Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Urobilinogen: A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.IsraelPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.IndiaAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)GreeceAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.AfricaNutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).EuropeHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.BrazilOccupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.TexasItalyPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

*  Genetic Epidemiology of Ovarian Aging - Full Text View -

Continental Population Groups. Epidemiology. Aging. Health. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Infertility. Genital Diseases, Male ... Study Population. Study Population will be drawn from members of Northern California Kaiser Permanente Health Plan utilizing ... The ethnic diversity of this population will allow multiple comparisons to identify true 'risk factors' for early, and/or ... identification and recruitment of a population-based sample of 1,250 regularly cycling women of diverse ethnicities, ages 25-45 ... reproductive health&spons=eunice kennedy&rank=3

*  Racial disparities in outcomes of military and civilian births in California.

... and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for whom financial barriers to health care services are minimal. Using linked ... Continental Population Groups*. Female. Health Benefit Plans, Employee / utilization. Humans. Infant Mortality. Infant Welfare ... CONCLUSIONS: In populations with decreased financial barriers to health care, racial disparities in prenatal care use and low ... a population-based study.. 22654149 - Welfare as maternity leave? exemptions from welfare work requirements and maternal empl ...

*  Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.

Asian Continental Ancestry Group. Body Mass Index*. California / ethnology. Continental Population Groups*. Cross-Sectional ... European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Food Supply* / economics. Health Surveys. Hispanic Americans. Humans. Male. Middle ... We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, ... DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based health survey. We compared the distribution of BMI and obesity ...

*  Trends in infant abduction.

Continental Population Groups. Crime / prevention & control, statistics & numerical data*. Ethnic Groups. Humans. Infant, ...

*  Possible selection of virulent poliovirus strains in Third-World countries.

Continental Population Groups. Disease Outbreaks. Humans. Infant. Kenya. Periodicity*. Poliomyelitis / epidemiology, ...

*  Trends in the incidence of atrial fibrillation in older patients initiating dialysis in the United States.

... about the incidence of AF in this population. We identified 258 605 older patients (≥67 years of age) with ... Continental Population Groups / ethnology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology*, ... about the incidence of AF in this population.. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 258 605 older patients (≥67 years of age) ...

*  What Is Heritability? | Science 2.0

7] observed that the 14 populations clustered into the five continental groups, as depicted in Figure 1. ...Effectively, these ... These major geographic groups emerge in more recent studies. For example, in McEvoy et al "The tree divides the populations ... This gives rise to the condition that "we can have total heritability within groups,substantial variation between groups, but ... this becomes untenable when those groups interbreed with members outside that group.*** ...

*  FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Aquatic species

After several years of adolescence, apparently spent at the outer edges of the continental shelves, these groups join the adult ... Studies on blood proteins between Port Jackson sharks of different regions suggest that they form at least two populations, a ... Some may retreat into deeper water during summer, but most juveniles remain in mixed groups with a 1:1 sex ratio on the nursery ... Port Jackson sharks can be solitary but often occur in small to large groups. Althose these sharks are evidently social and ...

*  CpG Islands Undermethylation in Human Genomic Regions under Selective Pressure

The 53 populations were divided into seven continental groups: Africa (Bantu populations only), Middle East, Europe, South Asia ... To the first group belong the methods that use a population genetic approach, while to the second group belong methods that use ... iHS was calculated for each population group and then normalizing the resulting unstandardized iHS scores in derived allele ... While population genetic approaches aim to detect recent selection events occurring in a population, comparative approaches, ...

*  A human genome diversity cell line panel. - PubMed - NCBI

Continental Population Groups/genetics. *DNA/genetics. *Databases, Factual. *Female. *Genetic Variation*. *Genome, Human* ...

*  C P Selinger

continental population groups*stents*abdominal pain*parity*hospitals*folic acid. C P Selinger. Summary. Country: Germany ... exceed those of the general population by far. The factors surrounding VC remain incompletely understood... ...

*  Katherine A Roberts

continental population groups*polymerase chain reaction*urinalysis*vagina*epithelial cells*dna*sex factors*complementarity ...


minority groups*glucose intolerance*continental population groups*ldl lipoproteins*hypoglycemic agents*diabetes mellitus*health ...

*  Nerissa U Ko

continental population groups. Genomes and Genes. *IL-1beta products*ApoE products*TNF-alpha products*eNOS products ... Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population. Rodney A Gabriel. ... Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population. Rodney A Gabriel. ...

