Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.
(1/54) Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules.
The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules. (+info)
(2/54) Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus.
Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease. (+info)
(3/54) Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs.
Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems. (+info)
(4/54) Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues.
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior. (+info)
(5/54) Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail.
Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior. (+info)
(6/54) Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking.
Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking. (+info)
(7/54) Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting.
The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction. (+info)
(8/54) Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors.
Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs. (+info)