: The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants. It is made of compact living cells surrounded by an outer ring of endodermal cells that are impregnated with hydrophobic substances (Casparian Strip) to restrict apoplastic flow of water to the inside.Weed control: Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with domesticated plants and livestock. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants.Leifsonia xyli xyli: Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli is a small, fastidious, Gram-positive, coryneform bacterium that causes ratoon stunting disease, a major worldwide disease of sugarcane.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Thaumatomyia notata: Thaumatomyia notata, the 'Yellow Swarming Fly', is a species of 'frit flies' or 'grass flies' belonging to the family Chloropidae subfamily Chloropinae.Breeding for drought stress toleranceF1 hybrid: An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types. F1 hybrids are used in genetics, and in selective breeding, where it may appear as F1 crossbreed.Panicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Phacidiopycnis padwickii: Phacidiopycnis padwickii is a plant pathogen infecting chickpea.Cassava brown streak virus disease: Cassava brown streak virus disease (CBSD) is a damaging disease of cassava plants, and is especially troublesome in East Africa. It was first identified in 1936 in Tanzania, and has spread to other coastal areas of East Africa, from Kenya to Mozambique.Nitrogen deficiencyHardening (botany): Hardening in botany is the process by which an individual plant becomes tolerant to the effects of freezing during a period of weeks to months. It is a three-stage process.Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Meramec Conservation AreaSun-dried tomato: Sun-dried tomatoes are ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.Plant breedingGeneral Mills monster-themed breakfast cerealsLeaf rust (barley): Leaf rust is a fungal disease of barley caused by Puccinia hordei. It is also known as brown rust and it is the most important rust disease on barley.Lentil: The lentil (Lens culinaris) is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, known for its lens-shaped seeds.EcosystemBiotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Arachis villosulicarpa: Arachis villosulicarpa is a perennial peanut species, which is cultivated by indigenous people in Mato Grosso, a state of Brazil. Its wild progenitor is thought to be Arachis pietrarellii.Flower box: __NOTOC__Organic farming and biodiversity: The effect of organic farming has been a subject of interest for researchers. Theory suggests that organic farming practices, which exclude the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, would be beneficial for biodiversity, and this has proven true.Glycine soja: Glycine soja, or wild soybean (previously G. ussuriensis) is an annual plant in the legume family.Superior (potato): 'Superior' is a white-skinned and white-fleshed, midseason potato variety. It was released by the University of Wisconsin potato breeding program in 1962 and is not under plant variety protection.Computational archaeology: Computational archaeology describes computer-based analytical methods for the study of long-term human behaviour and behavioural evolution. As with other sub-disciplines that have prefixed 'computational' to their name (e.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. This chemical energy is stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, which are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water – hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek [phōs, "light", and σύνθεσις], synthesis, "putting together".Lettuce big-vein disease: Lettuce big-vein disease causes leaf distortion and ruffling in affected lettuce plants.Lonchocarpus: Lonchocarpus is a plant genus in the legume family (Fabaceae). The species are called lancepods due to their fruit resembling an ornate lance tip or a few beads on a string.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Chromosome engineering: Chromosome engineering is "the controlled generation of chromosomal deletions, inversions, or translocations with defined endpoints." For: By combining chromosomal translocation, chromosomal inversion,and chromosomal deletion, chromosome engineering has been shown to identify the underlying genes that cause certain diseases in mice.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Rakiura (genus): Rakiura is a genus of Trichoptera (caddisfly). The genus contains only one species, R.Fungicide: Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores.Interaction of 2,4,5-trich|orophenylsulphonylmethyl thiocyanate with fungal spores Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality, and profit.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightRalph Gretzmacher: Ralph Gretzmacher is an Austrian scientist, professor of botany, zoology and an expert on tropical and subtropic agronomy.Sequence clustering: In bioinformatics, sequence clustering algorithms attempt to group biological sequences that are somehow related. The sequences can be either of genomic, "transcriptomic" (ESTs) or protein origin.Manure management: Manure management refers to capture, storage, treatment, and utilization of animal manures in an environmentally sustainable manner. It can be retained in various holding facilities.Parasporal bodySilverleaf whiteflyRevegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Hybrid inviability: Hybrid inviability is a post-zygotic barrier, which reduces a hybrid's capacity to mature into a healthy, fit adult.Hybrid inviability.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.GAI (Arabidopsis thaliana gene)Soil salinity control: Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land.PollenJatropha macrantha: Jatropha macrantha, also called the Huanarpo Macho or more recently Peruvian Viagra, is a medium size shrubby tree species in the genus Jatropha with orange red flowers. It is indigenous to Peru.Crotalaria longirostrataList of diseases of the honey bee: Diseases of the honey bee or abnormal hive conditions include:Perennial sunflower: upright=1.3|thumbPerennial sunflower is a crop of sunflowers that are developed by crossing wild perennial and domestic annual sunflower species.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.VitexinColes PhillipsCapsicum frutescens: Capsicum frutescens is a species of chili pepper that is sometimes considered to be part of the species Capsicum annuum. Pepper cultivars of Capsicum frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Chromosome regionsBrachypodium sylvaticum: Brachypodium sylvaticum, commonly known as false brome, slender false brome or wood false brome, is a perennial grass native to Europe, Asia and Africa. It has a broad native range stretching from North Africa to Eurasia.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Fragaria × vescana: Fragaria × vescana is a hybrid strawberry cultivar that was created in an effort to combine the best traits of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), which has large berries and vigorous plants, with the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which has an exquisite flavour, but small berries.

