Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.CongressesPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.United StatesNational Health Insurance, United StatesUnited States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Traumatology: The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Pulmonary Medicine: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. It is especially concerned with diagnosis and treatment of diseases and defects of the lungs and bronchial tree.Cataloging: Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for CATALOGS. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Therapies, Investigational: Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Awards and PrizesLegislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Small Business: For-profit enterprise with relatively few to moderate number of employees and low to moderate volume of sales.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Medicare Payment Advisory Commission: The Commission was created by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 under Title XVIII. It is specifically charged to review the effect of Medicare+Choice under Medicare Part C and to review payment policies under Parts A and B. It is also generally charged to evaluate the effect of prospective payment policies and their impact on health care delivery in the US. The former Prospective Payment Assessment Commission (ProPAC) and the Physician Payment Review Commission (PPRC) were merged to form MEDPAC.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Reimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.EuropeFinancing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Transplantation: Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Insurance Benefits: Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.TurkeyInsurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.BrazilQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.ItalyManaged Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.
International Congress on Sleep ApneaOpinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Federal Employees Health Benefits Program: The Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program is a system of "managed competition" through which employee health benefits are provided to civilian government employees and annuitants of the United States government.Donald Guthrie (physician)List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of largest employers: ==Largest public and private and Government employers in the world==Prison commissary: A prison commissary or canteen is a store within a correctional facility, from which inmates may purchase products such as hygiene items, snacks, writing instruments, etc. Spices, including those packaged with instant ramen noodles, are a popular item due to the often bland nature of prison food.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)David Steinman: You may also be looking for David B. Steinman, builder of bridges.Association of Academic Physiatrists: The Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP) is an organization of faculty, researchers, and others interested in supporting the advancement of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) academics. The Association currently has 1,100 members.The Gentlemen's Alliance CrossBritish Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedic Rehabilitation: The National Institute of Traumatology & Orthopaedic Rehabilitation (NITOR) is an orthopedic hospital and undergraduate & post-graduate institute in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. It was established in 1972 by the Bangladeshi government as the Shaheed Suhrawardy Hospital.Newington Green Unitarian ChurchHellenistic portraitureWorld Heart Federation: The World Heart Federation (WHF) is a nongovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland. The World Heart Federation is committed to uniting its members and leads the global fight against heart disease and stroke, with a focus on low-and middle-income countries.Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentState health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.Andrew Dickson WhiteAnnals of Pediatric Cardiology: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Pediatric Cardiology Society of India. The journal publishes articles on the subjects of pediatric cardiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac pathology, cardiac anesthesia, pediatric intensive care, and cardiac imaging.Treaty of the Bogue: The Treaty of the Bogue () was an unequal treaty between China and the United Kingdom, concluded in October 1843 to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty's key provisions granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.UCL Institute of NeurologyPulmonology: Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.ACP: Pulmonology: Internal Medicine Subspecialty.The Ecstasy Business: The Ecstasy Business, first published by The Dial Press in 1967, was the seventh book by the American satirist and political novelist Richard Condon. Already internationally famous at the time of its publication, primarily because of his 1959 Manchurian Candidate, this book was, somewhat surprisingly given his background, his first Hollywood novel.United States House Committee on Mines and Mining: The United States House Committee on Mines and Mining is a defunct a committee of the U.S.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Whitehall Study: The original Whitehall Study investigated social determinants of health, specifically the cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality rates among British male civil servants between the ages of 20 and 64. The initial prospective cohort study, the Whitehall I Study, examined over 18,000 male civil servants, and was conducted over a period of ten years, beginning in 1967.Lasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).ADP National Employment Report: The ADP National Employment Report (also popularly known as the ADP Jobs Report or ADP Employment Report) is sponsored by ADP, and was originally developed and maintained by Macroeconomic Advisers, LLC. The report's methodology was revised in November 2012 by Moody's Analytics.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Norman Daniels: Norman Daniels, born in 1942, is an American political philosopher and philosopher of science, political theorist, ethicist, and bioethicist at Harvard University.HSPH faculty profile Before his career at Harvard, Daniels had built his career as a medical ethicist at Tufts University School of Medicine, also in Boston.Themis MedicareHospital-acquired condition: A hospital-acquired condition (HAC) is an undesirable situation or condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a hospital or medical facility. It is a designation used by Medicare/Medicaid in the US for determining MS-DRG reimbursement beginning with version 26 (October 1, 2008).Federal budget of Russia: The Federal budget of Russia () is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.International Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Timeline of the nuclear program of Iran: This is the timeline of the nuclear program of Iran.Dalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.IontocaineSamuel Bard (physician): Samuel Bard (April 1, 1742 – May 24, 1821) was an American physician. He founded the first medical school in New York.GA²LENThe Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria: (first Board of Directors meeting)Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer. The journal publishes 36 issues per year.Pediatric Transplantation: Pediatric Transplantation is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering pediatric transplantation. It is the official journal of the International Pediatric Transplant Association.Companies OfficeCommunity-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Criticisms of globalization: Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of globalization. