Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Dominica: An island republic of the West Indies. Its capital is Roseau. It was discovered in 1493 by Columbus and held at different times by the French and the British in the 18th century. A member of the West Indies Federation, it achieved internal self-government in 1967 but became independent in 1978. It was named by Columbus who discovered it on Sunday, Domingo in Spanish, from the Latin Dominica dies, the Lord's Day. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

*  Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) (nsf13502)

... and cooperative behavior. Prior formulations of real-time guarantees do not suffice for CPS; new concepts need to be devised ... Cooperative agreements also are administered in accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Financial and Administrative Terms ... Traditional analysis tools are unable to cope with the full complexity of CPS or adequately predict system behavior. The ... Traditional analysis tools are unable to cope with the full complexity of CPS or adequately predict system behavior. For ...
https://nsf.gov/pubs/2013/nsf13502/nsf13502.htm?WT.mc_id=USNSF_25&WT.mc_ev=click

*  Not just hot air: normative codes of conduct induce cooperative behavior

"Gender and free riding in a threshold public goods game: Experimental evidence," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, ... "Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier ... "Group identity and gender in public goods experiments," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 48(4), ... "Managing diversity by creating team identity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 371-392 ...
https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/rvmgts/v2y2008i3p183-197.html

*  Identifying cooperative behavior: some experimental results in a prisoner's dilemma game

... (JEBO 2002) in ReplicationWiki ... "Anomalous Behavior in Public Goods Experiments: How Much and Why?," Levine's Working Paper Archive 1380, David K. Levine. * ... "Anomalous Behavior in Public Goods Experiments: How Much and Why?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, ... "An Experiment on the Hypothesis of Involuntary Truth-Signalling in Bargaining," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 33( ...
https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/jeborg/v47y2002i3p275-290.html

*  Human cooperative behavior :: MPG.PuRe

For a long time economists and biologists have been interested in the emergence and sustainability of cooperative behavior. ... Some professions depend very strongly on cooperative behavior between unrelated colleagues. To act uncooperatively in such a ... However, certain circumstances lead to cooperative behavior in humans. Reputation building is one of the most important ... In my dissertation I have empirically tested predictions of circumstances that promote cooperative behavior between unrelated ...
pubman.mpdl.mpg.de/pubman/faces/viewItemOverviewPage.jsp?itemId=escidoc:1507268

*  Evolving a Cooperative Transport Behavior for Two Simple Robots | SpringerLink

Groß R., Dorigo M. (2004) Evolving a Cooperative Transport Behavior for Two Simple Robots. In: Liardet P., Collet P., Fonlupt C ... Kube, C.R., Bonabeau, E.: Cooperative transport by ants and robots. Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30, 85-101 (2000)CrossRef ... Trianni, V., Groß, R., Labella, T.H., Şahin, E., Dorigo, M.: Evolving aggregation behaviors in a swarm of robots. In: Banzhaf, ... This paper addresses the problem of cooperative transport of an object by a group of two simple autonomous mobile robots called ...
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-24621-3_25

*  Systems Awareness / Pensamiento Sistemico: Cooperative Behavior Meshes With Evolutionary Theory

... genes for a behavior that benefits everybody in a population should not last and cooperative behavior should die out. Now ... ScienceDaily (2009-04-07) -- One of the questions raised by evolutionary theory is how cooperative behavior, which benefits ... Forum for the discussion of experiences in the representation and modeling of complex systems with highly non-linear behaviors ...
cas-chile.blogspot.com/2009/04/cooperative-behavior-meshes-with.html

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : Learning signaling behaviors and specialization in cooperative agents

Learning signaling behaviors and specialization in cooperative agents. Abstract. In this paper we present a learning mechanism ... Each agent uses this common signal to learn what individual behaviors are more suitable for the team. Simulation results, and ...
cordis.europa.eu/publication/rcn/199611163_en.html

*  Autonomous and cooperative robotic behavior based on fuzzy logic and genetic programming

autonomous and cooperative robotic behavior based on fuzzy logic and genetic programming ... Autonomous and cooperative robotic behavior based on fuzzy logic and genetic programming Created by W.Langdon from gp- ... "Autonomous and cooperative robotic behavior based on fuzzy logic and genetic programming", journal = "Integrated Computer-Aided ...
cs.bham.ac.uk/~wbl/biblio/gp-html/Smith3_2007_ICAE.html

