Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

*  Green Energy in Malaysia: Go for green options

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*  Energy and Water Conservation Overview

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Energy Division.. Publication info: Helena, Mont. :Energy Division, Montana Dept. of Natural Resources and Conservation,-[1982] ... of Energy and Natural Resources, Natural History Survey Division,[1984].. Holding Institution: University Library, University ... Natural Resources Publication Office.. Publication info: Denver, Colo. :U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, ... Plant response parameters to recreational vehicles in the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) : final report / By: ... ecology/author

*  Guidelines for Authors | BRIT

4. New Mexico Forestry and Resources Conservation Division: Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department, New Mexico, U.S. ... Conservation issues are also important and any information and discussion on such would add considerable value to the paper. ... Summarize how many taxa occur in various classes of county numbers, which is informative for conservation of the state's flora. ...

*  Ecology and Society: Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta s Mineable Oil Sands

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*  Full text of "Natural resources study for Alachua County, Florida"

Since 1973, continual reports on the status of our declining energy reserves has reinforced the need for energy conservation ... As such, these surveys form the basis for all resource conservation plan- ning assistance provided bu U5DA Soil Conservation ... The realities of managing our energy Intensive agricultural system In a world with limited and finite energy resources ... k. To encourage the use of under utilized renewable resources over finite resources and encourage the recycling of resources 5 ...

*  PG & E v. State Energy Comm'n (full text) :: 461 U.S. 190 (1983) :: Justia US Supreme Court Center

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954 pre-empts state regulation of radiological safety aspects that are part of building and operating ... must apply for certification to the State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (Energy Commission). [ ... In 1974, California adopted the Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act, Cal.Pub.Res.Code Ann. ... PG & E v. State Energy Comm'n, 461 U.S. 190 (1983). Pacific Gas & Electric Co. v. State Energy Resources ...

*  Federal Register :: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Classifying Products as Covered Products

These definitions provide a basis for DOE to determine whether the household energy use of products not currently covered by ... Department of Energy (DOE) promulgates a rule to define the term ``household'' and related terms. ... Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), the U.S. ... 7, 2005) and Natural Resources Defense Council v. Bodman, No. ... Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promulgates a rule to define the term ...

*  Reducing Energy Inputs in the US Food System | SpringerLink

Agriculture Energy conservation Food packaging Food system Food transport Land resources Nutrients USA ... Department of Energy (DOE) (2007). Industrial Heat Pumps Improve Plant Efficiency and Recover Waste Energy Resources. National ... Nuclear and Renewable Energy Resources for Electricity Generation. Energy Policy 31: 20031315-1326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Before the House Subcommittees on Energy and Mineral Resources. May 19, 2005, Washington, DC.Google Scholar ...

*  Secondary Pollutants | EGEE 102: Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection

The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. ... Lesson 4: Energy and the Environment*Introduction & Checklist. *Lesson 4a: Fossil Fuels and Products of Combustion*Introduction ... Sarma Pisupati, Professor, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The ...

*  Training Catalog | Building Energy Codes Program

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Energy Conservation Click for Response Options menu Developing Renewable Resources Definitely Probably Probably Not Definitely ... Soil Conservation on Farmland Click for Response Options menu Replacing Trees and/or Shelterbelts Definitely Probably Probably ... Developing Renewable Resources Click for Response Options menu Upgrading Infrastructure Definitely Probably Probably Not ... Water Conservation (including Farm Ponds and Flood Reservoirs) Click for Response Options menu ...

*  Landscape Architecture for Micro-climate Improvement and Energy Conservation - Attia Shady

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*  Daily Reflections: Earth Healing by Al Fritsch, S.J. - October, 2017

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*  Problem Based Learning: Bungee Jumping Relations

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Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland: The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, also known as FREDS is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its significant renewable energy resource and thereby secure economic benefits."Forum for Renewable Energy Development" Scottish Government.Energy policy of Malaysia: The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.List of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Coles PhillipsEcosystemMolecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.CS-BLAST

(1/98) A longitudinal study of informational interventions to save energy in an office building.

Informational interventions were employed to promote two behaviors relevant for efficient heating of individual offices in a large office building. In two successive winter seasons, interventions were applied during 4-week periods. Short-term effects were assessed weekly, and long-term effects were assessed 1 year after each of the two intervention periods. Improvements were observed in each intervention period, with partial behavior maintenance 1 year later. The changes observed in the individual offices across conditions are suggestive of the program's capacity to correct relapses in earlier proenvironmental behavior.  (+info)

(2/98) Healthy communities must also be sustainable communities.