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement.German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology: == History ==AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Healthcare in Tanzania: Health care in Tanzania is available depending on one's income and accessibility. People in urban areas have better access to private and public medical facilities.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.DenplanThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Biotechnology Industry Organization: The Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) is the largest trade organization to serve and represent the biotechnology industry in the United States and around the world.Anna Edney, "Biosciences Defy U.Reverse vaccinology: Reverse vaccinology is an improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics, pioneered by Rino Rappuoli and first used against Serogroup B meningococcus.Pizza et al.Fragment-based lead discovery: Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD) also known as fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) is a method used for finding lead compounds as part of the drug discovery process. It is based on identifying small chemical fragments, which may bind only weakly to the biological target, and then growing them or combining them to produce a lead with a higher affinity.British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.List of tobacco-related topics: Nicotiana is the genus of herbs and shrubs which is cultivated to produce tobacco products.Kocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.University of CampinasClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Kinetochore: The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.International Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.
(1/811) The efforts of WHO and Pugwash to eliminate chemical and biological weapons--a memoir.
The World Health Organization and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs (Nobel Peace Prize 1995) have been involved in questions concerning chemical and biological arms since the early 1950s. This memoir reviews a number of milestones in the efforts of these organizations to achieve the elimination of these weapons through international treaties effectively monitored and enforced for adherence to their provisions. It also highlights a number of outstanding personalities who were involved in the efforts to establish and implement the two major treaties now in effect, the Biological Weapons Convention of 1972 and the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993. (+info)
(2/811) The efficacy and limitations of repeated slide conferences for improving interobserver agreement when judging nuclear atypia of breast cancer. The Japan National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer (NSAS-BC) Pathology Section.
BACKGROUND: The pathology section of the Japan National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer protocol study was set up to establish histological criteria for assessing high-risk node-negative breast cancers and standardize the subjective criteria used by collaborating pathologists for nuclear grading of cancers. METHODS: In order to standardize the nuclear atypia criteria, five slide conferences were held. A total of 57 observers assigned nuclear atypia scores to 119 breast carcinomas that were presented using a slide projector or a TV monitor and discussed their histological findings. The percentage interobserver agreements per tumor and per conference and kappa value per conference were estimated and compared among the conferences. The percentage intraobserver reproducibility per tumor between the last two conferences was compared with the percentage interobserver agreement for 20 tumors. The kappa value was also calculated for each of 27 observers to evaluate scoring reproducibility. RESULTS: The percentage interobserver agreement per conference was constant (75-78%) throughout the five meetings and the rate of tumors with > 80% agreement per tumor became higher in later conferences. The kappa value was 0.42, 0.25, 0.42, 0.51 and 0.50 for the first, second, third, fourth and fifth conferences, respectively. The tumors with a lower percentage interobserver agreement also had a lower percentage intraobserver reproducibility and such scoring variations were attributed to the intermediate nature of the degree of tumor atypia. In 26 of 27 observers, intraobserver agreement for 20 tumors was estimated from the kappa value to range from moderate to almost perfect. CONCLUSION: We concluded that the repeated slide conferences conducted by the pathology section were an effective means of standardizing the subjective histopathological criteria used to assess tumors. However, the achievement of a good scoring agreement would be difficult for tumors with an intermediate degree of atypia. (+info)
(3/811) The fate of neuroradiologic abstracts presented at national meetings in 1993: rate of subsequent publication in peer-reviewed, indexed journals.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abstract presentations are a valuable means of rapidly conveying new information; however, abstracts that fail to eventually become published are of little use to the general medical community. Our goals were to determine the publication rate of neuroradiologic papers originally presented at national meetings in 1993 and to assess publication rate as a function of neuroradiologic subspecialty and study design. METHODS: Proceedings from the 1993 ASNR and RSNA meetings were reviewed. A MEDLINE search encompassing 1993-1997 was performed cross-referencing lead author and at least one text word based on the abstract title. All ASNR and RSNA neuroradiologic abstracts were included. Study type, subspecialty classification, and sample size were tabulated. Publication rate, based on study design and neuroradiologic subspecialty, was compared with overall publication rate. Median duration from meeting presentation to publication was calculated, and the journals of publication were noted. RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of ASNR abstracts and 33% of RSNA neuroradiologic abstracts were published as articles in indexed medical journals. Publication rates among neuroradiologic subspecialty types were not significantly different. Prospective studies presented at the ASNR were published at a higher rate than were retrospective studies. There was no difference between the publication rate of experimental versus clinical studies. Neuroradiologic abstracts were published less frequently than were abstracts within other medical specialties. Median time between abstract presentation and publication was 15 months. CONCLUSION: Approximately one third of neuroradiologic abstracts presented at national meetings in 1993 were published in indexed journals. This rate is lower than that of abstracts from medical specialties other than radiology. (+info)
(4/811) Convergence of philosophy and science: the third international congress on vegetarian nutrition.
