Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Critical Illness: A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.United StatesMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Mentally Ill Persons: Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.Great BritainQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Respiratory Tract DiseasesAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.EnglandBipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.CaliforniaCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.IndiaFamily: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Persian Gulf Syndrome: Unexplained symptoms reported by veterans of the Persian Gulf War with Iraq in 1991. The symptoms reported include fatigue, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, headaches, loss of memory, shortness of breath, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms, and extreme sensitivity to commonly occurring chemicals. (Nature 1994 May 5;369(6475):8)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Social Distance: The degree of closeness or acceptance an individual or group feels toward another individual or group.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Episode of Care: An interval of care by a health care facility or provider for a specific medical problem or condition. It may be continuous or it may consist of a series of intervals marked by one or more brief separations from care, and can also identify the sequence of care (e.g., emergency, inpatient, outpatient), thus serving as one measure of health care provided.Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.WalesHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Accounting: System of recording financial transactions.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Euthyroid Sick Syndromes: Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.Famous PersonsOutpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Mass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.GermanySelf Concept: A person's view of himself.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.ScotlandDengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Heat Exhaustion: A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Communicable DiseasesLondonHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Disease: A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Child, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.

*  Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Updated | Food Safety News

The ERS estimates the cost of those illnesses, which includes medical costs due to illness, the value of time lost from work ... The cost calculator can be used to generate estimates of the costs of illness and premature death attributed to infection with ... users can calculate the costs of foodborne illness for a particular [s]tate or region, or for a particular foodborne illness ... Foodborne Illness Cost Calculator Updated By Suzanne Schreck , June 1, 2010. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic ...

*  The economic cost of mental illness

... Alexandra Lopez-Pacheco, Financial Post 02.06.2013. ... healthcare benefits and disability costs, also bear a significant cost for mental health care in this country. In fact, with ... "Mental illness is an economic, as well as health-outcome problem," says Philip Jacobs, executive director and CEO of the ... Of course, it won't hurt the country to save the estimated $50-billion in annual costs spent on mental health each year. ... cost mental illness/7924839/story.html

*  Estimating lifetime or episode-of-illness costs under censoring « Healthcare Economist

Estimating lifetime or episode-of-illness costs under censoring. Written By: Jason Shafrin - Feb• 14•11 ... Estimating lifetime or episode-of-illness costs under censoring. Health Economics, Volume 19, Issue 9, pages 1010-1028, ... Thus, the resulting cost function for interval j for any individual is given by:. *μj(X)=Sj(X)*[hj(X)*μ1j(X) + (1-hj(X))*μ2j(X ... for the observed cost functions after conditioning on covariates X. We use parameter estimates from this model to predict costs ...

*  High Cost of Chronic Illness Spotlights Need for Case Management Prof... ( Chronic illn...)

The cost of managing chronic illness has become astr...The story 'New Dimensions in Disease Management' examines...,High,Cost, ... of,Chronic,Illness,Spotlights,Need,for,Case,Management,Professionals,,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical ... Chronic illness carries an estimated 75 percent of U.S. healthcare ...Belleville Ill. (Vocus) October 2 2009 -- The growing ... High Cost of Chronic Illness Spotlights Need for Case Management Professionals ... Chronic illness carries an estimated 75 ...

*  New survey of the cost of mental illness - States of Mind -

In the past I have talked about the billions of dollars our economy loses each year because of direct and indirect costs ... Of course direct costs include health care costs for doctors, nurses, hospitalizations and medication, but some other costs ... A survey in the US uncovered a little more about the types of costs incurred by individuals with mental illness. Aside from the ... Still, when researchers added up direct and indirect costs of mental illness in the US even with some obvious holes - they came ...

*  Major UK Firms Team Up to Tackle £70bn Cost of Workplace Mental Illness

... *. ... According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the overall cost of mental health to the UK ... Karen Steadman, a researcher at The Work Foundation, added: "The costs associated with lost productivity, through sickness ...