*  Scott A Davis

continental population groups*skin diseases*ambulatory care*ethnic groups*comorbidity*glucocorticoids*dermatologic agents* ... This study was performed to characterize the role of the ED in providing dermatologic care for each racial and ethnic group in ... Use of the emergency department for dermatologic care in the United States by ethnic group. Manal Abokwidir. Department of ... there are potential adverse effects and the patient populations at highest risk include the elderly and those with a history of ...

*  Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan

continental population groups*hispanic americans*radiologic health*seer program*african americans*nomograms*single nucleotide ... 09 per 100,000 population. Incidence increases with age up to the 65-74 year old age group. Incidence is higher in Asian ... european continental ancestry group*meningioma*decision trees*meningeal neoplasms*medicare*decision support techniques*aryl ... Because the Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing in the United States, it is important to spread awareness of ...


continental population groups*ethnic groups*interpersonal relations*circadian rhythm*heart rate*social support*coroners and ... Efficacy of a group medication adherence intervention among HIV positive women: the SMART/EST Women's Project. Deborah L Jones ... This study suggests that group interventions may be an important adjunct in increasing medication adherence for HIV positive ...

*  Heidi Kalkwarf

continental population groups*multiple birth offspring*feeding methods*motor skills*vitamin d*spine*breast feeding*parathyroid ...

*  Robert A Phillips

continental population groups*glycosylated hemoglobin a*platelet aggregation inhibitors*aspirin*adrenergic beta antagonists* ... 0%. Consistent with findings in a general population, left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiography had low sensitivity ...

*  David M Amodio

group processes*continental population groups*gyrus cinguli*affect*social behavior*cues*psychological models*european ... continental ancestry group*students*neuropsychology*contingent negative variation*guilt*frontal lobe*informal social control* ... ethnic groups*brain mapping*african americans*anger*individuality*neuropsychological tests*visual evoked potentials*politics* ...

*  Eric Vittinghoff

continental population groups*blood glucose*european continental ancestry group*quality of life*california*age factors*logistic ... Department of Medicine and the Division of General Internal Medicine and the UCSF Center for Vulnerable Populations, San ... We examined colorectal cancer (CRC) stage at presentation and mortality in a vulnerable population compared with nationally ... Late presentation of colorectal cancer in a vulnerable population. Chanda Ho. Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ...

*  Alon Keinan

continental population groups*asian continental ancestry group*demography*heterozygote*genetic predisposition to disease* ... ethnic groups*chromosomes*african continental ancestry group*genes*genetic drift*alleles*human genome*genetic models*signal ... population density*gene frequency*population growth*sample size*population genetics*genetic recombination*emigration and ... european continental ancestry group*haplotypes*single nucleotide polymorphism*sex factors*computer simulation*principal ...

*  Ann M Swartz

continental population groups*fasting*glycosylated hemoglobin a*glucose tolerance test*weight loss*diabetes mellitus* ... The IPAQ appears not to be a good indicator of individual older adult PA behavior but is better suited for larger population- ... The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population ... adults have implications for planning targeted physical activity interventions related to walking activity in this population ...

*  Lorie M Harper

continental population groups*premature birth*femur*second pregnancy trimester*prenatal ultrasonography*birth weight*pregnancy ...

*  Results for: /NewsMagazine | EthicShare Community

Continental Population Groups (1). *Disease Notification (1). *Drug Approval (1). *Eligibility Determination (1) ... 4. President Clinton signs the welfare reform bill, turning his back on the poorest and most vulnerable populations and ..."Update (National Minority AIDS Council)"&solrsort=ds_cck_field_datetime_published desc

Panmixia: Panmixia (or panmixis) means random mating.King C and Stanfield W.Genetic variation: right|thumbBilirubinuriaHIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.National Arab American Medical Association: United StatesJewish Community Council of Victoria: The Jewish Community Council of Victoria Inc (JCCV) is the peak representative body for Victorian Jewry, representing nearly 60 Jewish community organisations and over 52,000 Victorian Jews. The JCCV’s mission is to represent the Victorian Jewish community, the largest Jewish community in Australia, on all matters that affect its status, welfare and interests.Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center (commonly referred to as Ichilov Hospital) is the main hospital serving Tel Aviv, Israel, and its metropolitan area. It is the third-largest hospital complex in the country.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Nomad Rock: Nomad Rock () is an isolated rock in Bransfield Strait, 5 nautical miles (9 km) off the north coast of Trinity Peninsula and 9 nautical miles (17 km) northeast of Cape Legoupil. So named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) because of confusion about the identity of geographic points along this coast, and because of the wandering of features and names on charts of this vicinity.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.List of countries that regulate the immigration of felons: This is a list of countries that regulate the immigration of felons.Miss Asia Pacific 2005Athens–Lavrion Railway: Athens–Lavrion Railway was a (metric gauge) railway line connecting downtown Athens with Eastern Attica and the mining town of Lavrion in Greece.Australian National BL classMicronutrient Fortification Programs: The 2002 farm bill (P.L.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.Vietnamese New ZealanderBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.GA²LENHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.University of CampinasRobinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California: The Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California is a federally recognized tribe of Eastern Pomo people in Lake County, California.California Indians and Their Reservations.University of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Gene polymorphismManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentSeroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Global Health Delivery Project

