Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Family Conflict: Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.War: Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Gift Giving: The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Codes of Ethics: Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Weapons: Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.United StatesHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Ethnic Conflict: Violence or other hostile behavior arising when an ethnic group either feels itself under threat, or where it seeks to assert its superiority or dominance over other groups.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Role: The expected and characteristic pattern of behavior exhibited by an individual as a member of a particular social group.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)AfghanistanPersonality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.Paternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Committee Membership: The composition of a committee; the state or status of being a member of a committee.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Ethics, Clinical: The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Hostility: Tendency to feel anger toward and to seek to inflict harm upon a person or group.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.IraqModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Group Processes: The procedures through which a group approaches, attacks, and solves a common problem.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Ethics, Nursing: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Puma: A genus in the family FELIDAE comprising one species, Puma concolor. It is a large, long-tailed, feline of uniform color. The names puma, cougar, and mountain lion are used interchangeably for this species. There are more than 20 subspecies.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Military Medicine: The practice of medicine as applied to special circumstances associated with military operations.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Torture: The intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon an individual or individuals, including the torture of animals.East Timor: A country in Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago. It includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco. On May 20, 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state. This followed its declared independence from Portugal on November 20, 1975 and a period of armed conflict with Indonesia.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Sibling Relations: Interactions and relationships between sisters and/or brothers. The concept also applies to animal studies.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Maternal-Fetal Relations: The bond or lack thereof between a pregnant woman and her FETUS.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Higher Nervous Activity: A term used in Eastern European research literature on brain and behavior physiology for cortical functions. It refers to the highest level of integrative function of the brain, centered in the CEREBRAL CORTEX, regulating language, thought, and behavior via sensory, motor, and cognitive processes.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Object Attachment: Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Human Rights Abuses: Deliberate maltreatment of groups of humans beings including violations of generally-accepted fundamental rights as stated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted and proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Ethical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Ethical Analysis: The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Liability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.

*  Those Who Have the Gold Make the Evidence: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Biases the Outcomes of Clinical Trials of...

2010). Toward more uniform conflict disclosures-the updated ICJME conflict of interest reporting forms. New England Journal of ... Cooper, R. J., Gupta, M., Wilkes, M. S., & Hoffman, J. R. (2006). Conflict of interest disclosure policies and practices in ... Thus far, efforts to contain bias have largely focused on more stringent rules regarding conflict-of-interest (COI) and ... conflict-of-interest leading to more positive conclusions, ghostwriting and the use of "seeding" trials. ...

*  Judges' financial conflicts of interest revealed in report - SFGate

... in violation of a federal conflict-of-interest law. The report by the nonprofit Center for Public Integrity appears to have ... Judge Sandra Ikuta had a different type of financial interest - future benefits from her former law firm - when she took part ... in violation of a federal conflict-of-interest law.. The report by the nonprofit Center for Public Integrity appears to have ... The law prohibits federal judges from taking part in a case in which they have any financial interest, no matter how small. ...

*  Lawrence school district appeals finding that it violated conflict-of-interest rules /

Lawrence school district appeals finding that it violated conflict-of-interest rules. Journal-World File Photo. Enlarge photo. ... a ruling from the Universal Service Administrative Company that found district officials violated federal conflict-of-interest ...

*  Conflict Of Interest | Care2 Causes

After Family Is Forced to Leave Animals in Car, Holiday Inn Grants Free Stays to Pets During ...

*  Conflict of Interest Training Module

Information and frequently asked questions pertaining to the online conflict of interest training module. ... Who should I contact if I have a question about a potential conflict of interest?. If you have a potential conflict of interest ... of Medicine Policies on Professional Commitment and Conflict of Interest are required to take and pass the Conflict of Interest ... School of Medicine Policies on Conflict of Interest and Professional Commitment are required to take the Conflict of Interest ...

*  Oh bum, conflict of interest .... | XenForo community

... ergo it's in my interest for the book to be short listed, ergo it's a conflict of interest as the sites featuring the book ... oh, and, I doubt it's a conflict of interest, the head of the judge people type thing wont even have known it's your site, ... oh, and, I doubt it's a conflict of interest, the head of the judge people type thing wont even have known it's your site, ... Have made the coordinator of the Competition aware of a possible conflict of interest and am waiting to see what he thinks I ...

*  Perceptions of conflict of interest a 'very big deal'

Now that this in the public arena and the perception is as it is, and it has been talked about this conflict of interest thing ...

*  A Cultural Conflict of Interest Chapter 30 |

Chris Houston loves to help things grow, which has shaped his interest in organizations (as a consultant), in their leaders (as ...