*  Insurer's Files Show Big Cost Differences For Same Illnesses : Shots - Health News : NPR

For treating a basic asthma episode, cases in the 10th percentile of distribution cost $98 each while those in the 90th ... Some of the cost variations from a UnitedHealthcare database are startling. ... Insurer's Files Show Big Cost Differences For Same Illnesses : Shots - Health News Some of the cost variations from a ... For treating a basic asthma episode, cases in the 10th percentile of distribution cost $98 each while those in the 90th ...

*  Mental illness in England cost £50bn in 2007 | Management in Practice

A King's Fund report into the cost of meeting the mental health needs of the nation has revealed that mental illness in England ... very difficult because this illness can have times when the illness is coped with but can change within a matter of hours. Most ... Unless people have had experience in dealing with a person with a mental illness it is very difficult for them to be able to ... estimated cost to the economy of earnings lost because of the thousands of people unable to work due to their mental illness. ...£50bn-2007

*  Centre For Mental Health | Economic and social costs of mental illness in England

... and this policy paper calculates what the economic and social costs of mental illness are. ... Mental illness costs us more as a society than crime, ... Economic and social costs of mental illness in England. 4 June ... Mental illness costs us more as a society than crime, and this policy paper calculates what the economic and social costs of ... mental illness are. The main areas of cost - health and social care, human cost and loss to the economy - are all profiled, ...

*  Health care system and household response to costs associated with illness in Nouna, Burkina Faso - heiDOK

Health care system and household response to costs associated with illness in Nouna, Burkina Faso ...

*  Economic Cost of Foodborne Illnesses in the United States by Nova Science Publishers Inc (Hardback, 2015) | eBay

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*  Reducing Health Care Costs Through Early Intervention On Mental Illnesses

... , At the intersection of health, health care, and ... Until mental illness is covered exactly the same as any physiological illness, the cost will continue to be extremely high and ... They found that the average cost for a "mental health high-cost patient" was roughly 33 percent greater than the average cost ... "Reducing Health Care Costs Through Early Intervention On Mental Illnesses". 4 Responses to "Reducing Health Care Costs Through ...

*  Ambien and xanax overdose - Cure for any illness costs less here. » About USA TODAY Education

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*  Real Cost to Cover Informal Care of Family with Mental Illness | PBA

Real Cost to Cover Informal Care of Family with Mental Illness Thursday, 23rd March 2017 at 12:25 pm The cost of a "hidden ... The cost of a "hidden mental health workforce" is more than the cost of all mental health services in Australia, according to ... informal mental health carers provided 208 million hours of care nationally at a cost of $13.2 billion - more than the cost of ... A new study has for the first time placed a dollar value on how much it would cost the government to replace those people who ...

*  Foodborne illnesses is costing U.S. billions annually | Healthy Living - Simple Ripple's Blog

Foodborne illness is costing the U.S. $152 billion annually, according to a new report released by the Make Our Food Safe ... Foodborne illnesses is costing U.S. billions annually. March 4, 2010 in Health ... What states topped the list with highest foodborne illness-related costs? Connecticut, Hawaii, Florida, Pennsylvania, South ... are working hard to keep things on schedule Today they rallied a group forty-five victims of foodborne illness on Capital Hill ...

*  Aviva Health Secure: An online plan that gives complete protection against critical illnesses at a nominal cost | Aviva India

... lump sum amount in case of diagnosis of certain critical illness and procedures Covers as many as 12 critical illnesses at ... Critical Illness Benefit: You get a lump sum amount in case you are diagnosed with any of the 12 major critical illnesses as ... Aviva Health Secure: An online plan that gives complete protection against critical illnesses at a nominal cost ... Aviva Health Secure: An online plan that gives complete protection against critical illnesses at a nominal cost ...

*  The quality of life and cost-effectiveness of treatment after a serious neurosurgical illness

... Show full item record ... The quality of life and cost-effectiveness of treatment after a serious neurosurgical illness. ... The direct costs of the neurosurgical treatment per quality adjusted life year (QALY) were 2521 , 5000 , 2400 and 1700 . For ... The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost-effectiveness of the ...

