Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Ocular Hypertension: A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Orthoptics: The study and treatment of defects in binocular vision resulting from defects in the optic musculature or of faulty visual habits. It involves a technique of eye exercises designed to correct the visual axes of eyes not properly coordinated for binocular vision.Toxoplasmosis, Ocular: Infection caused by the protozoan parasite TOXOPLASMA in which there is extensive connective tissue proliferation, the retina surrounding the lesions remains normal, and the ocular media remain clear. Chorioretinitis may be associated with all forms of toxoplasmosis, but is usually a late sequel of congenital toxoplasmosis. The severe ocular lesions in infants may lead to blindness.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Albinism, Ocular: Albinism affecting the eye in which pigment of the hair and skin is normal or only slightly diluted. The classic type is X-linked (Nettleship-Falls), but an autosomal recessive form also exists. Ocular abnormalities may include reduced pigmentation of the iris, nystagmus, photophobia, strabismus, and decreased visual acuity.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Tonometry, Ocular: Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Ophthalmic Solutions: Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Conjunctival DiseasesExotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Eye Infections: Infection, moderate to severe, caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, which occurs either on the external surface of the eye or intraocularly with probable inflammation, visual impairment, or blindness.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.ConjunctivitisOcular Hypotension: Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Aqueous Humor: The clear, watery fluid which fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. It has a refractive index lower than the crystalline lens, which it surrounds, and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea and the crystalline lens. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p319)Iris: The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Ciliary Body: A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the RETINA. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.Anterior Eye Segment: The front third of the eyeball that includes the structures between the front surface of the cornea and the front of the VITREOUS BODY.Glaucoma: An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Choroid: The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Administration, Ophthalmic: Application of pharmaceutically active agents on the tissues of the EYE.Anterior Chamber: The space in the eye, filled with aqueous humor, bounded anteriorly by the cornea and a small portion of the sclera and posteriorly by a small portion of the ciliary body, the iris, and that part of the crystalline lens which presents through the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed, p109)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eye Infections, Bacterial: Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Lens, Crystalline: A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Eyelids: Each of the upper and lower folds of SKIN which cover the EYE when closed.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Keratitis: Inflammation of the cornea.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Retinal DiseasesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glaucoma, Open-Angle: Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Blepharitis: Inflammation of the eyelids.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Scleritis: Refers to any inflammation of the sclera including episcleritis, a benign condition affecting only the episclera, which is generally short-lived and easily treated. Classic scleritis, on the other hand, affects deeper tissue and is characterized by higher rates of visual acuity loss and even mortality, particularly in necrotizing form. Its characteristic symptom is severe and general head pain. Scleritis has also been associated with systemic collagen disease. Etiology is unknown but is thought to involve a local immune response. Treatment is difficult and includes administration of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids. Inflammation of the sclera may also be secondary to inflammation of adjacent tissues, such as the conjunctiva.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Timolol: A beta-adrenergic antagonist similar in action to PROPRANOLOL. The levo-isomer is the more active. Timolol has been proposed as an antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic, antiangina, and antiglaucoma agent. It is also used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS and tremor.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Conjunctival Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Eye ProteinsWheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Uvea: The pigmented vascular coat of the eyeball, consisting of the CHOROID; CILIARY BODY; and IRIS, which are continuous with each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Eye Burns: Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.Lacrimal Apparatus: The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Keratitis, Dendritic: A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Iritis: Inflammation of the iris characterized by circumcorneal injection, aqueous flare, keratotic precipitates, and constricted and sluggish pupil along with discoloration of the iris.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Eyelid DiseasesKeratoconjunctivitis: Simultaneous inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Microphthalmos: Congenital or developmental anomaly in which the eyeballs are abnormally small.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Eye Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the eye.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Preservatives, Pharmaceutical: Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Cyperaceae: The sedge plant family of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons)Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Lenses: Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)LizardsBurns, ChemicalEye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Conjunctivitis, Viral: Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.Trachoma: A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Trimecaine: Acetanilide derivative used as a local anesthetic.Retinal Artery: Central retinal artery and its branches. It arises from the ophthalmic artery, pierces the optic nerve and runs through its center, enters the eye through the porus opticus and branches to supply the retina.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Numerical Analysis, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted study of methods for obtaining useful quantitative solutions to problems that have been expressed mathematically.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Biometry: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Axial Length, Eye: The distance between the anterior and posterior poles of the eye, measured either by ULTRASONOGRAPHY or by partial coherence interferometry.Eye, Artificial: A ready-made or custom-made prosthesis of glass or plastic shaped and colored to resemble the anterior portion of a normal eye and used for cosmetic reasons. It is attached to the anterior portion of an orbital implant (ORBITAL IMPLANTS) which is placed in the socket of an enucleated or eviscerated eye. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Panuveitis: Inflammation in which both the anterior and posterior segments of the uvea are involved and a specific focus is not apparent. It is often severe and extensive and a serious threat to vision. Causes include systemic diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis, as well as malignancies. The intermediate segment of the eye is not involved.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Iguanas: Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Electronystagmography: Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Fluorescein Angiography: Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Eye Manifestations: Ocular disorders attendant upon non-ocular disease or injury.Eye Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the eyes from impact, flying objects, glare, liquids, or injurious radiation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