(1/3134) Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia.

Tropical enteropathy, which may be related to tropical sprue, has been described in many developing countries including parts of Africa. The jejunal changes of enteropathy are seen in Rhodesians of all social and racial categories. Xylose excretion, however, is related to socioeconomic status, but not race. Upper socioeconomic Africans and Europeans excrete significantly more xylose than lower socioeconomic Africans. Vitamin B12 and fat absorption are normal, suggesting predominant involvement of the proximal small intestine. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia is similar to that seen in Nigeria but is associated with less malabsorption than is found in the Caribbean, the Indian subcontinent, and South East Asia. The possible aetiological factors are discussed. It is postulated that the lighter exposure of upper class Africans and Europeans to repeated gastrointestinal infections may accound for their superior xylose absorption compared with Africans of low socioeconomic circumstances. It is further suggested that the milder enteropathy seen in Africa may be explained by a lower prevalence of acute gastroenteritis than in experienced elsewhere in the tropics.  (+info)

(2/3134) Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity.

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

(3/3134) Relative rates of AIDS among racial/ethnic groups by exposure categories.

The relative rates of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were calculated among racial/ethnic populations using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/Surveillance reports assuming that racial/ethnic distributions reflect that of the US Census Data from 1990. For comparison, a rate of 1 was assigned to whites in each calculation. The overall relative rates were whites--1, African Americans--4.7, Hispanics--3, Asian/Pacific Islanders--0.4, and Native Americans--0.5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data show higher rates of AIDS for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans. The relative rates for African Americans and Hispanics compared with whites were highest for injecting drug users, heterosexual contact, and pediatric patients. These results led us to explore possible explanations for increased AIDS reporting in African Americans and Hispanics. We then explored available national datasets regarding those variables. The analyses indicate that variables such as access and receptivity to HIV prevention and treatment efforts, race/ethnicity, sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted diseases, socioeconomic status, and substance abuse interact in a complex fashion to influence HIV transmission and progression to AIDS in affected communities.  (+info)

(4/3134) Cerebral atherosclerosis in Japanese. Part 4: relationship between lipid content and macroscopic severity of atherosclerosis.

In order to evaluate chemically the macroscopic scoring methods for severity of arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteries, concentrations of total lipids, esterified and free cholesterol and lipid phosphorus were compared to the macroscopic severity of lesions in the cerebral arteries obtained from 376 Japanese persons after unexpected death. An increase of cholesterol content was correlated significantly with an increase of Baker's score and/or Gore's atherosclerotic index. The correlation coefficient between Baker's score and total or esterified cholesterol was the highest among the tested correlations (r = 0.82, n = 376).  (+info)

(5/3134) Low-weight neonatal survival paradox in the Czech Republic.

Analysis of vital statistics for the Czech Republic between 1986 and 1993, including 3,254 infant deaths from 350,978 first births to married and single women who conceived at ages 18-29 years, revealed a neonatal survival advantage for low-weight infants born to disadvantaged (single, less educated) women, particularly for deaths from congenital anomalies. This advantage largely disappeared after the neonatal period. The same patterns have been observed for low-weight infants born to black women in the United States. Since the Czech Republic had an ethnically homogenous population, virtually universal prenatal care, and uniform institutional conditions for delivery, Czech results must be attributed to social rather than to biologic or medical circumstances. This strengthens the contention that in the United States, the black neonatal survival paradox may be due as much to race-related social stigmatization and consequent disadvantage as to any hypothesized hereditary influences on birth-weight-specific survival.  (+info)

(6/3134) Chemokine and chemokine receptor gene variants and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected individuals.