*  Global cost of obesity-related illness to hit $1.2 trillion

... Posted on Wednesday, October 11, 2017. by Pat Ferguson Obesity is ... Home / Health Care / Global cost of obesity-related illness to hit $1.2 trillion ... depression and many types of cancer will cost India an estimated $12.7 billion annually by 2025. ...

*  To safeguard one's health at the cost of too strict a diet is a tiresome illness indeed. ::

To safeguard one's health at the cost of too strict a diet is a tiresome illness indeed. ~ Duc de La Rochefoucauld. ... To safeguard one's health at the cost of too strict a diet is a tiresome illness indeed.. Duc de La Rochefoucauld * ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Cost-of-illness in psoriasis: comparing inpatient and outpatient therapy. Sabine I B Steinke, Wiebke K Peitsch, Alexander ... To this end, a retrospective cost-of-illness study was conducted on 120 patients treated at the University Medical Centre ... Its strong influence on cost levels was confirmed by regression analysis, with total costs rising by 104.3% in case of ... The current study aims at comparing the total costs of inpatient treatment and outpatient follow-up to mere outpatient therapy ...

*  "Cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography to determine the duration of therapy for intravascular catheter...

OUTCOME MEASURES: Quality-adjusted life expectancy, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. RESULTS OF BASE-CASE ... DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE search of literature; clinical data from patients with S. aureus ... RESULTS OF SENSITIVITY ANALYSES: In a four-way sensitivity analysis (endocarditis prevalence, TEE cost, short-course relapse ... OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in establishing duration of therapy ...

*  The New Public Health - 1st Edition

Costs of Illness. Medical and Hospital Care - Microeconomics. Health Maintenance and Managed Care Organizations. District ... Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Basic Assessment Scheme for Intervention Costs and Consequences. The Value ... including forces associated with escalating costs and the strategies to control those costs ... Measuring Costs: The Economics of Health Introduction. Economic Issues of Health Systems. Basic Concepts in Health Economics. ...

* e-Print archive, Biochemistry

Α Cost of Illness Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Greece. Authors: Athanasakis K, Pliarchopoulou F, Reppas L, ... Fertilizer is one of the priorities for the agricultural industry and it contributes about 15 to 30% in the cost structure of ... An attempt to provide detailed estimates of the direct cost of this - rather neglected - disease in Greece comprised the ...

*  Traumatic brain injury (TBI) 10-20 years later: a comprehensive outcome study of psychiatric symptomatology, cognitive...

Cost of Illness. Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders / diagnosis*, psychology, rehabilitation. Female. Follow-Up ...

*  Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adults: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular...

Costs of illness due to Bordetella pertussis in families. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:989--96. *O'Brien JA, Caro JJ. Hospitalization ... Nonmedical costs constituted 58% of the total cost in adults. If the cost of antimicrobials to treat contacts and the cost of ... A cost-benefit analysis in 2004 indicated that adult pertussis vaccination would be cost-saving (154). A cost-effectiveness ... 1999 found a mean total cost of $5,310 in 17 adolescents and 44 adults (153). Outpatient costs and nonmedical costs were not ...

Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mental disorderPenalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.Sickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Disease burden: Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. It is often quantified in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), both of which quantify the number of years lost due to disease (YLDs).Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Influenza A virus subtype H1N1: Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingRabbit feverResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.List of foodborne illness outbreaks: This is a list of foodborne illness outbreaks. A foodborne illness may be from an infectious disease, heavy metals, chemical contamination, or from natural toxins, such as those found in poisonous mushrooms.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Therapy cap: In 1997 the Balanced Budget Act established annual per-beneficiary Medicare spending limits, or therapy cap, for outpatient therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Medicare Provisions in Balanced Budget Act of 1997.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Bipolar disorderComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Carte Jaune: The Carte Jaune or Yellow Card is an international certificate of vaccination (ICV). It is issued by the World Health Organisation.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Catastrophic illness: A catastrophic illness is a severe illness requiring prolonged hospitalization or recovery. Examples would include coma, cancer, leukemia, heart attack or stroke.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.Halfdan T. MahlerSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Man flu: Man flu is a pejoratively used phrase that refers to the idea that men, when they have a cold, exaggerate and claim they have the flu. Whilst a commonly used phrase in the UK and Ireland, it is referred to in other cultures and there is a continuing discussion over the scientific basis for the phrase.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Global Health Delivery ProjectLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Vladimir Andreevich Markov: Vladimir Andreevich Markov (; May 8, 1871 – January 18, 1897) was a Russian mathematician, known for proving the Markov brothers' inequality with his older brother Andrey Markov. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 25.Morbidity and mortality conference: Morbidity and mortality}}Federal budget of Russia: The Federal budget of Russia () is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Australian National BL classContraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.San Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.