*  Duane syndrome type 1 | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program

Impaired convergence. -. Impaired ocular abduction. -. Impaired ocular adduction. -. Palpebral fissure narrowing on adduction. ...

*  NASA Selects 26 Space Biology Research Proposals

The International Space Station is a convergence of science, technology and human innovation that demonstrates new technologies ... Investigators also will study mouse physiology, cardiac function, reproductive health, neurobiology, ocular health and ...

*  References of Scientific Research and Scientific Studies, Vision Therapy, Strabismus, Convergence Insufficiency, Peer Reviewed...

Colavito J., Cooper J., Ciuffreda K. Non-Ptotic Ocular Myasthenia Gravis: A Common Presentation of an Uncommon Disease (in ... Rouse M.W., Hyman L, Hussein M, Solan H. "Frequency of convergence insufficiency in optometry clinic settings. Convergence ... Mayo Clinic researchers, part of nine-site NEI/NIH study, release findings: Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency with Vision ... National Eye Institute, NIH reports: Best Treatment for Convergence Insufficiency: In-office Vision Therapy. Older Children Can ...

*  Patent US7023594 - Electro-optic lens with integrated components - Google Patents

... or ocular layer irregularities. These aberrations, irregular astigmatism, and/or ocular layer irregularities may be as a result ... In this way, vision can be corrected to a level of better than what could be achieved with common convergence and accommodation ... Adaptive optics, as applied to vision, is based on active probing of the ocular system with a light beam, such as an eye-safe ... Once the ocular aberrations and other types of non-conventional refractive error have been determined in both magnitude and ...

*  Nystagmus In Infancy and Childhood - Richard W. Hertle MD, FACS, FAAO, FAAP; Louis F. Dell'Osso, PhD - Oxford University Press

5.3.6 Convergence Retraction 5.3.7 Dissociated Ocular Oscillations. 5.3.8 Dysmetric Saccades. 5.3.9 Ocular Flutter. 5.3.10 ... PV6 Ocular Motor Neuromyotonia of Cranial Nerve III. PV7 Ocular Motor Neuromyotonia of Cranial Nerve VI. PV8 Infant with ... C.1.3 Both Gaze-Angle and Convergence Nulls. C.1.3.1 Convergence , Gaze-Angle. C. Composite Prisms and Negative Spheres ... 5.2.5 Convergence/Convergence Evoked Nystagmus. 5.2.6 Upbeat Nystagmus. 5.2.7 Downbeat Nystagmus. 5.2.8 Torsional Nystagmus. ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

The anterior surface of the ocular lens is covered by a monolayer of epithelial cells, which proliferate in an annular zone ... at least not immediately when confronted to convergence accommodation conflict. ... Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to improve their posture ... Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error ( ...