*  Intelligent Multi-Agent Cooperative Learning System: Social Sciences & Online Behavior Book Chapter | IGI Global

Intelligent Multi-Agent Cooperative Learning System: 10.4018/978-1-59140-562-7.ch054: A computer-aided education environment ... "Intelligent Multi-Agent Cooperative Learning System." In Encyclopedia of Human Computer Interaction, ed. Claude Ghaoui , 348- ... "Intelligent Multi-Agent Cooperative Learning System." Encyclopedia of Human Computer Interaction. IGI Global, 2006. 348-354. ... Intelligent Multi-Agent Cooperative Learning System. Leen-Kiat Soh (University of Nebraska, USA) and Hong Jiang (University of ...
https://igi-global.com/chapter/intelligent-multi-agent-cooperative-learning/13145

*  Modeling Healthy Eating Behaviors | UGA Cooperative Extension

By demonstrating healthy behaviors for your children, you can encourage them to follow your positive example. Young children ... Extension Changes Georgia University of Georgia Cooperative Extension programming improves people's lives and gets results. Our ... Through county offices throughout the state, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension offers reliable information and ... Children imitate their parents' behaviors both during play and in their own lives. ...
extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C1037-18

*  SSRN JEL Code: C7

Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large Management Science, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 2-20, January 2012 ...
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Jeljour_results.cfm?nxtres=1801&form_name=jel&code=C7&SortOrder=ab_approval_date&stype=desc&lim=false

*  SSRN Game Theory & Bargaining Theory eJournal

Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large Management Science, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 2-20, January 2012 ... affiliation not provided to SSRN, Harvard University - Organizational Behavior Unit and affiliation not provided to SSRN ... The Origin of Behavior Number of pages: 58 Posted: 15 Nov 2009 Last Revised: 23 Nov 2010 ...
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/JELJOUR_Results.cfm?form_name=journalbrowse&journal_id=1368328

*  Cooperative state estimation for preserving privacy of user behaviors in smart grid - IEEE Conference Publication

Smart grid promises a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure to meet the future demand growth. However, the increase of data types and data amount
ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6102313/?reload=true

*  International Research Management - Oxford Scholarship

14 Relationship of Interdisciplinarity to Cooperative Behavior Heinrich Parthey. 15 Interdisciplinarity and Futures Research ...
oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195062526.001.0001/acprof-9780195062526?rskey=c9HpjR&result=1

*  View all posts filed under 2009

Cooperative Behavior, Strategic Interaction, and Complex Systems*List upcoming seminars by location ... Do Social Interactions Facilitate Cooperative Behavior? Evidence from a Group Lending Experiment in India. Labor Seminars ... Evolution and Market Behavior with Endogenous Strategies. Speaker(s):. Pietro Dindo (Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies) ... Portfolio Manager Behavior and Global Financial Crises: An Endogenous Risk Premium Approach. Speaker(s):. Todd Feldman ( ...
tinbergen.nl/seminar-archive/2009/

*  "What's So Great About Rehabilitation Teams? An Ethnographic Study of Interprofessional Collaboration in a Rehabilitation Unit"...

Cooperative Behavior, *Interprofessional Relations, *Organizational Case Studies, *Organizational Culture, *Patient Care Team, ...
https://works.bepress.com/loreleilingard/13/

*  Stakeholder perceptions of aid coordination implementation in the Zambian health sector.

Cooperative Behavior. Developing Countries. Health Plan Implementation / organization & administration*. Health Planning ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Stakeholder-perceptions-aid-coordination-implementation/20004996.html

*  Reinforcement learning accounts for moody conditional cooperation behavior: experimental results | Scientific Reports

All models were intended to explain the level of cooperative behavior in round t (0 ≤ pt ≤ 1, Table 1) given the information up ... Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 5334-5338 (2010). ... There is ample evidence that humans show direct reciprocity behavior6,7,8. Similar behavior has been observed beyond dyadic ... Therefore, MCC behavior in the sense that the sensitivity of pt to Kt−1 depends on whether at−1 = 1 (i.e., C) or at−1 = 0 (i.e ...
https://nature.com/articles/srep39275?error=cookies_not_supported&code=075a2a2a-b7f9-4aa2-94ad-feabc2f9e1a5

*  Author Page for David G. Rand :: SSRN

Inhibition Interact to Predict Cooperative Behavior PLoS ONE, 10(1), e0117426. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117426 ... Humans Display a 'Cooperative Phenotype' that is Domain General and Temporally Stable Nature Communications, Forthcoming ... Do the Right Thing: Preferences for Moral Behavior, Rather Than Equity or Efficiency per se, Drive Human Prosociality Number of ... Turking Overtime: How Participant Characteristics and Behavior Vary Over Time and Day on Amazon Mechanical Turk Number of pages ...
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=1038894

*  Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates: Studies of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior: Walter D Koenig, Janis L Dickinson, Stef den...