(1/3131) The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland.

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

(2/3131) The cost effectiveness of strategies for the treatment of intestinal parasites in immigrants.

BACKGROUND: Currently, more than 600,000 immigrants enter the United States each year from countries where intestinal parasites are endemic. At entry persons with parasitic infections may be asymptomatic, and stool examinations are not a sensitive method of screening for parasitosis. Albendazole is a new, broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug, which was approved recently by the Food and Drug Administration. International trials have shown albendazole to be safe and effective in eradicating many parasites. In the United States there is now disagreement about whether to screen all immigrants for parasites, treat all immigrants presumptively, or do nothing unless they have symptoms. METHODS: We compared the costs and benefits of no preventive intervention (watchful waiting) with those of universal screening or presumptive treatment with 400 mg of albendazole per day for five days. Those at risk were defined as immigrants to the United States from Asia, the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Cost effectiveness was expressed both in terms of the cost of treatment per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted (one DALY is defined as the loss of one year of healthy life to disease) and in terms of the cost per hospitalization averted. RESULTS: As compared with watchful waiting, presumptive treatment of all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would avert at least 870 DALYs, prevent at least 33 deaths and 374 hospitalizations, and save at least $4.2 million per year. As compared with watchful waiting, screening would cost $159,236 per DALY averted. CONCLUSIONS: Presumptive administration of albendazole to all immigrants at risk for parasitosis would save lives and money. Universal screening, with treatment of persons with positive stool examinations, would save lives but is less cost effective than presumptive treatment.  (+info)

(3/3131) Morbidity and mortality attributable to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use in Canada.

OBJECTIVES: This study estimated morbidity and mortality attributable to substance abuse in Canada. METHODS: Pooled estimates of relative risk were used to calculate etiologic fractions by age, gender, and province for 91 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. RESULTS: There were 33,498 deaths and 208,095 hospitalizations attributed to tobacco, 6701 deaths and 86,076 hospitalizations due to alcohol, and 732 deaths and 7095 hospitalizations due to illicit drugs in 1992. CONCLUSIONS: Substance abuse exacts a considerable toll on Canadian society in terms of morbidity and mortality, accounting for 21% of deaths, 23% of years of potential life lost, and 8% of hospitalizations.  (+info)

(4/3131) Ten-year trend in survival and resource utilization at a level I trauma center.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of increasing trauma center experience over time on survival and resource utilization. METHODS: The authors studied a retrospective cohort at a single level I trauma center over a 10-year period, from 1986 to 1995. Patients included all hospital admissions and emergency department deaths. The main outcome measures were the case-fatality rate adjusted for injury severity, hospital length of stay, and costs. RESULTS: A total of 25,979 patients were admitted or died. The number of patients per year increased, from 2063 in 1986 to 3313 in 1995. The proportion of patients transferred from another institution increased from 16.2% to 34.4%. Although mean length of stay declined by 28.4%, from 9.5 to 6.8 days, costs increased by 16.7%, from $14,174 to $16,547. The use of specific radiologic investigations increased; the frequency of operative procedures either remained unchanged (craniotomy, fracture fixation) or decreased (celiotomy). After adjusting for injury severity and demographic factors, the mortality rate decreased over 10 years. The improvement in survival was confined to patients with an injury severity score > or =16. CONCLUSION: Over a 10-year period, the case-fatality rate declined in patients with severe injuries. Overall acute care costs increased, partially because of the increased use of radiologic investigations. Even in otherwise established trauma centers, increasing cumulative experience results in improved survival rates in the most severely injured patients. These data suggest that experience contributes to a decrease in mortality rate after severe trauma and that developing trauma systems should consider this factor and limit the number of designated centers to maximize cumulative experience at individual centers.  (+info)

(5/3131) The cost of obesity in Canada.

BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care.  (+info)

(6/3131) Economic burden of blindness in India.

Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion), and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion). Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion). Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.  (+info)

(7/3131) The economic value of informal caregiving.

This study explores the current market value of the care provided by unpaid family members and friends to ill and disabled adults. Using large, national data sets we estimate that the national economic value of informal caregiving was $196 billion in 1997. This figure dwarfs national spending for formal home health care ($32 billion) and nursing home care ($83 billion). Estimates for five states also are presented. This study broadens the issue of informal caregiving from the micro level, where individual caregivers attempt to cope with the stresses and responsibilities of caregiving, to the macro level of the health care system, which must find more effective ways to support family caregivers.  (+info)

(8/3131) Willingness to pay: a feasible method for assessing treatment benefits in epilepsy?

Contingent valuation using willingness to pay (WTP) is one of the methods available for assessing the value of a new technology or treatment for a disease in monetary terms. Experience with this method is lacking in epilepsy. The objectives of this study were to assess the acceptability of the WTP method in epilepsy, the level of the responses, and to investigate its validity by comparison with other non-monetary preference measures. Among 397 patients with epilepsy responding to a comprehensive questionnaire, 82 were randomly selected for an interview. They were asked about their WTP for an imaginary new technology which could permanently cure their epilepsy. Fifty-nine patients participated and 57 completed the interview (32 women; mean age 44 years), the majority with well-controlled epilepsy. The patients indicated a median WTP of Norwegian Kroner (NOK) 150,000 (USD 20,000; GBP 11,800), interquartile range NOK 50,000-350,000 (USD 6, 667-46, 667; GBP 3,937-27,559) for this cure. Non-response was low, indicating high acceptability of this method. There was little association between WTP and other preference measures; the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was -0.09 and -0.12 with time trade-off and standard gamble respectively, questioning the validity of this method.  (+info)

foodborne illness

  • Each year, one in six people in the United States is sickened by a foodborne illness. (
  • Foodborne illness is costing the U.S. $152 billion annually, according to a new report released by the Make Our Food Safe coalition Tuesday. (
  • What states topped the list with highest foodborne illness-related costs? (
  • However, the Make Our Food Safe Coalition, which is made up of public health consumers and industry groups, are working hard to keep things on schedule Today they rallied a group forty-five victims of foodborne illness on Capital Hill in support of the Food Safety bill. (
  • According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 76 million people in the United States get sick each year with foodborne illness and 5,000 die. (

individuals with mental illness

  • A survey in the US uncovered a little more about the types of costs incurred by individuals with mental illness. (
  • This disparity in utilization of non-mental health hospitalizations among high-cost mental health patients could also be due to the increased mortality rates among younger individuals with mental illness. (


  • In addition to this lost productivity, Canadian businesses, through employee assistance programs, healthcare benefits and disability costs, also bear a significant cost for mental health care in this country. (
  • Belleville, Ill. (Vocus) October 2, 2009 -- The growing prevalence of chronic illness, such as heart failure and hypertension, are creating a more demanding healthcare environment and highlight the need for case managers, according to the Case Management Society of America . (
  • Not only does case management support patients and their families in navigating the healthcare system, it decreases the fragmentation of services, encourages health team communication, and contributes significantly to patient safety, quality of life and cost-efficient management of limited resources. (
  • As a result of this, and above inflation rises in healthcare costs, the bill for mental health services is expected to grow from £22.5bn to £47bn. (
  • In summary, these studies indicate that current healthcare resources are utilized cost-effectively to achieve a life that is meaningful. (

economic cost

  • Economic Cost of Foodborne Illnesses in the United States by Brenda Montgomery. (


