Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

*  Cooperative behavior and the frequency of social interaction
59, 63-80], a cooperative norm does not emerge in the treatments where players are matched randomly. On the other hand, in the ... fixed pairings treatment, the evidence suggests that a cooperative norm does emerge as players gain more experience. ... "Cooperative Behavior and the Frequency of Social Interaction," Levine's Working Paper Archive 122247000000000060, David K. ... "End behavior in sequences of finite Prisoner's Dilemma supergames A learning theory approach," Journal of Economic Behavior & ...
*  Spillover Effects of Institutions on Cooperative Behavior, Preferences, and Beliefs
We use a laboratory experiment to study how the presence and nature of an institution that enforces prosocial behavior in one ... We also find that institutions of either type enhance prosocial preferences and beliefs about others' prosocial behavior, even ... domain affects behavior in another domain and whether it also alters prosocial preferences and beliefs about others' behavior. ... Institutions are an important means for fostering prosocial behaviors, but in many contexts their scope is limited and they ...
*  Deric's MindBlog: Vasopressin increases human risky cooperative behavior
Most forms of cooperative behavior take place in a mutually beneficial context where cooperation is risky as its success ... These findings show a previously unidentified causal role for AVP in social approach behavior in humans, as established by ... This blog reports new ideas and work on mind, brain, and behavior - as well as random curious stuff ... Here we show that arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide that mediates complex mammalian social behaviors such as pair ...
*  Ability to capture large prey may be origin of army ants' cooperative behavior | EurekAlert! Science News
... army ants attacking and eating a giant worm and a snake have led scientists to offer a new theory on the origin of cooperative ... Ability to capture large prey may be origin of army ants' cooperative behavior. University of Washington ... Ability to capture large prey may be origin of army ants' cooperative behavior ... propose that mass cooperative food foraging, a key element in the behavior of army ants, may have begun as a way to subdue ...
*  Three-spined stickleback - Wikipedia
Cooperative behavior[edit]. Some evidence indicates the existence of cooperative behavior among three-spined sticklebacks, ... Stickleback behavior is often cited as an archetypal example of cooperative behavior during predator inspection. Fish from ... Both examples of stickleback behavior demonstrate the elements of a strategy of cooperation that may resemble tit-for-tat.[26] ... It displays elaborate breeding behavior (defending a territory, building a nest, taking care of the eggs and fry) and it can be ...
*  Animals | Free Full-Text | Hunting Activity Among Naturalistically Housed Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Fundació Mona ...
However, as it is an opportunistic behavior, conditions which may promote such behavior are left up to chance. Until now, ... In this paper, we present five instances providing evidence of predatory behavior: four performed by isolated individuals and ... predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. ... Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other primates has been well documented over the last 30 years. ...
*  Center for Theoretical & Mathematical Sciences » People
Cooperative Behavior • Cystathionine • Cystathionine beta-Synthase • Cysteine • Cytoplasm • Cytosol • Data Interpretation, ... Organismal Biology and Behavior. Research Interests: Developmental physiology/development and evolution Fred Nijhout is broadly ... Feeding Behavior • Female • Fertility • Flavins • Fluoxetine • Folic Acid • Folic Acid Deficiency • Food • Food Deprivation • ... Behavior, Animal • Betaine • Biochemistry • Biological Evolution • Biological Markers • Biological Transport • Biomass • ...
*  List of recent publications
Costly signaling and cooperative behavior. (coauthored with Rebecca Bliege Bird). In Moral Sentiments and Material Interests: ... Three styles in the evolutionary study of human behavior. In Human Behavior and Adaptation: An Anthropological Perspective, ... Evolution and Human Behavior 33:64-78 (2012).. Lyle, Henry F. and Eric Alden Smith (2012) How conservative are evolutionary ... Evolution and Human Behavior 31:231-245.. Smith, Eric Alden (2011) Endless forms: Human behavioral diversity and evolved ...
*  Blog | Competitive Advantage: Mental Toughness
Team-Busting: How to Encourage Cooperative Behavior. If you're a coach or athlete who plays with a team then you've got a whole ...
*  Exercise, Sport and Health Education 385 - Radford University
6) Responsible/cooperative behavior. 6. Other Course Information. None. Review and Approval. July 2010. November 2008. ... 19)Demonstrate behaviors essential to becoming effective professionals. Value and. exhibit professional ethics and practices; ... 7) Describe how to accommodate children with behavior disabilities, with a focus on. positive behavioral support and functional ... behavior assessment; 8) Identify procedures for discipline and safety in schools to ensure fairness for. students with and ...
