*  The interoceptive cue properties of ghrelin generalize to cues produced by food deprivation.
... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions rega ... rely on either consummatory behavior (in humans or nonhuman animals) or self-report (in humans) to draw conclusions regarding ... Ingestive Behavior Research Center, Purdue University, 703 Third Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. davidson@psych.purdue. ... 19686769 - Gad2 gene sequence variations are associated with eating behaviors and weight gain in w.... ...
*  Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception | Lola Cañamero's Emotion Modeling Pages
Learning Affordances of Consummatory Behaviors: Motivation-Driven Adaptive Perception Title. Learning Affordances of ... integrated in a single architecture to learn object affordances of consummatory behaviors. We also describe the principles ...
*  Opioids and consummatory behavior. - MyScienceWork
Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... the opioid receptors involved in such consummatory behaviors, the site of action of opioid modulation of feeding, the role of ... Since the second decade of this century it has been known that opiates can influence ingestive behaviors. Generally, opioid ... The present paper reviews the responsiveness of different animal species to opiates in relation to ingestive behaviors, ...
*  Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence :: Bethel - Faculty Scholarship
Consummatory Behavior. Copper Sulfate. Feeding Behavior. Lithium Chloride. Male. Neurons. Oxytocin. Paraventricular ... Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence File Format: Link to Web File - url ... Post a Comment for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ... Add tags for Role of ?-MSH in the Regulation of Consummatory Behavior: Immunohistochemical Evidence ...
*  NIMH » Positive Valence Systems: Workshop Proceedings
Consummatory behavior can be driven by a variety of different motivations, and not all consummatory acts are hedonic. Similarly ... repetitive behaviors; stereotypic behaviors; compulsive behaviors. Measures of repetitive behaviors; Aberrant behaviors ... Approach behaviors; Consummatory behaviors toward any goal object. Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment and ... There was some agreement that consummatory behavior is potentially an important element in the "behavior" column of the matrix ...
*  Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Arcuate Nucleus Modulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity | Diabetes
Neuropeptide Y: a potent inducer of consummatory behavior in rats. Peptides 1984;5:1025-1029pmid:6549409. ... expression and as NPY neurons projecting from the ARC to the PVN are pivotal for balancing feeding behavior and glucose ...
*  Frontiers | From Sensorimotor Experiences to Cognitive Development: Investigating the Influence of Experiential Diversity on...
We then: (a) assess how these different experiences influence and change the robot's ongoing development and behavior; (b) ... assess how these different experiences influence and change the robot's ongoing development and behavior; (b) compare the said ... Cos, I., Cañamero, L., and Hayes, G. M. (2010). Learning affordances of consummatory behaviors: motivation-driven adaptive ... The Exploration behavior emerges due to a combination of the first three behaviors: the Attraction behavior gives the robot the ...
*  Weiner JL[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors. ... Childhood immunizations: First-time expectant mothers' knowledge, beliefs, intentions, and behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Childhood Immunizations: First-Time Expectant Mothers' Knowledge, Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.. Weiner JL, Fisher AM, ... Adolescent social isolation does not lead to persistent increases in anxiety- like behavior or ethanol intake in female long- ...
*  Mental time travel: Effects of trial duration on episodic and semantic content.
7373227 - Aftereffects of lithium-conditioned stimuli on consummatory behavior in the presence or.... 14690847 - Comparing ...
*  References
Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors. Cell. 160(3), pp. 516-27. PMCID:PMC4312416 ... Stuber Lab Links Specific Behaviors to Particular Neurons * Kash Lab Identifies Protein that Can Suppress Binge Alcohol ... Altered metabolism and persistent starvation behaviors caused by reduced AMPK function in Drosophila. PLoS One. 5(9) e12799.. ... Essential for the survival and function of differentiated neurons in the cortex that control complex behaviors. J Neurosci. 36( ...
*  bulimia facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about bulimia
The psychobiological view regards eating and drinking as consummatory behaviors with the potential for dysregulation. One ... Purging behaviors lead to a series of digestive and metabolic disturbances that then reinforce the behaviors. ... Most bulimics find it difficult to stop their behavior without professional help. Many typically recognize that the behavior is ... Most bulimics find it difficult to stop their behavior without professional help. Many typically recognize that the behavior is ...
*  Frontiers | Food Restriction-Induced Changes in Gonadotropin-Inhibiting Hormone Cells are Associated with Changes in Sexual...
After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were ... After testing for sex and ingestive behavior, blood was sampled and assayed for peripheral hormones. Brains were ... that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and ... that putative anorectic and orexigenic peptides control the motivation to engage in either ingestive or sex behaviors, and ...
*  Frontiers | Harnessing the power of theta: natural manipulations of cognitive performance during hippocampal theta-contingent...
Differential contribution of hippocampal circuits to appetitive and consummatory behaviors during operant conditioning of ... Furthermore, each frequency band is associated with a specific set of overt and covert behaviors and can differ in underlying ... Vanderwolf, C. H. (1988). Cerebral activity and behavior: control by central cholinergic and serotonergic systems. Int. Rev. ... Montgomery, S. M., Betancur, M. I., and Buzsáki, G. (2009). Behavior-dependent coordination of multiple theta dipoles in the ...