  • The problem with the cost calculator is that they increase the cost because of our increasing population, but they do not decrease the burden of illness brought about by improvements in food safety. (
  • Estimated in Canada at more than $33 billion each year, it is certainly a huge financial burden on the country - not to mention the even bigger personal burden it is for the many Canadians and their families dealing with illness every day. (
  • Also missing from this survey is loss of income to family members who very often bear much of the financial and emotional burden of the mental illness of a loved one. (
  • Although our numbers are somewhat different in Canada due to our smaller population and of course differences in our social and health care systems, it is safe to say that the areas of cost are likely very similar and the burden of mental illness is probably larger than we estimate. (
  • With a proper focus and government priority, we can battle the physical, emotional and financial burden of mental illness. (
  • Estimates of the ecomic burden of illness provide a conservative measure of how much people are willing to pay to prevent these illnesses. (


  • The estimates of numbers of victims of food borne illnesses have not changed since the 1999 CDC report based on old data. (
  • Use parameter estimates from this model to predict costs, μ 1j (X), for every subject-interval in the data. (
  • Across the American population, this means mental illness is associated with an annual earnings loss of more than $193 billion - much larger than previous estimates. (
  • It examines cost-of-illness estimates with a focus on analysing the factors that drive differences between them. (



  • Mr. TR Ramachandran, CEO& MD, Aviva India said, "These days, people have become vulnerable to critical illnesses at an early age due to lifestyle and stress. (
  • Meanwhile, obesity-related diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, liver disease, depression and many types of cancer will cost India an estimated $12.7 billion annually by 2025. (


  • Many reports on cost and quality disparity (the best known is the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care ) are based on data from the government's Medicare program for seniors. (
  • The cost disparity for major procedures was smaller. (


  • With its announcement earlier this month of a national standard to help businesses put in place policies that improve employees' psychological health, Ottawa highlighted what many had long suspected: There are far too many Canadians with mental illness for the business community to ignore them. (

disability costs

  • Of course direct costs include health care costs for doctors, nurses, hospitalizations and medication, but some other costs associated with mental illness can include social assistance and disability costs, subsidized housing and other social services used by those suffering with psychiatric illness. (


  • High Cost of Chronic Illness Spotlights Need for Case Management Prof... ( Chronic illn. (
  • The cost of managing chronic illness has become astr. (
  • The cost of managing chronic illness has become astronomical,' reports the August/September issue of Case In Point magazine, the official magazine for CMSA. (
  • The story, 'New Dimensions in Disease Management,' examines trends in supporting patients and providing quality, cost-effective care in light of costly chronic diseases. (
  • Read the full story at . (
  • Second, the researchers suggested that high-cost mental health patients did not (yet) manifest other chronic diseases. (
  • Mental illnesses could precede other chronic conditions, which in turn become more costly as people age. (


  • CARMHA says when companies embrace psychological health and safety policies and programs, they incur 15% to 33% fewer costs related to psychological health issues. (
  • This month's edition of Health Affairs features an article focusing on patients with high mental health costs - and how they incur 30 percent more costs than other high-cost patients. (


  • According to The Life and Economic Impact of Major Mental Illnesses in Canada: 2011 to 2041, a 2011 study conducted by RiskAnalytica for the Mental Health Commission of Canada, just absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present but otherwise too unwell to be fully productive) due to mental health problems cost Canadian businesses $6-billion annually. (


  • How can you estimate an individual's total lifetime cost of medical care? (
  • The separate estimators are especially useful in cases where end-of-life cost differs significantly from the regular course of care. (
  • This approach would automatically group individuals of like-inclinations and make health products and services recommendations that extend beyond simply dealing with health care services based on episodes of illness. (
  • Aside from the obvious direct costs to the health care system, this survey focused on cost due to lost earnings. (
  • We found essentially no correlation between average costs and the measured level of care quality across markets," the authors wrote. (
  • However, some who received good scores for both quality and efficiency delivered care costing about 14 percent less compared with that of other doctors. (
  • The main areas of cost - health and social care, human cost and loss to the economy - are all profiled, showing their many components, and the impact on different groups in the population. (
  • A new study has for the first time placed a dollar value on how much it would cost the government to replace those people who unofficially care for family members with mental illness. (
  • The report The Economic Value of Informal Mental Health Caring in Australia, published by Mind Australia and the University of Queensland on Thursday, found that in 2015, informal mental health carers provided 208 million hours of care nationally at a cost of $13.2 billion - more than the cost of the entire Australian health services budget. (
  • Since the economics of health care is attracting more and more interest, it will become more important to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treatment so that it can be demonstrated that the resource allocation is justified. (