*  Calit2 : California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology
Cooperative Behavior is Contagious. The Times of India reports on a study co-led by James Fowler, associate professor at UC San ...
*  NEP-EXP: New economic research on Experimental Economics disseminated on 2017-01-22 | IDEAS/RePEc
"Can occupational norms foster cooperative behavior? An experimental study comparing cooperation by military officers and ...
*  Letter from Barbara McClintock to Almiro Blumenschein (August 20, 1966)
Cooperative Behavior Maps as Topic Exhibit Category: Searching for the Origins of Maize in Latin America, 1957-1981 Relation:. ...
*  PPT - Platy-helminthes and Nematoda PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1924244
Cooperative Behavior. Platyhelminthes. Nematoda. Hunt in groups Gather in groups and feed ... Trematode flatworm parasites exist in cooperative colonies consisting of big reproducers, which release hundreds to thousands ...
*  Management - Wikipedia
Design and implement reward systems that support cooperative behavior. They also make decision and share ideas with top ... organizational behavior, organizational theory, strategic management,[28] accounting, corporate finance, entertainment, global ...
*  On the psychology of cooperation in humans and other primates: combining the natural history and experimental evidence of...
2005 Costly signaling and cooperative behavior. In Moral sentiments and material interests: the foundations of cooperation in ... Thus, the Cooperative Breeding Hypothesis states that some convergent evolution between humans and other cooperative breeders ... a second acquired owing to the adoption of cooperative breeding and probably shared with other cooperative breeders, and a ... 1989 Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Taï National Park. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 78, 547-573. (doi:10.1002/ajpa. ...
*  TENTATIVE FAIR 2 - TENTATIVE FAIR-GAME SHEET FINAL EXAM Natural Selection and Motivation Natural selection Those with better...
... leads to cooperative behavior; genetic self-interest Kin selection Organisms that tend to exhibit strategies that favor ... Kinds of Inherited Patterns of Behavior Less complex more complex Taxis An ... traits can be structures or behavior Selection pressures: combined effect of all selection pressures at various levels ...
*  Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
... this essential peer-reviewed journal has followed the effects of social networking and virtual reality on society and behavior ... Video Game 'Teams' Tied to Cooperative Behavior in Players...Read More. CNN. Study: Facebook Helps Your Self-Esteem...Read More ... Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Editor-in-Chief: Brenda K. Wiederhold, PhD, MBA, BCB, BCN ... Notable media coverage for Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. Wall Street Journal. Scott Thompson's Computer ...
*  Clark Verbrugge
Martin Ashton: Measuring Cooperative Behavior in Contemporary Multiplayer Games. 2012. Yi Zhang: Implementation and ... "Measuring Cooperative Gameplay Pacing in World of Warcraft." in Proceedings of the 2011 Foundations of Digital Games Conference ...
*  Special Care and Health Issues FAQs - C.L.A.S.S. Liver Disease Resource Center
Cooperative behavior should be encouraged. Statements like: "I was pleased to see you trying to stay still" or "It was good you ... If feasible it is best when the child can select the behavior and the reward. The reward and behavior should be both specific ... It is okay to give a child a small treat for cooperating with a procedure but it should be given based on a skill or behaviors ... If you make the target behavior too easy, your child may feel you lack faith in his or her abilities. ...
*  PPT - TEACH SCIENCE - IMPACT THE FUTURE PowerPoint Presentation - ID:3948384
How Did Cooperative Behavior Evolve? *How Will Big Pictures Emerge from a Sea of Biological Data? ...
*  Publications Search Results
He, Q., Pan, Y., Sarangi, S. Lineage-based heterogeneity and cooperative behavior in rural China. Journal of Comparative ... He, Quqiong, Pan, Ying, Sarangi, Sudipta . Lineage-based heterogeneity and cooperative behavior in rural China. MPRA Paper No. ... Deviant Behavior. . 38, (1), 17-33. Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar Export Options: RIS EndNote XML ... Deviant Behavior. . 38, (6), 655-667. Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar Export Options: RIS EndNote XML ...
*  Love Or Kill Thy Neighbor? New Study Into Animal Social Behavior | Science 2.0
A subordinate female meerkat babysits her mother's young; an iconic example of cooperative behavior in mammals. ... Love Or Kill Thy Neighbor? New Study Into Animal Social Behavior. By News Staff , March 8th 2014 09:16 AM , Print , E-mail , ...
*  Browsing FAS Scholarly Articles by Title
Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks Fowler, J. H.; Christakis, N (Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
*  Publications John Koza 1994
Koza, John R. 1994-L. Evolution of emergent cooperative behavior using genetic programming. In Paton, Ray (editor). Computing ... In this chapter, a computer program that governs the behavior of a group of independently acting agents is genetically evolved ...

Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.Monty the meerkat: Monty the meerkat is a meerkat that made headlines in the mainstream British media in September 2007 for his purported ability to take pictures using a digital camera. The story turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by workers at Longleat Safari Park.Salvia dominica: Salvia dominica (Dominica sage, in Arabic ( Maru = مرو or "Khowwekha" = خويخة ), in (Hebrew: מרווה, marva) is a strong-scented perennial shrub found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, especially JordanField Guide of Wild Flower of Jordan and Neighbouring Countries by Dawud Al-Eisawi Israel,Flowers in IsraelLebanon and Syria. The branched inflorescence is one of several salvias thought to have inspired the design of the menorah.Senorita Stakes: The Senorita Stakes is an American flat Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old fillies once held annually at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California.PunishmentGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Allosteric regulationSexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying

(1/3452) Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans.

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

(2/3452) The myths of emergency medical care access in the managed care era.

In this paper, we examine the perception that emergency care is unusually expensive. We discuss the myths that have fueled the ineffective and sometimes deleterious efforts to limit access to emergency care. We demonstrate the reasons why these efforts are seriously flawed and propose alternate strategies that aim to improve outcomes, including cooperative ventures between hospitals and managed care organizations. We challenge managed care organizations and healthcare providers to collaborate and lead the drive to improve the cost and clinical effectiveness of emergency care.  (+info)

(3/3452) Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers.

Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties.  (+info)

(4/3452) The effects of group size and group economic factors on collaboration: a study of the financial performance of rural hospitals in consortia.

STUDY QUESTIONS: To determine factors that distinguish effective rural hospital consortia from ineffective ones in terms of their ability to improve members' financial performance. Two questions in particular were addressed: (1) Do large consortia have a greater collective impact on their members? (2) Does a consortium's economic environment determine the degree of collective impact on members? DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Based on the hospital survey conducted during February 1992 by the Robert Wood Johnson Hospital-Based Rural Health Care project of rural hospital consortia. The survey data were augmented with data from Medicare Cost Reports (1985-1991), AHA Annual Surveys (1985-1991), and other secondary data. STUDY DESIGN: Dependent variables were total operating profit, cost per adjusted admission, and revenue per adjusted admission. Control variables included degree of group formalization, degree of inequality of resources among members (group asymmetry), affiliation with other consortium group(s), individual economic environment, common hospital characteristics (bed size, ownership type, system affiliation, case mix, etc.), year (1985-1991), and census region dummies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All dependent variables have a curvilinear association with group size. The optimum group size is somewhere in the neighborhood of 45. This reveals the benefits of collective action (i.e., scale economies and/or synergy effects) and the issue of complexity as group size increases. Across analyses, no strong evidence exists of group economic environment impacts, and the environmental influences come mainly from the local economy rather than from the group economy. CONCLUSION: There may be some success stories of collaboration among hospitals in consortia, and consortium effects vary across different collaborations. RELEVANCE/IMPACT: When studying consortia, it makes sense to develop a typology of groups based on some performance indicators. The results of this study imply that government, rural communities, and consortium staff and steering committees should forge the consortium concept by expanding membership in order to gain greater financial benefits for individual hospitals.  (+info)

(5/3452) Barriers to guideline adherence. Based on a presentation by Michael Cabana, MD.

Successful implementation of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) should improve quality of care by decreasing inappropriate variation and by disseminating new advances to everyday practice. A key component of this process is physician adherence to JNC-VI guidelines. However several reports in the literature show a discrepancy between hypertension guidelines and actual practice. The factors that influence physician behavior change and optimal use of practice guidelines are poorly understood. A combined model that uses the Awareness-to-Adherence Model and Social Cognitive Theory identifies five sequential steps that lead to adherence to a guideline--awareness, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and presence of a cueing mechanism. Barriers to implementation may occur at any of these steps and can be identified with this model. Programs can then be designed to overcome specific barriers. By conceptualizing the underlying issues in physician adherence, the combined model should be useful to guideline developers, practice directors, and health services researchers.  (+info)

(6/3452) Hypertension and managed care. Based on a presentation by Robert P. Jacobs, MD, MBA.