Evolution and Behavior: NHBS - Walter D Koenig, Janis L Dickinson, Stef den Ridder, Cambridge University Press ... Buy Cooperative Breeding in Vertebrates (9781107043435): Studies of Ecology, ... He is co-editor of Cooperative Breeding in Birds: Long-Term Studies of Ecology and Behavior (Cambridge, 1990) and Ecology and ... Cichlid fishes: a model for the integrative study of social behavior Michael Taborsky. 17. Meerkats: cooperative breeding in ...
https://nhbs.com/cooperative-breeding-in-vertebrates-book

*  Frontiers | Heritability of decisions and outcomes of public goods games | Psychology

Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative ... behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games ... Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative ... behavior. Employing the twin method, we examined the heritability of cooperativeness and its outcomes on public goods games ...
https://frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00373/full

*  Monkey Business - Science Nation | NSF - National Science Foundation

That suggests that cooperative behavior runs deep in the nature of primates. The only time humans outscored monkeys was when ... Social insects have the most complex and developed societies of any animal species and engage in cooperative behaviors that ... The Division of Social and Economic Sciences seeks to enhance our understanding of human, social and organizational behavior by ... Which is probably what's allowed us as humans to develop really complex cooperative enterprises like economies and nation ...
https://nsf.gov/news/special_reports/science_nation/monkeybusiness.jsp

*  Series

He, Quqiong, Pan, Ying, Sarangi, Sudipta . Lineage-based heterogeneity and cooperative behavior in rural China. MPRA Paper No. ...
icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/ICPSR/series/243

*  interpersonal relations

Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks. James H Fowler. Political Science Department, University of California ... adolescent behavior*socioeconomic factors*friends*sexual behavior*sex factors*spouse abuse*spouses*quality of life*social ... These results show experimentally that cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks... ... You are here: Research Topics , psychiatry and psychology , behavior and behavior mechanisms , social psychology , ...
https://labome.org/topics/psychiatry/behavior/social/interpersonal-relations-18491.html

*  Recent evidence on the development and maintenance of constructive staff-family relationships in the care of older people: a...

Aged; Attitude to Health; Cooperative Behavior; Decision Making; Evidence-Based Practice; Family /psychology; Health Services ...
crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI&ID=12010005505

Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.Monty the meerkat: Monty the meerkat is a meerkat that made headlines in the mainstream British media in September 2007 for his purported ability to take pictures using a digital camera. The story turned out to be a hoax perpetrated by workers at Longleat Safari Park.Salvia dominica: Salvia dominica (Dominica sage, in Arabic ( Maru = مرو or "Khowwekha" = خويخة ), in (Hebrew: מרווה, marva) is a strong-scented perennial shrub found throughout the eastern Mediterranean, especially JordanField Guide of Wild Flower of Jordan and Neighbouring Countries by Dawud Al-Eisawi Israel,Flowers in IsraelLebanon and Syria. The branched inflorescence is one of several salvias thought to have inspired the design of the menorah.Senorita Stakes: The Senorita Stakes is an American flat Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old fillies once held annually at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California.PunishmentGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Allosteric regulationSexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying

(1/3452) Viewpoint: public versus private health care delivery: beyond the slogans.

In most settings, a 'public' health service refers to a service which belongs to the state. The term 'private' is used when health care is delivered by individuals and/or institutions not administered by the state. In this paper it is argued that such a distinction, which is based on the institutional or administrative identity of the health care provider, is not adequate because it takes for granted that the nature of this identity automatically determines the nature of the service delivered to the population. A different frame of classification between public and private health services is proposed: one which is based on the purpose the health service pursues and on the outputs it yields. A set of five operational criteria to distinguish between health services guided by a public or private purpose is presented. This alternative classification is discussed in relation to a variety of existing situations in sub-Saharan Africa (Mali, Uganda, Zimbabwe). It is hoped that it can be used as a tool in the hands of the health planner in order to bring more rationality in the current altercation between the public and the private health care sector.  (+info)

(2/3452) The myths of emergency medical care access in the managed care era.

