*  The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation.
... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega ... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions regarding ... Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. davidson@psych.purdue. ... 19686769 - Gad2 gene sequence variations are associated with eating behaviors and weight gain in w.... ...
*  Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception | Lola Cañamero's Emotion Modeling Pages
Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception Title. Learning Affordances of ... integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles ...
*  Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence :: Bethel - Faculty Scholarship
Consummatory Behavior. Copper Sulfate. Feeding Behavior. Lithium Chloride. Male. Neurons. Oxytocin. Paraventricular ... Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ... Add tags for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ...
*  Opioids and consummatory behavior. - MyScienceWork
Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
*  NIMH » Positive Valence Systems: Workshop Proceedings
Consummatory behavior can be driven by a variety of different motivations, and not all consummatory acts are hedonic. Similarly ... repetitive behaviors; stereotypic behaviors; compulsive behaviors. Measures of repetitive behaviors; Aberrant behaviors ... Approach behaviors; Consummatory behaviors toward any goal object. Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment and ... There was some agreement that consummatory behavior is potentially an important element in the "behavior" column of the matrix ...
*  Pleasure - Wikipedia
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... the attractive and motivational property of a stimulus that induces approach behavior and consummatory behavior - an intrinsic ... or pleasure component that is reflected in consummatory behavior. While all pleasurable stimuli are rewards, some rewards do ... They contrast with extrinsic rewards that provide motivation for behavior and constitute the essence of operant behavior in ...
*  Desire - Wikipedia
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ... Consumer behavior (6th ed.). Mason, OH: Cenage Learning. Laudon, K.C., & Laudon, J.P. (2013). Essentials of management ...
*  Motivational salience - Wikipedia
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. The "wanting" of incentive salience differs from "liking" in the ... Operant behavior gives a good definition for rewards. Anything that makes an individual come back for more is a positive ... ISBN 978-0-07-148127-4. VTA DA neurons play a critical role in motivation, reward-related behavior (Chapter 15), attention, and ...
*  Viqualine - Wikipedia
"Differential effects of viqualine on alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ...
*  Motivation - Wikipedia
... and consummatory in factors such as performing an action. In this theory, there are three causes responsible for behavior and ... Through the behavior-altering effect of MOs, it is possible to affect current behavior of an individual, giving another piece ... Behavior is punished or reinforced in the context of whatever stimuli were present just before the behavior was performed, ... Motivation is also one's direction to behavior, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behavior. A motive is what prompts ...
*  Reward system - Wikipedia
Rewards induce approach behavior, also called appetitive or preparatory behavior, and consummatory behavior. ... Thus any ... or desire component of reward include appetitive behavior, preparatory behavior, instrumental behavior, anticipatory behavior, ... also known as approach behavior - and consummatory behavior. In its description of a rewarding stimulus (i.e., "a reward"), a ... or pleasure component of reward include consummatory behavior and taking behavior. The three primary functions of rewards are ...
*  Plus it
2015) Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell 160:516-527. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... 2016) Lack of sleep as a contributor to obesity in adolescents: impacts on eating and activity behaviors. Int J Behav Nutr Phys ... It is pertinent to note here that the LH serves as an integratory hub for both behaviors (Bonnavion et al., 2016). Briefly, ... Feeding rhythms are tightly coupled to sleep-wake bouts and both behaviors occur in a circadian fashion (Challet, 2013). Sleep ...
*  Frontiers | From Sensorimotor Experiences to Cognitive Development: Investigating the Influence of Experiential Diversity on...
We then: (a) assess how these different experiences influence and change the robot's ongoing development and behavior; (b) ... assess how these different experiences influence and change the robot's ongoing development and behavior; (b) compare the said ... Cos, I., Cañamero, L., and Hayes, G. M. (2010). Learning affordances of consummatory behaviors: motivation-driven adaptive ... The Exploration behavior emerges due to a combination of the first three behaviors: the Attraction behavior gives the robot the ...
*  Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Arcuate Nucleus Modulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity | Diabetes
Neuropeptide Y: a potent inducer of consummatory behavior in rats. Peptides 1984;5:1025-1029pmid:6549409. ... expression and as NPY neurons projecting from the ARC to the PVN are pivotal for balancing feeding behavior and glucose ...
*  References
Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell. 160(3), pp. 516-27. PMCID:PMC4312416 ... Stuber Lab Links Specific Behaviors to Particular Neurons * Kash Lab Identifies Protein that Can Suppress Binge Alcohol ... Altered metabolism and persistent starvation behaviors caused by reduced AMPK function in Drosophila. PLoS One. 5(9) e12799.. ... Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. J Neurosci. 36( ...
*  Mathematical principles of reinforcement - Wikipedia