*  Pediatric Ophthalmology in Heidelberg, Germany

Asthenopia and convergence insufficiency. *Evaluation of visual issues in education such as attention deficit disorder and ... It uses quantitative measurements of ocular misalignment.. *Determination of refractive error: This test is done after dilation ...

*  Neuro-Ophthalmology for Neuroradiologists | American Journal of Neuroradiology

The ocular tilt reaction combines a skew deviation with a conjugate ocular torsion and a head tilt. It may be seen in ... Convergence retraction nystagmus has been described in the setting of Parinaud syndrome and is associated with dorsal midbrain ... In addition, it may be dampened by convergence. Spasmus nutans is a congenital nystagmus that typically presents between 4 and ... The clinical features are lid retraction, convergence-retraction nystagmus, pupillary light-near dissociation (the pupils ...

*  A Control System of Binocular Eyes Based on DSP TMS320F2812

... which achieves the movement of the vestibular ocular reflex, convergence and conjugate movement, thus realizing good tracking ...

*  1 - Convergence futures trading

Rating Trading Brokers metals Options Binomial #### CONVERGENCE FUTURES TRADING Fast moving average c++ #### A basic milestone on the Forex market

Convergence of measures: In mathematics, more specifically measure theory, there are various notions of the convergence of measures. For an intuitive general sense of what is meant by convergence in measure, consider a sequence of measures μn on a space, sharing a common collection of measurable sets.Conjugate gaze palsyLevobetaxololGuiding Eyes for the Blind: Yorktown Heights, New YorkOrthoptics: Orthoptics is a profession allied to medicine whose primary remit is the diagnosis and non-medical management of strabismus (squint), amblyopia (lazy eye) and eye movement disorders. International Orthoptic Association document "professional role" The word orthoptics comes from the Greek words ὀρθός orthos, "straight" and ὀπτικός optikοs, "relating to sight" and much of the practice of orthoptists concerns refraction and muscular eye control.Spasm of accommodation: A spasm of accommodation (also known as an accommodation, or accommodative spasm) is a condition in which the ciliary muscle of the eye remains in a constant state of contraction. Normal accommodation allows the eye to "accommodate" for near-vision.Binocular vision: Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together. The word binocular comes from two Latin roots, bini for double, and oculus for eye.Ocular albinismOcular dominance: Ocular dominance, sometimes called eye preference or eyedness, is the tendency to prefer visual input from one eye to the other. It is somewhat analogous to the laterality of right- or left-handedness; however, the side of the dominant eye and the dominant hand do not always match.Imbert-Fick law: The Imbert-Fick "law" was invented by Hans Goldmann (1899–1991) to give his newly marketed tonometer (with the help of the Haag-Streit Company) a quasi-scientific basis; it is mentioned in the ophthalmic and optometric literature, but not in any books of physics. According to Goldmann,Goldmann H.Intraocular lymphoma: Intraocular lymphoma is a rare malignant form of eye cancer. Intraocular lymphoma may affect the eye secondarily from a metastasis from a non-ocular tumor or may arise within the eye primarily (primary intraocular lymphoma, PIOL).Eye injuryStrabismusIntraocular pressureAlachrymaInferior rectus muscle: The inferior rectus muscle is a muscle in the orbit.Artificial tearsLogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a rare condition that occurs in otherwise healthy, often young patients and is due to the presence of a subretinal nematode.ConjunctivochalasisLigneous conjunctivitis: Ligneous conjunctivitis is a rare form of chronic conjunctivitis characterized by recurrent, fibrin-rich pseudomembranous lesions of wood-like consistency that develop mainly on the underside of the eyelid (tarsal conjunctiva). It is generally a systemic disease which may involve the periodontal tissue, the upper and lower respiratory tract, kidneys, middle ear, and female genitalia.EsotropiaAutorefractor: An autorefractor or automated refractor is a computer-controlled machine used during an eye examination to provide an objective measurement of a person's refractive error and prescription for glasses or contact lenses. This is achieved by measuring how light is changed as it enters a person's eye.Vitreous membrane: The vitreous membrane (or hyaloid membrane or vitreous cortex) is a layer of collagen separating the vitreous humour from the rest of the eye. At least two parts have been identified anatomically.Bullous keratopathyAqueous humour: The aqueous humour is a transparent, gelatinous fluid similar to plasma, but containing low protein concentrations. It is secreted from the ciliary epithelium, a structure supporting the lens.Iris dilator muscleRetinal regeneration: Retinal regeneration deals with restoring retinal function to vertebrates so impaired.Ciliary body: The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary epithelium, which produces the aqueous humor. The ciliary body is part of the uvea, the layer of tissue that delivers oxygen and nutrients to the eye tissues.Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis: Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is a failure of the normal development of the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. It leads to anomalies in the structure of the mature anterior segment, associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and corneal opacity.Charles D. Phelps: Charles Dexter Phelps (September 16, 1937 – September 13, 1985) was a prominent American medical doctor, professor, and researcher in the field of ophthalmology. The clinical studies he oversaw contributed to significant advances in the scientific understanding and surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Rimless eyeglasses: Rimless eyeglasses, are a type of eyeglasses in which the lenses are mounted directly to the bridge and/or temples. The style is divided into two subtypes: three piece glasses are composed of lenses mounted to a bridge and two separate temple arms, while rimways (also called cortlands) feature a supporting arch that connects the temples to the bridge and provides extra stability for the lenses.Fowkes hypothesis: The Fowkes hypothesis (after F. M.Saal Greenstein syndrome: Saal Greenstein syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by stunted growth, short limbs, microcephaly, and an anomalous cleavage of the anterior chamber of the eye. The disorder is similar to Robinow syndrome except for anterior chamber anomalies and, in one case, hydrocephalus.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Cicatricial pemphigoidNystagmusLens Controller: A Lens Controller is device that controls motorized photographic lens functions such as zoom, focus, and iris or aperture.Kruegle, Herman (2007).Hay–Wells syndromeTadpole pupil: The eye is made up of the sclera, the iris, and the pupil, a black hole located at the center of the eye with the main function of allowing light to pass to the retina. Due to certain muscle spasms in the eye, the pupil can resemble a tadpole, which consists of a circular body, no arms or legs, and a tail.Chorioretinitis: Chorioretinitis is an inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of the eye) and retina of the eye. It is a form of posterior uveitis.Perspective distortion (photography): Perspective correction}}Chronic superficial keratitisAsthenopiaOphthalmoparesisOperation Eyesight Universal: Operation Eyesight Universal is a Canada-based international development organisation, founded in 1963. It works to prevent avoidable blindness and to cure blindness that is treatable.Purtscher's retinopathy: Purtscher's retinopathy is a disease where part of the eye (retina) is damaged. Usually associated with severe head injuries, it may also occur with other types of trauma, such as long bone fractures, or with several non-traumatic systemic diseases.HSD2 neurons: HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. They are located within the caudal medulla oblongata, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).Saccade: A saccade ( , French for jerk) is quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two phases of fixation in the same direction.Cassin, B.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
BlepharitisOtolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Superior orbital fissure: The superior orbital fissure is a foramen in the skull, although strictly it is more of a cleft, lying between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid bone.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMorphant: An organism which has been treated with a morpholino antisense oligo to temporarily knock down expression of a targeted gene is called a morphant.Ovarian torsionSustainability marketing myopia: Sustainability marketing myopia is a term used in sustainability marketing referring to a distortion stemming from the overlooking of socio-environmental attributes of a sustainable product or service at the expenses of customer benefits and values. The idea of sustainability marketing myopia is rooted into conventional marketing myopia theory, as well as green marketing myopia.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==ScleritisLandolt CTimololDiplopiaOptimax: Optimax is a UK-based laser eye treatment specialist which has 38 locations nationwide. Optimax was established as one of the first private clinics to offer laser eye surgery.Coles Phillips

(1/314) Dynamics of horizontal vergence movements: interaction with horizontal and vertical saccades and relation with monocular preferences.