In this paper, we examine the perception that emergency care is unusually expensive. We discuss the myths that have fueled the ineffective and sometimes deleterious efforts to limit access to emergency care. We demonstrate the reasons why these efforts are seriously flawed and propose alternate strategies that aim to improve outcomes, including cooperative ventures between hospitals and managed care organizations. We challenge managed care organizations and healthcare providers to collaborate and lead the drive to improve the cost and clinical effectiveness of emergency care.  (+info)

(3/3452) Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers.

Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties.  (+info)

(4/3452) The effects of group size and group economic factors on collaboration: a study of the financial performance of rural hospitals in consortia.

STUDY QUESTIONS: To determine factors that distinguish effective rural hospital consortia from ineffective ones in terms of their ability to improve members' financial performance. Two questions in particular were addressed: (1) Do large consortia have a greater collective impact on their members? (2) Does a consortium's economic environment determine the degree of collective impact on members? DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Based on the hospital survey conducted during February 1992 by the Robert Wood Johnson Hospital-Based Rural Health Care project of rural hospital consortia. The survey data were augmented with data from Medicare Cost Reports (1985-1991), AHA Annual Surveys (1985-1991), and other secondary data. STUDY DESIGN: Dependent variables were total operating profit, cost per adjusted admission, and revenue per adjusted admission. Control variables included degree of group formalization, degree of inequality of resources among members (group asymmetry), affiliation with other consortium group(s), individual economic environment, common hospital characteristics (bed size, ownership type, system affiliation, case mix, etc.), year (1985-1991), and census region dummies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All dependent variables have a curvilinear association with group size. The optimum group size is somewhere in the neighborhood of 45. This reveals the benefits of collective action (i.e., scale economies and/or synergy effects) and the issue of complexity as group size increases. Across analyses, no strong evidence exists of group economic environment impacts, and the environmental influences come mainly from the local economy rather than from the group economy. CONCLUSION: There may be some success stories of collaboration among hospitals in consortia, and consortium effects vary across different collaborations. RELEVANCE/IMPACT: When studying consortia, it makes sense to develop a typology of groups based on some performance indicators. The results of this study imply that government, rural communities, and consortium staff and steering committees should forge the consortium concept by expanding membership in order to gain greater financial benefits for individual hospitals.  (+info)

(5/3452) Barriers to guideline adherence. Based on a presentation by Michael Cabana, MD.

Successful implementation of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) should improve quality of care by decreasing inappropriate variation and by disseminating new advances to everyday practice. A key component of this process is physician adherence to JNC-VI guidelines. However several reports in the literature show a discrepancy between hypertension guidelines and actual practice. The factors that influence physician behavior change and optimal use of practice guidelines are poorly understood. A combined model that uses the Awareness-to-Adherence Model and Social Cognitive Theory identifies five sequential steps that lead to adherence to a guideline--awareness, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and presence of a cueing mechanism. Barriers to implementation may occur at any of these steps and can be identified with this model. Programs can then be designed to overcome specific barriers. By conceptualizing the underlying issues in physician adherence, the combined model should be useful to guideline developers, practice directors, and health services researchers.  (+info)

(6/3452) Hypertension and managed care. Based on a presentation by Robert P. Jacobs, MD, MBA.

A shift in principles has accompanied the evolution of healthcare delivery from a fee-for-service system to managed care. Managed care organizations have to make decisions on the allocation of healthcare resources that will enhance the care of the entire population. Cost reduction has been a major driver for managed care, but this is increasingly being supplanted by other goals such as increasing the quality of care and the value of health services and providing accountability. As the population ages, management of chronic lifelong illness will pose an increasing challenge. Hypertension is a common chronic illness that, if left untreated, imposes an enormous economic burden on society. These and other aspects of the disease and its management make it eminently suitable for intervention in a managed care setting. Challenges and opportunities exist for disease management initiatives for hypertension in the managed care environment. As health plans enhance their data systems and begin to focus on the long-term benefits of chronic disease management, hypertension will certainly be an early target for intervention and control.  (+info)

(7/3452) Selfish sentinels in cooperative mammals.