*  Plus it
... the dose of MDMA necessary to attenuate consummatory behavior increased after daily exposure (Zacny et al., 1990). On the other ... Post hoc tests showed that serotonin syndrome behaviors were evoked by both the low-dose and high-dose MDMA binge but that the ... Pinnie Sears provided excellent animal husbandry, and Andrea Courtemanche coded the serotonin syndrome behaviors in the second ... Bull EJ, Hutson PH, and Fone KC (2004) Decreased social behavior following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is ...
*  Plus it
Burst size is a parameter that is thought to reflect consummatory behavior in response to the stimulus. This is not in line ... those that activate ingestive behavior and those that terminate ingestive behavior (c.f., Refs. 7, 20). After RYGB, rats took ... 5, A and B; Table 1). These comparable early meal lick responses to sucrose by RYGB and SHAM rats suggest that behavior guided ... The behavior associated with Ensure was notably different from that associated with sucrose or Intralipid: RYGB rats consumed ...
*  Coffee and cigarette consumption are high among AA attendees | EurekAlert! Science News
... how do these consummatory behaviors affect the brain and what is their role in recovery?" ... "Is this behavior simply a way to bond or connect in AA meetings, analogous to the peace pipe among North American Indians, or ... While that may be true, noted Robert Swift, professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University Medical School, ... how much more prevalent these behaviors were compared to the general American population, or why AA participants actually drank ...
*  Food, Food Allergies, and Nutrition sub-cluster 38
OBJECTIVE: The present experiment examined the microstructure and temporal pattern of consummatory behavior to provide insight ... A microstructural analysis of consummatory behaviors (food, alcohol, water) was carried out using a computerized drinkometer ... thirst from different perspectives can facilitate progress toward understanding the natural history of drinking behavior. ...
*  Salivary Peptide Tyrosine-Tyrosine 3-36 Modulates Ingestive Behavior without Inducing Taste Aversion | Journal of Neuroscience
... evidence for a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 301:R690-R700, doi:10.1152/ ... 2000) Hypothalamic and amygdalar neuronal responses to various tastant solutions during ingestive behavior in rats. J Nutr 130( ... Choice Behavior Guided by Learned, But Not Innate, Taste Aversion Recruits the Orbitofrontal Cortex ... The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate the mechanism by which salivary PYY3-36 inhibits ingestive behavior ...
*  Full text] Optogenetics: illuminating the neural bases of rodent behavior | OAAP
This review aims to outline recent advances in in vivo optogenetic tools for manipulation of behavior related to movement, pain ... Keywords: in vivo optogenetics, behavior, neural circuits, transgenics, viral constructs ... In vivo optogenetics has provided researchers with the ability to delve deeper into the neural basis of behavior by driving ... neuroscience research has experienced an explosion in the understanding of the roles of specific cell subtypes in behavior. ...
*  Frontiers | Addiction is a Reward Deficit and Stress Surfeit Disorder | Psychiatry
Effects of neuropeptide Y on appetitive and consummatory behaviors associated with alcohol drinking in wistar rats with a ... Antagonism of CRF2 receptors produces anxiolytic behavior in animal models of anxiety. Brain Res (2001) 902:135-42. doi:10.1016 ... Modulation of multiple ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior by CRF and CRF1 receptors. Pharmacol Biochem Behav ( ... Historically, animal models of cocaine self-administration involved the establishment of stable behavior from day to day to ...
*  The Neural Integration of Feeding and Drinking Habits | Springer for Research & Development
... the interaction of food-related cues and the visceral feedback following ingestion largely determines future consummatory ... behavior. In early work (Garcia & Koelling, 1966), it was shown... ... interaction of food-related cues and the visceral feedback following ingestion largely determines future consummatory behavior ...
*  Plus it
... birds were repeatedly tested for consummatory behavior until they displayed the full range of copulatory behavior. Birds were ... 1998) Appetitive and consummatory male sexual behavior in Japanese quail are differentialy regulated by subregions of the ... 1999) The medial extended amygdala in male reproductive behavior. A node in the mammalian social behavior network. Ann N Y Acad ... LY367385 (100 μg) prevents the restoration of behavior by E2 (E, n = 22) or DPN (F, n = 15). The Pre and Post black bars ...
*  Viqualine - Wikipedia
"Differential effects of viqualine on alcohol intake and other consummatory behaviors". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. ...
*  Researchers discover brain circuit that controls compulsive overeating and sugar addiction
... but potential treatments face the risk of impairing normal feeding behaviors that are crucial for survival. A study published ... Cell, Jennings et al.: "Visualizing hypothalamic network dynamics for appetitive and consummatory behaviors" www.cell.com/cell/ ... But the major difference between the two behaviors is that eating is required for survival, underscoring the need to tease ... By contrast, inhibition of the same pathway reduced this compulsive sugar-seeking behavior without decreasing food consumption ...
*  Chapter Two: Imagination and Ends by Ziniewicz
Some situations are problematic and suggest a possible resolution; others are immediately satisfying (consummatory). In a ... remedied in part by our behavior." William James, A Pluralistic Universe (New York: Longman's, Green, and Co., 1909), pp. 329 ...