A shift in principles has accompanied the evolution of healthcare delivery from a fee-for-service system to managed care. Managed care organizations have to make decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources that will enhance the care of the entire population. Cost reduction has been a major driver for managed care, but this is increasingly being supplanted by other goals such as increasing the quality of care and the value of health services and providing accountability. As the population ages, management of chronic lifelong illness will pose an increasing challenge. Hypertension is a common chronic illness that, if left untreated, imposes an enormous economic burden on society. These and other aspects of the disease and its management make it eminently suitable for intervention in a managed care setting. Challenges and opportunities exist for disease management initiatives for hypertension in the managed care environment. As health plans enhance their data systems and begin to focus on the long-term benefits of chronic disease management, hypertension will certainly be an early target for intervention and control.  (+info)

(7/3452) Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual.  (+info)

(8/3452) Evidence-based nephrology.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are the best approaches available for summarizing the available evidence concerning the efficacy of therapies. Although the renal field has been slow to use these techniques, they are being used increasingly. In March 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group was formed, and this group aims to produce and maintain up to date systematic reviews of the evidence on the effectiveness of therapies used to treat patients with renal diseases. This group is part of the Cochrane Collaboration which is an international structure grouping collaborators together, with the aim of preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care in all areas of medicine.  (+info)

  • 2017
  • A further study conducted in 2017 examined differences in decision-making behavior among genders in the "Taking Game" variation of the dictator game in which the dictator decides how much utility to "take" from the recipient's pre-determined endowment, versus the standard "Giving Game" model in which the dictator decides how much utility to give to the recipient. (
  • causally
  • Studies by Nicholas A. Christakis and Fowler suggested a variety of individuals' attributes like obesity, smoking cessation, and happiness rather than being individualistic, are causally correlated by contagion mechanisms that transmit these behaviors over long distances within social networks. (
  • prey
  • Writing in the current issue of the journal Biotropica, O'Donnell and biologists Michael Kaspari of the University of Oklahoma and John Lattke of Universidad Central de Venezuela, propose that mass cooperative food foraging, a key element in the behavior of army ants, may have begun as a way to subdue large prey. (
  • It had been previously identified, but little was known about its behavior or prey until the two chance encounters at the Tiputini Biodiversity Station, an ecological preserve in eastern Ecuador. (
  • study
  • We use a laboratory experiment to study how the presence and nature of an institution that enforces prosocial behavior in one domain affects behavior in another domain and whether it also alters prosocial preferences and beliefs about others' behavior. (
  • Spillover Effects of Institutions on Cooperative Behavior, Preferences and Beliefs ," IZA Discussion Papers 10781, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). (
  • Connected draws on previously published and unpublished studies, including the Framingham Heart Study and makes several new conclusions about the influence of social networks on human health and behavior. (
  • This study found some differences in behavior among gender groups, attributed to gender-specific cognitive biases affecting feelings of entitlement and toward property rights. (
  • conducted a study to evaluate the effects of perceived attractiveness on decision-making behavior and altruism in the standard dictator game, testing theories that altruism may serve as a courtship display. (
  • Male alliances involve complex interactions with many costs and benefits, making the study of such cooperative behavior both difficult and fascinating. (
  • suggests
  • On the other hand, in the fixed pairings treatment, the evidence suggests that a cooperative norm does emerge as players gain more experience. (
  • This suggests that dictator game behavior is well approximated by a model in which dictators maximize utility functions that include benefits received by others, that is, subjects are increasing their utility when they pass money to the recipients. (
  • perform
  • This demonstrated that they were able to perform this species-typical behavior in a naturalistic environment without learning it in the wild. (
  • social networks
  • Nicholas A. Christakis (born May 7, 1962) is an American sociologist and physician known for his research on social networks and on the socioeconomic and biosocial determinants of behavior, health, and longevity. (
  • Effects
  • We also find that institutions of either type enhance prosocial preferences and beliefs about others' prosocial behavior, even toward strangers, suggesting that both factors are drivers of the observed spillover effects. (
  • Spillover Effects of Institutions on Cooperative Behavior, Preferences, and Beliefs ," CESifo Working Paper Series 6504, CESifo Group Munich. (
  • subject
  • It displays elaborate breeding behavior (defending a territory, building a nest, taking care of the eggs and fry) and it can be social (living in shoals outside the breeding season ) making it a popular subject of enquiry in fish ethology and behavioral ecology . (
  • main
  • The main way to apply cooperative strategies are through strategic alliances in which firms use their resources and knowledge to create a competitive advantage. (