We studied the dynamics of pure vergence shifts and vergence shifts combined with vertical and horizontal saccades. It is known from earlier studies that horizontal saccades accelerate horizontal vergence. We wanted to obtain a more complete picture of the interactions between version and vergence. Therefore we studied pure version (horizontal and vertical), pure vergence (divergence and convergence) and combinations of both in five adult subjects with normal binocular vision and little phoria (< 5 degrees). The visual targets were LED's in isovergence arrays presented at two distances (35 and 130 cm) in a dimly lit room. Two targets were continuously lit during each trial and gaze-shifts were paced by a metronome. The two subjects with a strong monocular preference made vergence eye movements together with small horizontal saccades during pure vergence tasks. The other subjects, who did not have a strong monocular preference, made pure vergence movements (without saccades). These findings, suggest that monocular preferences influence the oculomotor strategy during vergence tasks. Vergence was facilitated by both horizontal and vertical saccades but vergence peak-velocity during horizontal saccades was higher than during vertical saccades.  (+info)

(2/314) Perturbation of combined saccade-vergence movements by microstimulation in monkey superior colliculus.

Perturbation of combined saccade-vergence movements by microstimulation in monkey superior colliculus. This study investigated the role of the monkey superior colliculus (SC) in the control of visually (V)-guided combined saccade-vergence movements by assessing the perturbing effects of microstimulation. We elicited an electrical saccade (E) by stimulation (in 20% of trials) in the SC while the monkey was preparing a V-guided movement to a near target. The target was aligned such that E- and V-induced saccades had similar amplitudes but different directions and such that V-induced saccades had a significant vergence component (saccades to a near target). The onset of the E-stimulus was varied from immediately after V-target onset to after V-saccade onset. E-control trials, where stimulation was applied during fixation of a V-target, yielded the expected saccade but no vergence. By contrast, early perturbation trials, where the E-stimulus was applied soon after the onset of the V-target, caused an E-triggered response with a clear vergence component toward the V-target. Midflight perturbation, timed to occur just after the monkey initiated the movement toward the target, markedly curtailed the ongoing vergence component during the saccade. Examination of pooled responses from both types of perturbation trials showed weighted-averaging effects between E- and V-stimuli in both saccade and fast vergence components. Both components exhibited a progression from E- to V-dominance as the E-stimulus was delayed further. This study shows that artificial intervention in the SC, while a three-dimensional (3D) refixation is being prepared or is ongoing, can affect the timing (WHEN) and the metric specification (WHERE) of both saccades and vergence. To explain this we interpret the absence of overt vergence in the E-controls as being caused by a zero-vergence change command rather than reflecting the mere absence of a collicular vergence signal. In the perturbation trials, the E-evoked zero-vergence signal competes with the V-initiated saccade-vergence signal, thereby giving rise to a compromised 3D response. This effect would be expected if the population of movement cells at each SC site is tuned in 3D, combining the well-known topographical code for direction and amplitude with a nontopographical depth representation. On E-stimulation, the local population would yield a net saccade signal caused by the topography, but the cells coding for different depths would be excited equally, causing the vergence change to be zero.  (+info)

(3/314) Instability of torsion during smooth asymmetric vergence.

Several categories of torsional eye movements obey Listing's law; however, systematic deviations from this law occur during vergence. Two kinematic models attempt to incorporate these deviations, both of which are supported by experimental evidence; however, they lead to different torsion predictions. These discrepancies have been explained in terms of experimental procedures, but it now seems likely from several recent studies that individual differences in torsion patterns may also be important. This study therefore examines the variation of torsion during a smooth asymmetric vergence task in which a fixation target was moved along the line-of-sight of the right eye at 15 degrees elevation; each of five subjects observed five trials of both inward and outward target motion, repeated in two sessions several weeks apart. There were no significant group differences in left or right eye torsion between trials or sessions, suggesting that monocular torsion patterns were relatively stable over time. When examined more closely, however, the torsion patterns shown by some individuals did vary for inward versus outward target motion. Hence, monocular torsion was idiosyncratic and depended on the direction in which fixation was changing (convergence or divergence). In a binocular analysis, cycloversion varied dramatically between subjects and depended on the direction of target motion; however, this was not the case for cyclovergence. In summary, cyclovergence is relatively stable and depends on where the eyes are looking, whereas cycloversion (and hence monocular torsion) is relatively unstable and depends on how they came to be in that particular horizontal and vertical orientation. These findings help to explain the controversy surrounding the torsional behaviour of the human eye during vergence.  (+info)