The author contends that healthy communities must be both environmentally and socially sustainable, given that health depends on the quality of the built and natural environments, and that global change resulting from the industrial economy is affecting the web of life. He argues that suburban sprawl wastes scarce resources and disproportionately places those resources in the hands of suburban dwellers. Urban areas can be made more environmentally sustainable, especially with respect to energy consumption, which will help reduce air pollution and climate change and contribute in other ways to improved health.  (+info)

(3/98) Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.  (+info)

(4/98) The public health benefits of insulation retrofits in existing housing in the United States.

BACKGROUND: Methodological limitations make it difficult to quantify the public health benefits of energy efficiency programs. To address this issue, we developed a risk-based model to estimate the health benefits associated with marginal energy usage reductions and applied the model to a hypothetical case study of insulation retrofits in single-family homes in the United States. METHODS: We modeled energy savings with a regression model that extrapolated findings from an energy simulation program. Reductions of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions and particle precursors (SO2 and NOx) were quantified using fuel-specific emission factors and marginal electricity analyses. Estimates of population exposure per unit emissions, varying by location and source type, were extrapolated from past dispersion model runs. Concentration-response functions for morbidity and mortality from PM2.5 were derived from the epidemiological literature, and economic values were assigned to health outcomes based on willingness to pay studies. RESULTS: In total, the insulation retrofits would save 800 TBTU (8 x 10(14) British Thermal Units) per year across 46 million homes, resulting in 3,100 fewer tons of PM2.5, 100,000 fewer tons of NOx, and 190,000 fewer tons of SO2 per year. These emission reductions are associated with outcomes including 240 fewer deaths, 6,500 fewer asthma attacks, and 110,000 fewer restricted activity days per year. At a state level, the health benefits per unit energy savings vary by an order of magnitude, illustrating that multiple factors (including population patterns and energy sources) influence health benefit estimates. The health benefits correspond to 1.3 billion dollars per year in externalities averted, compared with 5.9 billion dollars per year in economic savings. CONCLUSION: In spite of significant uncertainties related to the interpretation of PM2.5 health effects and other dimensions of the model, our analysis demonstrates that a risk-based methodology is viable for national-level energy efficiency programs.  (+info)

(5/98) An enhanced rate-based emission trading program for NOX: the Dutch model.

Since 1997 government and industry in The Netherlands have been engaged in intensive policy discussions on how to design an emission trading program that would satisfy the Government's policy objectives within the national and international regulatory framework and accommodate industry's need for a flexible and cost-effective approach. Early on in the discussion the most promising solution was a rate-based approach, which dynamically allocated saleable emission credits based on a performance standard rate and actual energy used by facilities. All industrial facilities above a threshold of 20 MWth would be judged on their ability to meet this performance rate. Those "cleaner" than the standard can sell excess credits to others with an allocation that is less than their actual NOX emission. With some changes in law, such a design could be made to fit well into the national and EU legislative framework while at the same time uniquely meeting industry's requirement of flexibility toward economic growth and facility expansion. (An analysis of the legislative changes required will be given in a separate paper by Chris Dekkers.) However, the environmental outcome of such a system is not as certain as under an absolute emission cap. At the request of the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), in close cooperation with the working group of government and industry representatives introduced a number of features into the Dutch NOX program allowing full exploitation of market mechanisms while allowing intermediate adjustments in the performance standard rates. The design is geared toward meeting environmental targets without jeopardizing the trading market the program intends to create. The paper discusses the genesis of the two-tier credit system ACE helped to design, explains the differences between primary (fixed) and secondary (variable) credits, and outlines how the Dutch system is expected to function once implemented in 2004. The paper also discusses the market trading simulation held in early 2001 to assess and test the trading program, and reviews also the current status of the market program development.  (+info)

(6/98) A structural model that explains the effects of hyperglycemia on collagenolysis.

