*  The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation.

... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega ... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions regarding ... Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. davidson@psych.purdue. ... 19686769 - Gad2 gene sequence variations are associated with eating behaviors and weight gain in w.... ...

*  Consummatory behavior | Define Consummatory behavior at Dictionary.com

... a behavior pattern that occurs in response to a stimulus and that achieves the satisfaction of a specific drive, as the eating ... of captured prey by a hungry predator (distinguished from appetitive behavior). See more. ... a behavior pattern that occurs in response to a stimulus and that achieves the satisfaction of a specific drive, as the eating ...

*  Habits That Seem Impossible to Kick: Why Some People may be More Prone to Addiction Issues and Have Greater Likelihoods of...

Saunders and Terry E Robinson delves into individual differences of drug-seeking and consummatory behavior. Saunders and ... This pattern may explain addictive behaviors of drug use in humans: addicts usually will sacrifice a great amount to get a "fix ... As with many addictive behaviors and tendencies, drug addiction manifests differently from individual to individual. We wonder ... ST rats displayed similar behavior towards the cue. ... Memories: Promoting Risky Behavior. *Obesity: Is it you or your ...

*  Frontiers | Histamine and motivation | Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience

... which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity ... which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles and in food anticipatory activity ... emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the ... emphasizing its differential involvement in the appetitive and consummatory phases of motivated behaviors. We discuss the ...

*  Vício por açúcar - Wikipedia

Levine, A.S., et al., Opioids and consummatory behavior. Brain Res Bull, 1985. 14(6): p. 663-72. PMID 2992720. Rada P, Avena NM ... Cleary, J., et al., Naloxone effects on sucrose-motivated behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1996. 126(2): p. 110-4. PMID ... Physical Behavior, 51: p371-9, 1992. Avena NM, Hoebel BG. A diet promoting sugar dependency causes behavioral cross- ...

*  Plus it

... if NPY works in the same fashion to stimulate appetitive ingestive behaviors as it does the consummatory ingestive behavior of ... opposing effects on appetitive and consummatory ingestive behavior and sexual behavior. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ... Levine AS and Morley JE. Neuropeptide Y: a potent inducer of consummatory behavior in rats. Peptides 5: 1025-1029, 1984. ... 40), whereas consummatory ingestive behavior is feeding. Considerable effort has been made toward understanding the ...

*  Desire - Wikipedia

Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... Hoyer, W.D., MacInnis, D.J., & Pieters, R. (2012). Consumer behavior (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cenage Learning. ... VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and multiple forms of ...

*  Silvia Quesada Giraudo | College of Family and Consumer Sciences | UGA

Role of alpha-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: immunohistochemical evidence. American Journal of Physiology. ... Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 97:121-129. 2010.. Shrestha, Y. B., Wickwire, K. and S.Q. Giraudo. Effect of reducing ...

*  Mark John Ferris, Ph.D., Instructor Physiology and Pharmacology - Wake Forest School of Medicine

Dissociating appetitive and consummatory behavior in drug use prone and resistant animals [abstract]. Siciliano C, Gabriele A, ... Selective deletion of GRK2 alters psychostimulant-induced behaviors and dopamine neurotransmission. Daigle TL, Ferris MJ, ...

*  Modeling Appetitive Pavlovian‐Instrumental Interactions in Mice - Current Protocols

Reinforcer‐specificity of appetitive and consummatory behavior of rats after Pavlovian conditioning with food reinforcers. ... behaviors. For example, a Pavlovian CS can serve to reinforce (novel) instrumental behavior (conditioned reinforcement or CRf ... Facilitation of instrumental behavior by a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus. J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 9: ... Pavlovian influences on goal‐directed behavior in mice: The role of cue‐reinforcer relations. Learn. Mem. 15:299‐303. ...

*  Full text] Optogenetics: illuminating the neural bases of rodent behavior | OAAP

This review aims to outline recent advances in in vivo optogenetic tools for manipulation of behavior related to movement, pain ... Keywords: in vivo optogenetics, behavior, neural circuits, transgenics, viral constructs ... In vivo optogenetics has provided researchers with the ability to delve deeper into the neural basis of behavior by driving ... neuroscience research has experienced an explosion in the understanding of the roles of specific cell subtypes in behavior. ...