Populations of vegetarians living in affluent countries appear to enjoy unusually good health, characterized by low rates of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality. These important observations have fueled much research and have raised 3 general questions about vegetarians in relation to nonvegetarians: Are these observations the result of better nondietary lifestyle factors, such as lower prevalences of smoking and higher levels of physical activity?; Are they the result of lower intakes of harmful dietary components, in particular meat?; and Are they the result of higher intakes of beneficial dietary components that tend to replace meat in the diet? Current evidence suggests that the answer to all 3 questions is "Yes." Low smoking rates contribute importantly to the low rates of cardiovascular disease and many cancers, probably including colon cancer, in Seventh-day Adventists and other vegetarian populations. Also, avoidance of red meat is likely to account in part for low rates of cardiovascular disease and colon cancer, but this does not appear to be the primary reason for general good health in these populations. Evidence accumulated in the past decade emphasizes the importance of adequate consumption of beneficial dietary factors-rather than just the avoidance of harmful factors-including an abundance of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains and regular consumption of vegetable oils, including those from nuts. Although current knowledge already provides general guidance toward healthy diets, accumulated evidence now strongly indicates that diet has a powerful yet complex effect on health and that further investigation is needed. (+info)
(5/811) Some thoughts on ICPD+5.
CPD and its aftermath: throwing out the baby? (+info)
(7/811) Monitoring of interobserver agreement in nuclear atypia scoring of node-negative breast carcinomas judged at individual collaborating hospitals in the National Surgical Adjuvant Study of Breast Cancer (NSAS-BC) protocol.
BACKGROUND: In the NSAS-BC protocol, the nuclear atypia and mitotic counts are to be judged by pathologists at each participating hospital for assessing high-risk node-negative breast cancers. Therefore, maintenance of interobserver agreement in diagnosis at a higher level is mandatory during the period of patient entry. METHODS: Individual collaborating pathologists originally evaluated the histological eligibility of 107 cases. Three panel pathologists determined consensus diagnoses and 29-37 collaborating pathologists determined modal diagnoses of these cases at three slide conference sessions. The original diagnoses were compared with the consensus and modal diagnoses to estimate the percentage of erroneous judgments. RESULTS: The agreement rate in histological type and nuclear atypia score was 69% (74/107) between the original and consensus diagnoses, 76% (81/107) between the original and modal diagnoses and 86% (92/107) between the consensus and modal diagnoses. The strength of interobserver agreement at the slide conference sessions was moderate (0.447-0.535) by kappa statistics. The original, consensus and modal diagnoses were concordant in 71 cases (66%), but were discordant in 36. Of 35 invasive ductal carcinomas with discordant diagnoses, the discordance arose from the intermediate tumor nature in 15, multiple factors in 13 and erroneous diagnosis in seven (6.5%), if the characteristics of the tumor were judged from the percentage interobserver agreement per tumor at the slide conferences. CONCLUSION: Nuclear atypia scoring given at individual hospitals on case entry was almost reproducible among the pathologists. Continuous efforts are needed to improve interobserver agreement and to decrease erroneous diagnosis for protocol eligibility. (+info)
(8/811) Using multi media to enhance a flexible learning program: lessons learned.
Central Queensland University is a well-established distance education provider with an internationally recognized reputation in flexible learning. It has a well-developed infrastructure for the preparation of quality print and multimedia learning materials. A symposium and working conference linking twelve sites, including Auckland NZ via video conferencing, and supported by print based materials and web based conferencing was held during November 1998 with the assistance of Telstra's Conferlink. This paper provides the background, organisation, and evaluation results. Our conclusions are that appropriate use of a combination of print based materials, videoconferencing and a web based classroom works well for the provision of continuing education to health professionals. In addition this symposium was able to reach clinicians and demonstrate the value of informatics to support evidence based practice. (+info)
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