Prior investigations into the effects hyperglycemia on collagen degradation have yielded conflicting results. We present a new formalism for understanding the biochemistry of collagenolysis and the effects of hyperglycemia on collagen degradation. The analysis is based on an understanding of environments that affect the conformational stability of collagen. We suggest that collagen can exist in two distinct conformational states-a native state and a vulnerable state. Vulnerable collagen corresponds to a non-native conformation where partially unfolded regions near collagenase cleavage sites enable collagenases to efficiently degrade collagen. Theoretical calculations on collagen-like model peptides suggest that relatively short periods of hyperglycemia can alter the equilibrium distribution of states to favor vulnerable states of collagen. These data provide new insights into the mechanism of collagenolysis and resolve apparently discrepant experimental data on the effects of hyperglycemia on collagen degradation.  (+info)

(7/98) Powering the future: how Hamilton Health Sciences put cogeneration to work for healthcare.

The absolute necessity of a stable and uninterrupted power supply within hospitals makes many of these facilities uniquely suited to cogeneration plants. Hamilton Health Sciences recently completed the largest hospital cogeneration project ever undertaken in the country. Spanning three acute care hospitals and generating a combined total of 22.75 megawatts of electricity, Hamilton Health Sciences' cogeneration plants address energy supply issues by offering a clean and reliable power source completely within the hospital's control, and provide the organization with the potential to generate its own revenue into the future by selling excess electricity back to the province. The following article highlights Hamilton Health Sciences' approach to the project, including some important lessons learned, and may serve as an example for other publicly funded institutions interested in implementing similar projects.  (+info)

(8/98) Health, environmental, and economic costs from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

In Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, mainly PM10, which would help avert a number of disease events and deaths, as estimated through dose-response functions of epidemiological studies on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Valuation of the impacts using an environmental cost-benefit analysis considered operational installation, job generation, potential carbon credits, and health costs, with an overall positive balance of US$ 2.851 million. Adding the estimated qualitative benefits to the quantitative ones, the project's benefits far outweigh the measured costs. Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo would benefit from any form of biodiesel use, producing environmental, health and socioeconomic gains, the three pillars of sustainability.  (+info)

renewable energy

  • This paper addresses the impact of the structure of energy prices on technological change in renewable energy sources. (
  • This paper extends this research by investigating the impact of the price structure of electricity on patent counts in 1) renewable energy sources, 2) wind energy and 3) solar power. (
  • Recent advances in technology and policy will allow renewable energy and energy efficiency to play major roles in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. (
  • Renewable energy technologies are being rapidly commercialized and, in conjunction with efficiency gains, can achieve far greater emissions reductions than either could independently. (
  • Renewable energy is energy that comes from natural resources such as sunlight , wind , rain , tides , and geothermal heat , which are renewable (naturally replenished). (
  • During the five years from the end of 2004 through 2009, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10-60 percent annually for many technologies. (


  • Recent research claims a positive relationship between energy prices and the number of patents in the fields of energy efficiency. (
  • Energy efficiency gains in recent decades have been significant, but there is still much more that can be achieved. (
  • With a concerted effort and strong policies in place, future energy efficiency improvements are likely to be very large. (


  • Firstly, the increasing interest in environmental economics for the determinants of green technological change, and secondly the impact of government policies aimed at subsidizing energy prices. (


  • The empirical results show that reducing government subsidies and hence increasing the electricity price of (large) industrial electricity users relative to the price paid by (small) residential users provides a clear incentive to increase inventions as measured by number of patents in the technical fields of solar and wind energy. (


  • These results are an important input in the debate on reducing government support to large energy users. (


  • A low-carbon economy ( LCE ), low-fossil-fuel economy ( LFFE ), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the environment biosphere , but specifically refers to the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide . (


  • In nearly all OECD countries in the period 1990-2006 industrial energy users pay a lower price per energy unit than households due, among others, to government subsidy policies. (
  • However, grid-connected photovoltaics increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60 percent annual average growth rate for the five-year period. (


  • Heat is one of many forms of "energy wastage" that could be captured to significantly increase useful energy without burning more fossil fuels. (


  • Cooperative R&D and Firm Performance ," Research Memorandum 022, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR). (


  • R&D Internationalization, R&D Collaboration and Public Knowledge Institutions in Small Economies Evidence from Finland and the Netherlands ," DRUID Working Papers 07-12, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies. (
  • Nations may seek to become low-carbon or decarbonised economies as a part of a national climate change mitigation strategy. (


  • Biofuels , in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security . (