(1/54) Interaction of procedural factors in human performance on yoked schedules.

The differential effects of reinforcement contingencies and contextual variables on human performance were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, adult human subjects operated a joystick in a video game in which the destruction of targets was arranged according to a yoked variable-ratio variable-interval schedule of reinforcement. Three variables were examined across 12 conditions: verbal instructions, shaping, and the use of a consummatory response following reinforcement (i.e., depositing a coin into a bank). Behavior was most responsive to the reinforcement contingencies when the consummatory response was available, responding was established by shaping, and subjects received minimal verbal instructions about their task. The responsiveness of variable-interval subjects' behavior varied more than that of variable-ratio subjects when these contextual factors were altered. Experiment 2 examined resistance to instructional control under the same yoked-schedules design. Conditions varied in terms of the validity of instructions. Performance on variable-ratio schedules was more resistant to instructional control than that on variable-interval schedules.  (+info)

(2/54) Enhanced food-related motivation after bilateral lesions of the subthalamic nucleus.

Although inactivation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has beneficial effects on motor symptoms of parkinsonism, little is known of possible actions on nonmotor symptoms of cognition or mood. Here, we used several forms of converging evidence to show that STN lesions can enhance behavioral motivation. Thus, bilateral fiber-sparing lesions of the STN in rats reduced the time required to eat a standard number of food reward pellets, without affecting food intake, and altered performance on a number of behavioral measures consistent with enhanced motivation for food. Thus, STN-lesioned rats showed greater levels of locomotor activity conditioned to food presentation, enhanced control over responding by food-related conditioned reinforcers, and a higher breaking point associated with elevated rate of lever press under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These results reveal a new functional role schedule for STN, possibly because of its involvement in ventral, as well as dorsal, striatal circuitry and are relevant to the therapeutic effects of STN stimulation in Parkinson's disease.  (+info)

(3/54) Comparative neuroethology of feeding control in molluscs.

Over the last 30 years, many laboratories have examined, in parallel, the feeding behaviour of gastropod molluscs and the properties of the nervous system that give rise to this behaviour. Equal attention to both behavioural and neurobiological issues has provided deep insight into the functioning of the nervous system in generating and controlling behaviour. The conclusions derived from studies on gastropod feeding are generally consistent with those from other systems, but often provide more detailed information on the behavioural function of a particular property of the nervous system. A review of the literature on gastropod feeding illustrates a number of important messages. (i) Many of the herbivorous gastropods display similarities in behaviour that are reflected in corresponding similarities in neural anatomy, pharmacology and physiology. By contrast, the same aspects of the behaviour of different carnivorous species are quite variable, possibly because of their specialised prey-capture techniques. Nonetheless, some aspects of the neural control of feeding are preserved. (ii) Feeding in all species is flexible, with the behaviour and the physiology adapting to changes in the current environment and internal state and as a result of past experience. Flexibility arises via processes that may take place at many neural sites, and much of the modulation underlying behavioural flexibility is understood at a systems and at a cellular level. (iii) Neurones seem to have specific functions that are consistent with their endogenous properties and their synaptic connections, suggesting that individual neurones code specific pieces of information (i.e. they are 'grandmother cells'). However, the properties of a neurone can be extremely complex and can be understood only in the context of the complete neural circuit and the behaviour that it controls. In systems that are orders of magnitude more complex, it would be impossible to understand the functional properties of an individual neurone, even if it also coded specific information. (iv) Systems such as gastropod feeding may provide a model for understanding the functional properties of more complex systems.  (+info)

(4/54) Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues.

The nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in both appetitive and consummatory behavior. To examine how NAc neurons encode information during reward consumption, we recorded the firing activity of rat NAc neurons during the performance of a discriminative stimulus task. In this task, the animal must make an operant response to an intermittently presented cue to obtain a sucrose reward delivered in a reward receptacle. Uncued entries to the receptacle were not rewarded. Both excitations and inhibitions during reward consumption were observed, but substantially more neurons were inhibited than excited. These excitations and inhibitions began when the animal entered the reward receptacle and ended when the animal exited the receptacle. Both excitations and inhibitions were much smaller or nonexistent when the animal made uncued entries into the reward receptacle. In one set of experiments, we randomly withheld the reward in some cued trials that would otherwise have been rewarded. Excitations and inhibitions were of similar magnitude whether or not the reward was delivered. This indicates that the sensory stimulus of reward does not drive these phasic responses; instead, the reward-associated responses may be driven by the conditioned stimuli associated with reward, or they may encode information about consummatory motor activity. Another population of NAc neurons was excited on exit from the reward receptacle. Many of these excitations persisted for tens of seconds after the receptacle exit and showed a significant inverse correlation with the rate of uncued operant responding. These findings are consistent with a contribution of NAc neurons to both reward consummatory and reward seeking behavior.  (+info)

(5/54) Rapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail.

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole, an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior.  (+info)

(6/54) Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking.

Withdrawal from chronic cocaine reduces extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens by decreasing cystine/glutamate exchange (xc-). Activating xc- with N-acetylcysteine restores extracellular glutamate and prevents cocaine-induced drug seeking. It was hypothesized that the activation of xc- prevents drug seeking by increasing glutamatergic tone on presynaptic group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) and thereby inhibiting excitatory transmission. In the first experiment, the capacity of glutamate derived from xc- to regulate excitatory transmission via mGluR2/3 was determined. Physiological levels of cystine (100-300 nm) were restored to acute tissue slices from the nucleus accumbens or prefrontal cortex. Cystine increased glutamate efflux and decreased miniature EPSC (mEPSC) and spontaneous EPSC (sEPSC) frequency as well as evoked EPSC amplitude. These effects of cystine were presynaptic, because there was no change in mEPSC or sEPSC amplitude, and an increase in the evoked EPSC paired-pulse facilitation ratio. The cystine-induced reduction in EPSCs was reversed by blocking either xc- or mGluR2/3. In the second experiment, blocking mGluR2/3 prevented the ability of N-acetylcystine to inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. These data demonstrate that nonsynaptic glutamate derived from xc- modulates synaptic glutamate release and thereby regulates cocaine-induced drug seeking.  (+info)

(7/54) Diminishing marginal value as delay discounting.

The fundamental law underlying economic demand and exchange is the tendency for value of marginal units to diminish with increasing amounts of a commodity. The present paper demonstrates that this law follows from three still-more-basic psychological assumptions: (a) limited consumption rate, (b) delay discounting, and (c) choice of highest valued alternative. Cases of diminishing marginal value apparently due to pure intensity of reward may plausibly be attributed to the above three factors. The further assumption that maximum consumption rate may vary within and across individuals implies that some substances may be unusually addictive and that some individual animals may be unusually susceptible to addiction.  (+info)

(8/54) Receptor crosstalk: characterization of mice deficient in dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors.

Here we report the development of D1A2A receptor knockout mice to investigate whether interactions between dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors participate in reward-related behavior. The combined deletion of D1 and A2A receptors resulted in mice with decreased weight and appetitive processes, reduced rearing and exploratory behaviors, increased anxiety, and a significantly poorer performance on the rotarod, compared to wild-type littermates. D1A2A receptor knockout mice shared phenotypic similarities with mice deficient in D1 receptors, while also paralleling behavioral deficits seen in A2A receptor knockout mice, indicating individual components of the behavioral phenotype of the D1A2A receptor knockout attributable to the loss of both receptors. In contrast, ethanol and saccharin preference in D1A2A receptor knockout mice were distinctly different from that observed in derivative D1 or A2A receptor-deficient mice. Compared to wild types, preference and consumption of ethanol were decreased in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, the reduction in ethanol consumption greater even than that seen in D1 receptor-deficient mice. Preference and consumption of saccharin were also reduced in D1A2A receptor knockout mice, whereas saccharin preference was similar in wild-type, D1, and A2A receptor knockout mice. These data suggest an interaction of D1 and A2A receptors in the reinforcement processes underlying the intake of rewarding substances, whereby the A2A receptor seems involved in goal-directed behavior and the motor functions underlying the expression of such behaviors, and the D1 receptor is confirmed as essential in mediating motivational processes related to the repeated intake of novel substances and drugs.  (+info)

  • principles
  • In 1957, Skinner published Verbal Behavior , which extended the principles of operant conditioning to language, a form of human behavior that had previously been analyzed quite differently by linguists and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skinner defined new functional relationships such as "mands" and "tacts" to capture some essentials of language, but he introduced no new principles, treating verbal behavior like any other behavior controlled by its consequences, which included the reactions of the speaker's audience. (wikipedia.org)