(4/314) The effect of target size and eccentricity on reflex disparity vergence.

This study examined the effects of stimulus size and eccentricity on reflex disparity vergence: the small, involuntary corrections of eye alignment which serve to minimize the binocular disparity of fixated targets. Subjects were instructed to fixate steadily on a small, stationary mark superimposed on the center of a dynamic random dot stereogram. The stereogram was binocularly uncorrelated except for a fully correlated patch whose size and eccentricity were varied systematically across trials. The disparity of the patch was varied sinusoidally over time to stimulate vergence following movements. The overall purpose was to determine the relative contributions of various field loci in controlling binocular fixation by finding the smallest patch which would reliably drive vergence against the effort to fixate steadily. Psychophysical thresholds for detection of the correlated patch stimuli were also measured for comparison to the oculomotor results. Results showed that the smallest effective patch increased with eccentricity similarly for both vergence responses and psychophysical detection, suggesting they depend on a common, presumably cortical matching process. The dependence of response on eccentricity is roughly consistent with changes in the cortical magnification factor, suggesting that the area of cortex stimulated may be the determining factor in vergence responses to this class of stimulus.  (+info)

(5/314) Orientation and luminance polarity tuning of the transient-vergence system.

Previously, Edwards, Pope & Schoor, Vision Research, 38, 705-717, demonstrated that transient disparity vergence appears to be mediated by a system that employs a single low-pass sensitive spatial channel whose performance is not reduced by dichoptic mixed contrasts (no contrast paradox) or dichoptic mixed spatial frequencies. This broadband tuning to both contrast and spatial frequency may be indicative of a second-order or non-linear envelope extraction system. The current study tests for lack of tuning to orientation and luminance polarity which are typically taken as evidence of a second-order system. We found that when the transient vergence system was simultaneously presented with both convergent and divergent disparities, there was a small but distinct bias in favor of responding in the direction defined by matched orientations or luminance polarities over unmatched pairs. Although less frequent, responses to orthogonal carriers or opposite luminance polarities were possible. The vergence system could match a horizontal with a vertical carrier, or a light gaussian with a dark gaussian. The degree of orientation or luminance polarity tuning varied inversely with the disparity magnitude over the range of 2.5-5 degrees, and the orientation tuning peaked at a spatial frequency about 2 cpd. At all disparities tested, however, the tuning was very broad, and other candidate features for mediating transient-vergence need to be investigated.  (+info)

(6/314) Fixation disparity and nonius bias.

Fixation disparity, i.e. the vergence error within Panum's area, can be measured psychophysically with two nonius (vernier) lines that are presented dichoptically, i.e. one to each eye. The observer adjusts these nonius lines to subjective alignment; the resulting physical nonius offset indicates the amount of fixation disparity. The present experiments investigate the relation between fixation disparity and the nonius bias, which is the physical offset of the nonius lines that is adjusted by the observer in order to perceive them as aligned when both nonius lines are presented to both eyes (binocular nonius bias) or both to the left or both to the right eye (monocular nonius bias). It was found that (1) the fixation disparity is correlated with the binocular nonius bias in the horizontal and vertical meridian and (2) the binocular nonius bias can be predicted from the average of the right eye and left eye monocular nonius bias. To remove the influence of the nonius bias on measured fixation disparity it is possible to calculate the fixation disparity relative to the individual binocular nonius bias, rather than to the physical coincidence of the nonius lines. This procedure tends to increase the correlation between fixation disparity and the tonic resting position of vergence. We discuss the clinical relevance of the dichoptic nonius method for measuring fixation disparity and its limitations as compared to physical recordings of eye position.  (+info)

(7/314) Characteristics of accommodation toward apparent depth.