(1/1185) Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta.

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

(2/1185) Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: an opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls?

The effect of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze from air pollution on the yields of rice and winter wheat grown in China is assessed. The assessment is based on estimates of aerosol optical depths over China, the effect of these optical depths on the solar irradiance reaching the earth's surface, and the response of rice and winter wheat grown in Nanjing to the change in solar irradiance. Two sets of aerosol optical depths are presented: one based on a coupled, regional climate/air quality model simulation and the other inferred from solar radiation measurements made over a 12-year period at meteorological stations in China. The model-estimated optical depths are significantly smaller than those derived from observations, perhaps because of errors in one or both sets of optical depths or because the data from the meteorological stations has been affected by local pollution. Radiative transfer calculations using the smaller, model-estimated aerosol optical depths indicate that the so-called "direct effect" of regional haze results in an approximately 5-30% reduction in the solar irradiance reaching some of China's most productive agricultural regions. Crop-response model simulations suggest an approximately 1:1 relationship between a percentage increase (decrease) in total surface solar irradiance and a percentage increase (decrease) in the yields of rice and wheat. Collectively, these calculations suggest that regional haze in China is currently depressing optimal yields of approximately 70% of the crops grown in China by at least 5-30%. Reducing the severity of regional haze in China through air pollution control could potentially result in a significant increase in crop yields and help the nation meet its growing food demands in the coming decades.  (+info)

(3/1185) UK CropNet: a collection of databases and bioinformatics resources for crop plant genomics.

The UK Crop Plant Bioinformatics Network (UK CropNet) was established in 1996 in order to harness the extensive work in genome mapping in crop plants in the UK. Since this date we have published five databases from our central UK CropNet WWW site ( with a further three to follow shortly. Our resource facilitates the identification and manipulation of agronomically important genes by laying a foundation for comparative analysis among crop plants and model species. In addition, we have developed a number of software tools that facilitate the visualisation and analysis of our data. Many of our tools are made freely available for use with both crop plant data and with data from other species.  (+info)

(4/1185) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm.

Rice (Oryza sativa), a major staple food, is usually milled to remove the oil-rich aleurone layer that turns rancid upon storage, especially in tropical areas. The remaining edible part of rice grains, the endosperm, lacks several essential nutrients, such as provitamin A. Thus, predominant rice consumption promotes vitamin A deficiency, a serious public health problem in at least 26 countries, including highly populated areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Recombinant DNA technology was used to improve its nutritional value in this respect. A combination of transgenes enabled biosynthesis of provitamin A in the endosperm.  (+info)

(5/1185) The next target of bioterrorism: your food.

One of the many forms that biological warfare may take is the targeting of major food crops. In a poor country where millions of citizens depend on staple crops such as rice, an act of bioterrorism that destroys the crop would create a famine, resulting not only in malnutrition and starvation but also in reduced immune resistance to a range of common illnesses. To reduce the potential of deliberate introductions of crop pathogens as acts of terrorism, researchers must be able to "fingerprint" pathogens at the molecular level and discriminate between naturally occurring and deliberately introduced outbreaks. Several domestic and international surveillance, tracking, and reporting efforts are under way.  (+info)

(6/1185) Crop biotechnology. Where now?

Nature Biotechnology organized a conference in London on Agobiotech 99: Biotechnology and World Agriculture (November 14-16, 1999). The conference focused entirely on crop biotechnology and covered both societal and scientific aspects. Below is an account of the more important issues raised by the speakers and the audience.  (+info)

(7/1185) A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone from roots of Sesamum indicum.