This equation predicts low response rates at low ratio requirements due to the displacement of memory by consummatory behavior ... Competing behaviors such as goal tracking or hopper inspection are at a minimum directly after food presentation. These ... Arousal refers to the activation of behavior by the presentation of incentives. An increase in activity level following ... Delivery of incentives increases the rate of adjunctive behaviors by generating a heightened level of general activity, or ...
*  Morley Kare - Wikipedia
Perspectives in consummatory behavior and digestion", Physiology & Behavior, Hebrew University of Israel, Kobe Women's ... Behavior, Elsevier, 20 (5): 563-570, doi:10.1016/0031-9384(78)90248-2 Naim, Michael; Ohara, Ikuo; Kare, M; Levinson, M (1991 ...
*  Weiner JL[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors. ... Childhood immunizations: First-time expectant mothers' knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Childhood Immunizations: First-Time Expectant Mothers' Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long- ...
*  Abraham Tesser - Wikipedia
... consummatory behaviors, or beliefs about the object, i.e., instrumental behaviors. According to the Mismatch Model the ... Attitudes and Behavior. The Mismatch Model. Self-reported attitudes might primarily reflect a person's feelings or her beliefs ... Millar, M. G. & Tesser, A. (1992). The role of beliefs and feelings in guiding behavior: The Mis-match Model. In L. Martin & A ... Tesser, A. (1988). Toward a self-evaluation maintenance model of social behavior. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in ...
*  Frontiers | Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual...
After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were ... After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were ... that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and ... that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and ...
*  Mental time travel: Effects of trial duration on episodic and semantic content.
7373227 - Aftereffects of lithium-conditioned stimuli on consummatory behavior in the presence or.... 14690847 - Comparing ...
*  Dopamine - Wikipedia
... also known as approach behavior) - and consummatory behavior. A rewarding stimulus is one that has the potential to cause an ... corresponds to appetitive or approach behavior while "liking" or pleasure corresponds to consummatory behavior. In human drug ... whereas the pleasurable component of intrinstic rewards is derived from the consummatory behavior that ensues upon acquiring ... The higher the level of dopamine activity, the lower the impetus required to evoke a given behavior. As a consequence, high ...
*  Coffee and cigarette consumption are high among AA attendees | EurekAlert! Science News
... how do these consummatory behaviors affect the brain and what is their role in recovery?" ... "Is this behavior simply a way to bond or connect in AA meetings, analogous to the peace pipe among North American Indians, or ... While that may be true, noted Robert Swift, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University Medical School, ... how much more prevalent these behaviors were compared to the general American population, or why AA participants actually drank ...
*  Chapter Two: Imagination and Ends by Ziniewicz
Some situations are problematic and suggest a possible resolution; others are immediately satisfying (consummatory). In a ... remedied in part by our behavior." William James, A Pluralistic Universe (New York: Longman's, Green, and Co., 1909), pp. 329 ...
*  Theory of motivation - Robert C. Bolles - Google Books
... aversive avoidance learning bar pressing Bolles classical conditioning comp construct consummatory behavior consummatory ... acquisition activity Amer animal's animals antecedent antecedent conditions appetitive behavior associative ...

(1/54) Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules.

The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules.  (+info)

(2/54) Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus.

Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

(3/54) Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs.

Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems.  (+info)

(4/54) Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues.

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior.  (+info)

(5/54) Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail.

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior.  (+info)

(6/54) Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking.

Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking.  (+info)

(7/54) Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting.

The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction.  (+info)

(8/54) Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors.

Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs.  (+info)

  • principles
  • In 1957, Skinner published Verbal Behavior , which extended the principles of operant conditioning to language, a form of human behavior that had previously been analyzed quite differently by linguists and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skinner defined new functional relationships such as "mands" and "tacts" to capture some essentials of language, but he introduced no new principles, treating verbal behavior like any other behavior controlled by its consequences, which included the reactions of the speaker's audience. (wikipedia.org)
  • events
  • However, in classical conditioning , stimuli that signal significant events produce reflexive behavior . (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-training shifts, such as from hunger to satiety, often have very little direct impact on instrumental performance unless the effect of this shift on the incentive value of nutritive events is made explicit through consummatory experience, i.e., through incentive learning ( Dickinson and Balleine, 1994 ). (jneurosci.org)