  • In the past I have talked about the billions of dollars our economy loses each year because of direct and indirect costs associated with mental illness. (
  • Indirect costs can come from many sources as well. (
  • Still, when researchers added up direct and indirect costs of mental illness in the US even with some obvious holes - they came up with an annual cost of $317 billion. (


  • Since this was a door-to-door survey, it did not include homeless people or those hospitalized or in the prison system - which are very common conditions for those with serious mental illness. (
  • Consider that almost a quarter of people in jails have been diagnosed with mental illness and approximately one third of homelessness is associated with serious mental illness. (
  • More than half, £26.1bn, represents the estimated cost to the economy of earnings lost because of the thousands of people unable to work due to their mental illness. (
  • Professor Martin Knapp, coauthor of the report said: "With a third of adults with depression and a half with anxiety disorders not in touch with services there is significant potential to treat more people with those illnesses and make savings because of the boost to the workforce. (
  • Provided that these people do not force people with a mental health problem into impossible situations - very difficult because this illness can have times when the illness is coped with but can change within a matter of hours. (
  • Unless people have had experience in dealing with a person with a mental illness it is very difficult for them to be able to know what is best for them - the carers should be involved in all steps along the way. (
  • People with more severe and ongoing forms of mental illness, such as psychosis, often need assistance to live and function in the community. (
  • He added, "Our latest offering, Aviva Health Secure is a competitively priced plan and designed to help people cover their medical expenses in case of critical illness and get the best possible treatment. (



  • His study found the private sector spends between $180-million and $300-million on short-term disability benefits related to mental illnesses and $135-million for long-term disability benefits. (
  • For instance, one study demonstrated the there is a U-shaped pattern of cost history among cancer patients with the left side of the U corresponding to initial treatment and the right side reflecting a substantial spike in costs during the last 6 months of life. (
  • Like previous studies based on Medicare claims , the study also found wide variation in costs in different geographical areas. (
  • The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost-effectiveness of the treatment of severely, acutely ill neurosurgical patients. (
  • The majority of the study illnesses and conditions are known to have a relatively high mortality or an otherwise poor outcome but, they are also known to be highly resource-demanding. (
  • The fourth study, the SAH study (n=178), evaluated the long-term outcome, HRQoL and cost-effectiveness of the treatment of the SAH patients. (
  • The current study aims at comparing the total costs of inpatient treatment and outpatient follow-up to mere outpatient therapy with different modalities (topical treatment, phototherapy, classic systemic therapy or BioLogicals) over a period of 12 months. (
  • To this end, a retrospective cost-of-illness study was conducted on 120 patients treated at the University Medical Centre Mannheim between 2005 and 2006. (


  • Here is just one more reminder that we need to place priority on effectively treating mental illness and ensuring everyone has access to necessary services so they can reach their full potential in life and keep the ever-increasing costs as low as possible. (
  • While not everyone from our sample who screens positive will progress to later stage mental illness, the paper provides a warning about the costs to come - if we don't intervene early and effectively. (


  • On average, those with serious mental illness earned $16,306 less than those without a mental illness. (
  • Cure for any illness costs less here. (
  • Patients receiving BioLogicals produced the overall highest costs, whereas outpatient treatment with classic systemic antipsoriatic medications was less cost-intense than other alternatives. (