*  Dymocks - Translating Mechanisms of Orofacial Neurological Disorder by Koshikawa Noriaki

Orofacial movements constitute fundamental motor patterns with essential roles in consummatory behavior, self-care, defensive ... and attack behaviors, vocalization and, in higher mammals, verbal as well as non-verbal communication. Clinically, dysfunction ...

*  Marijuana and Weight: A Plant With Virtues to Be Discovered? | Psychology Today

... "appetitive behaviors" that decrease time between meals and "consummatory behaviors" that regulate the size of a meal, these ... In their comprehensive 2016 review in JAMA Psychiatry on the effects of marijuana on human behavior, Dr. Nora Volkow, Director ... different behaviors can be eventually "manipulated differently.". While medications that block the CB1 receptor lead to weight ... of tolerance or to the presence of other compounds and caution against the health risks associated with this behavior. ...

*  Restricting sugar could cause overeating: Study

Adaptively, such processes may shift food-seeking and consummatory behavior toward energy-dense, high-reward foods, while ...

*  MCR Labs - Cannabinoids - Google Sheets

... increase in appetitive behaviors via significant reductions in the latency to feed and increases in consummatory behaviors via ...

*  2015-2016 Student Publications

Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell, 160(3), 516-527. http://doi.org/ ... Hormones and Behavior, 76, 3-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.04.013 ... Hormones and Behavior, 76, 3-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.04.013 ... Hormones and Behavior, 76, 3-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.04.013 ...

*  Aplysia feeding biomechanics - Scholarpedia

Consummatory feeding behaviors in Aplysia are mediated by a muscular structure, the buccal mass. Studies of the buccal mass ... Before rejection behavior is observed, intermediate behaviors, in which the tube moves in and then out, are often observed, ... swallowing and rejection behavior in 1990, and demonstrated that the muscle was differentially activated in the three behaviors ... The feeding behavior of Aplysia is not stereotyped, but highly variable, as was shown by Charles C. Horn and colleagues in 2004 ...

*  Whole Health Source: August 2013

Saad does interesting work on consummatory behavior, reward, and its possible evolutionary basis. Dr. Stapell is a historian ... Why do we overeat, even though we don't want to? Take an eye-opening tour of the brain circuits that determine eating behavior ... Thirsty yet? Visual cues such as these are used to drive food/beverage seeking and consumption behavior, which are used to ... synchronizing eating behavior with the natural seasonal light rhythm. I think it's a great idea, although it wouldn't be ...

*  Neural Correlates of Stress- and Food Cue-Induced Food Craving in Obesity

... how this information is processed and interpreted and likely what consummatory behaviors subsequently result after real-life ... Laitinen J, Ek E, Sovio U. Stress-related eating and drinking behavior and body mass index and predictors of this behavior. ... 9. Coelho JS, Jansen A, Roefs A, Nederkoorn C. Eating behavior in response to food-cue exposure: examining the cue-reactivity ... Stress influences eating behaviors (5,10), increasing frequency of consumption of fast food (42), snacks (43), and calorie- ...

*  Frontiers | Explaining Human Recreational Use of 'pesticides': The Neurotoxin Regulation Model of Substance Use vs. the Hijack...

... activating the MDS and producing approach and consummatory behavior, positive feelings, and the learning of cues that predict ... Host behavior, environment and ability to self-medicate. Small Rumin Res (2012) 103(1):50-9. doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2011.10. ... Sex Differences in the Brain: From Genes to Behavior. New York: Oxford University Press (2008). p. 177-99. ... Sussman S. The relations of cigarette smoking with risky sexual behavior among teens. Sex Addict Comp (2005) 12(2-3):181-99. ...