Normal B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation are regulated by chemotactic cytokines (chemokines), and genetic polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors modify progression of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. Therefore, 746 HIV-1-infected persons were examined for associations of previously described stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) chemokine and CCR5 and CCR2 chemokine receptor gene variants with the risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The SDF1-3'A chemokine variant, which is carried by 37% of whites and 11% of blacks, was associated with approximate doubling of the NHL risk in heterozygotes and roughly a fourfold increase in homozygotes. After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, NHL developed in 6 (19%) of 30 SDF1-3'A/3'A homozygotes and 22 (10%) of 202 SDF1-+/3'A heterozygotes, compared with 24 (5%) of 514 wild-type subjects. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-protective chemokine receptor variant CCR5-triangle up32 was highly protective against NHL, whereas the AIDS-protective variant CCR2-64I had no significant effect. Racial differences in SDF1-3'A frequency may contribute to the lower risk of HIV-1-associated NHL in blacks compared with whites. SDF-1 genotyping of HIV-1-infected patients may identify subgroups warranting enhanced monitoring and targeted interventions to reduce the risk of NHL.  (+info)

(7/3134) Serum total homocysteine concentrations in adolescent and adult Americans: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

BACKGROUND: The elevation of circulating total homocysteine concentrations in a fasting state is associated with an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary goals of this study were to describe the distribution of serum total homocysteine concentrations in the United States and to test for differences in homocysteine concentrations among sex, age, and race-ethnicity categories. DESIGN: Using surplus sera from phase 2 of the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we measured serum total homocysteine concentrations for a nationally representative sample of 3766 males and 4819 females aged > or = 12 y. RESULTS: Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were 9.6 and 7.9 mmol/L in non-Hispanic white males and females, 9.8 and 8.2 mmol/L in non-Hispanic black males and females, and 9.4 and 7.4 mmol/L in Mexican American males and females, respectively. Age-adjusted geometric mean total homocysteine concentrations were significantly lower in females than in males in each race-ethnicity group (P < 0.01) and were significantly lower in Mexican American females than in non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black females (P < 0.01). There was a significant age-sex interaction (P < 0.01), reflecting the fact that homocysteine concentrations in females tended to diverge from those in males at younger ages and converge with those in males at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: The first data on homocysteine concentrations in a nationally representative sample of Americans confirm the age and sex differences reported previously in nonrepresentative samples. These data also indicate that differences between Mexican American and non-Hispanic females may influence circulating homocysteine concentrations.  (+info)

(8/3134) Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA in type 2 diabetes: maternal history and ancient population expansion.

Several studies have suggested a maternal excess in the transmission of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. However, the majority of these reports rely on patients recalling parental disease status and hence are open to criticism. An alternative approach is to study mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages. The hypervariable region 1 of the rapidly evolving noncoding section of mtDNA is suitable for investigating maternal ancestry and has been used extensively to study the origins of human racial groups. We have sequenced this 347-bp section of mtDNA from leukocytes of subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 63) and age- and race-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 57). Consensus sequences for the two study groups were identical. Pairwise sequence analysis showed unimodal distribution of pairwise differences for both groups, suggesting that both populations had undergone expansion in ancient times. The distributions were significantly different (chi2 = 180, df = 11, P < 0.001); mean pairwise differences were 4.7 and 3.8 for the diabetic and control subjects, respectively. These data suggest that the diabetic subjects belong to an ancient maternal lineage that expanded before the major expansion observed in the nondiabetic population. Phylogenetic trees constructed using maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, Fitch-Margolish, or maximum likelihood methods failed to show the clustering of all (or a subset) of the diabetic subjects into one or more distinct lineages.  (+info)


  • To study the epidemiology of OVCA in this population, we started a collaborative effort in 10 sites in the US. (


  • We examined whether A1C was associated with age in nondiabetic subjects and in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in two population-based cohorts. (

ethnic groups

  • We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. (


  • OBJECTIVE: To examine racial disparities in prenatal care utilization, birth weight, and fetal and neonatal mortality in a population for whom financial barriers to health care services are minimal. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: In populations with decreased financial barriers to health care, racial disparities in prenatal care use and low birth weight were reduced. (


  • Here we describe the study and highlight the challenges of conducting a study of a lethal disease in a minority population. (


  • DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based health survey. (


  • Little is known, however, about the incidence of AF in this population. (



  • Heritability attempts to address the relationship between nature (genetics) and nurture (environment), so that as each changes, the variation between individuals within a population can be estimated based on these influences. (
  • Note that it tells us nothing about what gave rise to the particular height for any particular individual, but rather what explains the differences between individuals within a particular population. (