  • To account for the stochastic nature of U within that interval (i.e. to account for what would the costs be if the patient died inside that interval but at different times), one simply averages the predictions that are conditional of each value of U after weighting with the observed distribution of U among intervals where patients are observed to die. (
  • They found that the average cost for a "mental health high-cost patient" was roughly 33 percent greater than the average cost for other high-cost patients. (
  • First, high-cost mental health patients are much younger than other high-cost patients. (
  • The authors found that 79 percent of high-cost mental health patients were under the age of 60. (
  • But only 39.7 percent of other high-cost patients were under age 60. (
  • Their data suggested that only 10 percent of mental health high-cost patients had a hospitalization that wasn't related to mental health needs. (
  • They explain this in part because of the young age of the high-cost mental health patients. (
  • Third, high-cost mental health patients were more likely to be hospitalized than were non-mental health high-cost patients. (
  • The disproportionate use of hospitalizations among high-cost mental health patients is a result of our failure to act early. (
  • For the total of 620 severely ill neurosurgical patients treated in the Helsinki Department of Neurosurgery between 1998 and 2006, we found the treatment to be cost-effective, and it resulted in health-related quality of life that varied from acceptable to good when compared to the reference population. (


  • The long-term benefits of employers proactively dealing with mental health in the workplace include lower costs, improved productivity and more optimal work environments. (
  • Karen Steadman, a researcher at The Work Foundation, added: "The costs associated with lost productivity, through sickness absence, presenteeism and job loss, mean that mental health simply must be on the agenda of any business that wants to thrive. (


  • The plan provides the policyholder with a lump sum amount on diagnoses of any critical illness covered by the policy thereby ensuring that the family has adequate funds to meet the unplanned medical expenses and get the best possible treatment. (
  • In addition, inpatient treatment is time- and cost-intense, conflicting with the actual burst of health expenses and with patient preferences. (


  • Among those subject intervals, (aj-1, aj], where we observe the subject to die, estimate a generalized linear model (or models if a two-part specification is necessary) for the observed costs after conditioning on covariates X. One can also condition on the time of death within the interval as well. (


  • For treating a basic asthma episode, cases in the 10th percentile of distribution cost $98 each while those in the 90th percentile the cost was $1,535 per case. (
  • This research helps to make the increasingly compelling case for earlier identification and intervention to address mental illnesses - if we're concerned about saving money. (
  • You get a lump sum amount in case you are diagnosed with any of the 12 major critical illnesses as listed ahead. (
  • Its strong influence on cost levels was confirmed by regression analysis, with total costs rising by 104.3% in case of inpatient treatment. (


  • Americans with major mental illness die on average 14-32 years earlier than the general population. (


  • For individuals with mental illnesses, the costs often start adding up early. (


  • Mental illness is an economic, as well as health-outcome problem," says Philip Jacobs, executive director and CEO of the Institute of Health Economics and one of the authors of a 2010 report to the Mental Health Commission of Canada. (
  • A King's Fund report into the cost of meeting the mental health needs of the nation has revealed that mental illness in England cost £50bn in 2007. (


  • Hence, health insurance is critical keeping in mind the rising medical costs. (


  • Unlike the health insurance product offered by the non-life companies which are indemnity based, Aviva Health Secure offers the policyholder a lump sum based on the Sum Assured for each of the illnesses irrespective of the hospital bills. (


  • Lead researcher, Diminic told Pro Bono News that the finding was "certainly surprising" given that the cost of a "hidden mental health workforce" was more than the cost of all mental health services in Australia. (


  • First, Basu and Manning show that this estimator can "decompose the covariate effects on total costs into part mediated by survival effects and another mediated by intensity of use. (

mental health s

  • The cost of a "hidden mental health workforce" is more than the cost of all mental health services in Australia, according to new research. (


  • But half of all mental illnesses begin by the age of 14, three-quarters by the age of 25. (


  • According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the overall cost of mental health to the UK economy is estimated at £70bn per year or 4.5% of GDP. (


  • Mental illness costs us more as a society than crime, and this policy paper calculates what the economic and social costs of mental illness are. (


  • Government, industry, and others expend considerable resources in trying to prevent these foodborne illnesses. (