This paper deals with characteristics of accommodation evoked by perceived depth sensation and the dynamic relationship between accommodation and vergence, applying newly developed optical measurement apparatuses. A total of five subjects looked at three different two-dimensional stimuli and two different three-dimensional stimuli; namely a real image and a stereoscopic image. With regard to the two-dimensional stimuli, a manifest accommodation without any accompanying vergence was found because of an apparent depth sensation even though the target distance was kept constant. With regard to the three-dimensional stimuli, larger accommodation and clear vergence were evoked because of binocular parallax and a stronger depth sensation. As for the stereoscopic image, a manifest overshoot (the accommodation peaked first and receded considerably) was found while the vergence remained constant. On the other hand, the overshoot of accommodation was smaller when subjects were watching the real image. These results reveal that brain depth perception has a higher effect on accommodation than expected. The relationship of accommodation and vergence toward the stereoscopic image suggests a reason why severe visual fatigue is commonly experienced by many viewers using stereoscopic displays. It has also paved the way for the numerical analysis of the oculomotor triad system.  (+info)

(8/314) Stereopsis, cyclovergence and the backwards tilt of the vertical horopter.

It is generally recognized that the vertical horopter has a backwards tilt such that it passes through the fixation point and a point near the feet of the observer. The basis of the tilt has been attributed to either a shear in binocular retinal correspondence along the vertical meridian or the presence of cyclovergence eye movements. In an attempt to determine empirically the mechanisms underlying the tilt of the vertical horopter, retinal correspondence along the vertical meridian was investigated as a function of viewing distance. In addition, binocular measurements of torsional eye position were made in the same observers under similar viewing conditions. The vertical horopter was determined using two criteria. In the first instance, increment depth discrimination thresholds for both crossed and uncrossed disparities were measured as a function of retinal eccentricity along the vertical meridian, up to 5 degrees superiorly and inferiorly, and the horopter was defined by the region in space which had the lowest stereo-threshold. Secondly, subjective alignment of dichoptically presented nonius lines defined the horopter by identical visual directions. Both criteria were used to determine the horopter at 2 m while only the criterion of identical visual direction was used at the nearer distance of 50 cm. The vertical horopter showed a backwards tilt that decreased from an average of about 12 degrees at 2 m to 3 degrees at 50 cm, with some variability between observers. Torsional eye position did not change significantly between fixation distances. These results confirmed the geometric relation between the backwards tilt in the vertical horopter and fixation distance and support Helmholtz's original contention that the tilt is a consequence of a shear in retinal correspondence in the vertical meridian.  (+info)


  • Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatments for Symptomatic Convergence Insufficiency in Children. (
  • Kushner Burton J. The Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency. (
  • the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. (
  • Headaches caused by convergence or accommodative insufficiency usually do not occur until school age and often not until third or fourth grade when the reading print becomes smaller and it takes a longer time to finish assignments. (
  • Convergence insufficiency usually occurs in the school-aged child who complains of a chronic headache, typically for several months. (
  • The signs and symptoms of this condition are exactly the same as convergence insufficiency. (


  • The whole Binocular control system consists of DSP embedded control system and PC platforms, which achieves the movement of the vestibular ocular reflex, convergence and conjugate movement, thus realizing good tracking of moving targets. (


  • Its used to determine the change in accommodation that occurs when the patient converges or relaxes convergence a given amount. (


  • Thus, contrary to adults, adolescents do not seem to use efferent, proprioceptive ocular motor signals to improve their posture, at least not immediately when confronted to convergence accommodation conflict. (


  • It will stimulate the px's accommodation, and thus convergence. (




  • Pretectum in midbrain has an important function in developing binocular convergence [16]. (


  • This process usually overtaxes already weak convergence amplitudes, which are a measure of a person's ability to focus both eyes simultaneously on a reading target. (