A new chlorinated red naphthoquinone pigment having antifungal activity, named chlorosesamone, was isolated from the roots of Sesamum indicum. Its structure was characterized as 2-chloro-5,8-dihydroxy-3-(3methyl-2-butenyl)- 1,4-na phthoquinone on the basis of spectral evidence.  (+info)

(8/1185) Museum specimen data predict crop damage by tropical rodents.

Museum collections constitute a massive store of information on biological diversity. We used museum specimen data to generate ecological niche models that provide predictions of geographic distributions of native rodent pest species and agricultural census data that summarize the geographic distribution of nine crops in the state of Veracruz, Mexico, as well as crop losses between planting and harvest. Herein, we show that crop damage is related significantly to the predicted presence of rodent species for seven of nine crops. Museum collections may thus provide important baseline information for designing land-use and agricultural pest-management programs.  (+info)

pests and diseases

  • Crops that are naturally resistant to pests and diseases - or resilient to drought and heat - are therefore especially desirable. (
  • Learn the best ways to manage pests and diseases, improve soil, market your crops, train employees, and more. (


  • It is estimated that up to 40% of the world's food would not exist without crop protection products. (
  • The world's leading agricultural fungicide was developed in this way. (


  • In this major work Lloyd Evans provides an integrated view of the domestication, adaptation, and improvement of crop plants, bringing together genetic diversity, plant breeding, physiology, and aspects of agronomy. (


  • Over millennia of farming, agricultural biodiversity has been systematically lost, a narrowing experts call the "domestication bottleneck. (


  • The project targets six product categories in its current work plan: Passion Fruit (fresh and processed), chili products (fresh, processed and dried), vanilla and spices, smallholder flowers, tree crops for processing (cashew and mango) and local market vegetables (onions, carrots, cabbage, tomato and indigenous vegetables). (


  • Each of Rupple's crops, indeed all domesticated plants grown for food or fiber, face disease and pest challenges of some sort. (


  • Another approach involves the development of new breeds of crops - including genetically engineered varieties - capable of staving off these pressures and allowing a reasonable and profitable yield. (


  • The author truly breaks new ground and has created a whole new way to look at crop plant evolution and improvement. (
  • In order to develop new crop strains, plant breeders need a wide pool of species and varieties. (
  • Plant geneticists and crop breeders are looking to the wild relatives of common crops for adaptive traits that might make today's crops stronger. (


  • Through funding and expertise, DRFI supports countries to develop and implement tailored financial protection strategies that increase the ability of national and local governments, homeowners, businesses, agricultural producers, and low income populations to respond more quickly and resiliently to disasters. (

genetic diversity

  • Restoring the breadth of genetic diversity, then, is critical to twenty-first century agricultural resilience. (


  • A case study from our report Increasing Africa's Agricultural Productivity illustrates how once scientists understand the basis of these chemical interactions, they can use this to develop practical methods for pest control. (
  • Watch Dr John Clough, one of the scientists who worked on azoxystrobin, explain how this happened in his lecture Using Chemistry to Improve Agricultural Productivity . (


  • Although this does not require auditing or overall changes in farm practices, it does require that all growers know and conform to specified lists of crop/chemical applications and Pre-harvest Intervals (PHIs) approved by the EU. (
  • Chemical synthesis has a vital role in creating new products for crop protection. (


  • In the last century alone, according to the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization, there has been a 90 percent reduction in crop varieties. (


  • DuPont Crop Protection uses inclusive thinking to create answers in insect, weed and disease control that help growers. (


  • Analytic tool development for agricultural crop irrigation planning and management. (


  • Currently, there is little diversification of products and exports have tended to be in relatively few crop areas. (


  • The sunflower test plot at David Rupple's farm is a snapshot of agricultural history - a history that is, above all, a story of humans domesticating wild plants. (


  • family Oleaceae ), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin . (


  • John's talk introduces the role of chemistry in creating crop protection agents, including how natural product synthesis played a key role in the discovery of fungicide azoxystrobin. (


  • Working with U.S. agencies that affect policy, educating smallholders and partners about good agricultural practices, and environmental management are other key crosscutting activities. (

protection strategies

  • The initiative supports governments to implement comprehensive financial protection strategies, and brings together sovereign disaster risk financing, agricultural insurance, property catastrophe risk insurance, and scalable social protection programs. (
  • This example demonstrates the benefits of multidisciplinary research programmes in developing new crop protection strategies. (


  • The pathology causes production losses and reduces the crop surface available. (


  • Cobweb appears more often at the end of the crop cycle (although the earlier it appears, the more devastating it can be) during the autumn and winter cycles. (


  • This review summarizes and discusses the knowledge available on the historic occurrence of cobweb and its impact on commercial mushroom crops worldwide. (