*  Blocking aromatization facilitates sexual behavior in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol and testosterone | Abizaid Lab

... designed to investigate the role of testosterone's aromatization to estradiol on sexual appetitive and consummatory behaviors ... Investigating the role of ghrelin in male rat sexual behavior. *The role of ghrelin in a chronic corticosterone model of ... This suggests that aromatization may not be necessary for TP to enhance female sexual behavior and may be exerting this effect ... Blocking aromatization facilitates sexual behavior in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol and testosterone ...

*  displacement activities

Inhibition of social behavior in chimpanzees under high-density conditions. Aureli F, de Waal FB Am J Primatol 1997;41(3):213- ... conflict, frustration of consummatory acts and physical thwarting of performance. Several theories have been put forwayd to ... Displacement Behavior. Maestripieri, D., Schino, G., Aureli, F. & Troisi, A. A modest proposal: displacement activities as an ... Displacement behavior is usually thought of as self-grooming, touching, or scratching, which is displayed when an animal has a ...

*  Plus it

Role of α-MSH in the regulation of consummatory behavior: immunohistochemical evidence ... In this regard, it is worth noting that the often-observed abnormal behavior and/or poor judgment of mountaineers in extreme ... by the Physiology and Behavior Program, National Science Foundation (USA), and by Grant MOI-RR-03186 from the General Clinical ...

*  JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Here, we describe two models of acute brain injury studied by means of two-photon imaging of brain cell behavior under ... Neuroscience, Issue 67, Microdialysis, operant ethanol self-administration, gas chromatography, appetitive, consummatory, ... Behavior, Issue 78, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Image ... Medicine, Issue 77, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Behavior, Surgery, Therapeutics, ...

*  The Neurocritic: September 2012

... and consummatory phases of behavior. This conforms to the movement of animals from distal to proximal to interactive with ... where DNQX microinjection elicited both appetitive-eating behavior and defensive-treading behavior from the same rat). The home ... 3 (Faure et al., 2008). Magnitude of increases in food intake (A) and defensive treading (B) behaviors elicited by DNQX, ... In Who's Afraid of the Vagina-Brain Connection? Pfaus also described some of his work on the sexual behavior of female lab rats ...

(1/54) Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules.

The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules.  (+info)

(2/54) Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus.

Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

(3/54) Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs.

Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems.  (+info)

(4/54) Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues.

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior.  (+info)

(5/54) Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail.

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior.  (+info)

(6/54) Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking.

Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking.  (+info)

(7/54) Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting.

The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction.  (+info)

(8/54) Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors.

Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs.  (+info)



appetitive behavior

  • These results support the notion that endogenous ghrelin contributes to an interoceptive hunger cue, and that this may be a mechanism by which ghrelin influences food intake and appetitive behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We discuss the inputs that control histaminergic neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus, which determine the distinct role of these neurons in appetitive behavior, sleep/wake cycles, and food anticipatory responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Positive reinforcers may attract appetitive behavior, while aversions drive behavior away from reinforcers. (frontiersin.org)
  • When the appeted stimulus is at length received it releases a consummatory reaction, after which the appetitive behavior ceases and is succeeded by a state of relative rest, a state of satisfaction. (frontiersin.org)

humans

  • Most of these studies, however, rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions regarding the orexigenic properties of this peptide. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This pattern may explain addictive behaviors of drug use in humans: addicts usually will sacrifice a great amount to get a "fix", the range of rewarding things in their lives narrows to only those related to the drug, and using even one time after a period of sobriety may cause a relapse. (wesleyan.edu)

stimulus

  • A simple and fixed relationship between the stimulus and response is not a satisfactory model for the behavior of animals with a nervous system. (frontiersin.org)

food

  • Saunders and Robinson examined ties between motivational behavior to obtain cues indicative of a food reward and internally generated cravings from cocaine in rats. (wesleyan.edu)
  • Whereas other rats (categorized as goal-trackers (GT)) were motivated to obtain the food reward, ST rats displayed similar behavior towards the cue. (wesleyan.edu)

animals

  • It is important to understand why, of all the many possible behaviors in a given context, animals usually perform only a few or just one. (frontiersin.org)