Like humans engaged in risky activities, group members of some animal societies take turns acting as sentinels. Explanations of the evolution of sentinel behavior have frequently relied on kin selection or reciprocal altruism, but recent models suggest that guarding may be an individual's optimal activity once its stomach is full if no other animal is on guard. This paper provides support for this last explanation by showing that, in groups of meerkats (Suricata suricatta), animals guard from safe sites, and solitary individuals as well as group members spend part of their time on guard. Though individuals seldom take successive guarding bouts, there is no regular rota, and the provision of food increases contributions to guarding and reduces the latency between bouts by the same individual.  (+info)

(8/3452) Evidence-based nephrology.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are the best approaches available for summarizing the available evidence concerning the efficacy of therapies. Although the renal field has been slow to use these techniques, they are being used increasingly. In March 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group was formed, and this group aims to produce and maintain up to date systematic reviews of the evidence on the effectiveness of therapies used to treat patients with renal diseases. This group is part of the Cochrane Collaboration which is an international structure grouping collaborators together, with the aim of preparing, maintaining and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care in all areas of medicine.  (+info)



Journal of Economic Behavior


  • Group identity and gender in public goods experiments ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 48(4), pages 403-412, August. (repec.org)
  • Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 143-161, January. (repec.org)
  • Gender and free riding in a threshold public goods game: Experimental evidence ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 603-620, March. (repec.org)
  • Managing diversity by creating team identity ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 371-392, November. (repec.org)
  • Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization . (repec.org)
  • Bargaining efficiency and screening: an experimental investigation ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 285-304, July. (repec.org)

evolutionary theory


  • Summary Evolutionary theory provides the biological sciences, with a fundamental and powerful model to explain the emergence of cooperative behavior. (mpg.de)
  • According to the evolutionary theory the cooperative strategies found today, also have to provide an advantage to the bearer. (mpg.de)
  • ScienceDaily (2009-04-07) -- One of the questions raised by evolutionary theory is how cooperative behavior, which benefits other members of a species at a cost to the individual, came to exist. (blogspot.com)

cooperation


  • In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. (nature.com)
  • Although relatively rare, cooperative breeding is widespread taxonomically and continues to pose challenges to our understanding of the evolution of cooperation and altruistic behavior. (nhbs.com)

humans


  • In my dissertation I have empirically tested predictions of circumstances that promote cooperative behavior between unrelated humans. (mpg.de)

species


  • Cooperative breeders are species in which individuals beyond a pair assist in the production of young in a single brood or litter. (nhbs.com)

strongly


  • Some professions depend very strongly on cooperative behavior between unrelated colleagues. (mpg.de)

Mathematical


  • Nevertheless, only with the introduction of game theory, a mathematical basis was established to incorporate this behavior into biological evolutionary models. (mpg.de)

results


  • Extension Changes Georgia University of Georgia Cooperative Extension programming improves people's lives and gets results. (uga.edu)
  • Consistent with the previous computational studies, the present results suggest that reinforcement learning may be a major proximate mechanism governing MCC behavior. (nature.com)

situations


  • By applying these two theories it is possible to explain many, but by far not all cooperative situations. (mpg.de)
  • Cooperative strategies for these kinds of situations have to have evolved and need to be evolutionary stable, otherwise we would hardly ever find cooperative behavior in the present and then only between related individuals. (mpg.de)
  • Using social dilemma games including the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) and public goods game (PGG), various mechanisms governing cooperative human and animal behavior in social dilemma situations have been studied, in both theory and experiments. (nature.com)

Human


  • In the present study, we use a repeated multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game and the repeated public goods game played by human participants to examine whether MCC is observed across different types of game and the possibility that reinforcement learning explains observed behavior. (nature.com)
  • Prosociality is one of the most distinctive features of human beings but there are individual differences in cooperative behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, human prosocial behavior is not universal. (frontiersin.org)

individual


  • Each agent uses this common signal to learn what individual behaviors are more suitable for the team. (europa.eu)

individuals


  • Similar behavior has been observed beyond dyadic relationships of individuals. (nature.com)

state


  • Through county offices throughout the state, University of Georgia Cooperative Extension offers reliable information and programs in the areas of agriculture, food, families, the environment and 4-H youth development. (uga.edu)

people


  • Regularly people find unconsciously cooperative solutions, for instance when they try simultaneously to walk through a narrow door. (mpg.de)

lives


  • Children imitate their parents' behaviors both during play and in their own lives. (uga.edu)