*  Listen to A Conflict of Interest - Audiobook |

"A Conflict of Interest" has a pretty good plot for a first novel; but the characters lack some credibility. I think that ... With its powerful voice, pause-resistant tension, and strong cast of characters, A Conflict of Interest will captivate ... What did you love best about A Conflict of Interest?. This is a tautly-written story with absolutely nothing gratuitous. ... If you like legal thrillers, you will probably like "A Conflict of Interest" ... even though it doesn't actually qualify as a ...

*  Analysts' Conflict of Interest and Biases in Earnings Forecasts

... Louis K. C. Chan, Jason Karceski, Josef Lakonishok. NBER ... conflict of interest and their incentives to adjust strategically forecasts to avoid earnings disappointments. We document ... w12695 The Economics of Conflicts of Interest in Financial Institutions. Chan, Karceski, and Lakonishok. w8282 The Level and ... Further confirmation is based on subsamples where conflicts of interest are more pronounced, including growth stocks and stocks ...

*  Conflict of interest management - KYOTO UNIVERSITY

Kyoto University Conflict of Interest Policy (English/Japanese). *Kyoto University Conflict of Interest Management Regulations ... and the Conflict of Interest Review Committee and the Conflict of Interest Review Committee for Clinical Research, both ... In addition, the University has established a Conflict of Interest Management Office to support these Committees, organize ... even while entailing the risk of a conflict of interest, referred to as a "side effect" of external collaboration. ...

*  Conflict of Interest Procedures - Administrative Services - Western Illinois University

There are two types of conflict of interest to be addressed:. A technical conflict of interest (employee or employee's ... A real conflict of interest (employee is in a position to influence the outcome of the selection of a vendor or an award of ... If the conflict of interest is real, or could be perceived as real, the originating department must indicate in the Letter of ... If the conflict of interest is technical, the originating department must indicate in the Letter of Justification that the ...

*  Senator Larry Campbell dismisses suggestions he is in conflict of interest

"It's an enormous conflict of interest.". Spokesmen for two ethics watchdog groups, Democracy Watch and Integrity B.C., said ... Senator Larry Campbell says he not in a conflict of interest advising a medical marijuana firm.. Photograph by: Arlen Redekop, ... Senator Larry Campbell says he not in a conflict of interest advising a medical marijuana firm.. Photograph by: Arlen Redekop ... Original source article: Senator Larry Campbell dismisses suggestions he is in conflict of interest ... Larry Campbell dismisses suggestions conflict interest/10122195/story.html

*  Rubashkin lawyers accuse judge of conflict of interest | Jewish Telegraphic Agency

Rubashkin lawyers accuse judge of conflict of interest. By JTA Staff. August 6, 2010 8:19pm. ... Lawyers for former Agriprocessors CEO Sholom Rubashkin accused the presiding judge in the case of a conflict of interest, ...

*  Federal Register :: Human Subject Protection and Financial Conflict of Interest: Conference

The issue of financial conflict of interest is one of the 5 main issues identified by the Secretary of Health and Human ... A Conference on Human Subject Protection and Financial Conflict of Interest will be held at Natcher Auditorium, NIH Campus on ... financial interests which constitute a financial conflict of interest or might constitute a financial conflict of interest? ... has engendered a new degree of complexity in accompanying ethical and conflict of interest considerations. Financial conflict ...

*  Inside the Potential Conflict of Interest Surrounding Trump's DC Hotel Video - ABC News

Inside the Potential Conflict of Interest Surrounding Trump's DC Hotel. More. ABC News' Jordyn Phelps talks with law professor ... And this is a class a conflict of interest at numerous different levels and I'm sure we'll talk more about the fact. That it ... The much more important one is the conflict of interest. We want our elected officials we want people at the president of the ... Transcript for Inside the Potential Conflict of Interest Surrounding Trump's DC Hotel ...

*  Conflict of Interest: Romney Family Invests in Vote Counting Machines | HubPages

Either Mitt know's that it is completely a Conflict of Interest for any of his family or friends to have anything to do with ... It's a complete conflict of interest and Mitt Romney should be disqualifed as a presidential candidate. ... Conflict of Interest: Romney Family Invests in Vote Counting Machines. Updated on October 21, 2012 ... I don't think any family member of any candidate should have any kind of vested interest in any of the voting documentation. ...

*  WATCH: Are Ivanka Trump's Chinese Trademarks a Conflict of Interest? Video | The View

Are Ivanka Trump's Chinese Trademarks a Conflict of Interest? No comment yet from the White House but China is defending Ivanka ... The screams conflict of interest to the co-hosts. Watch 'The View' WEEKDAYS at 11e,10c,p. ...

*  Conflict of Interest Between People and Baboons: Crop Raiding in Uganda | SpringerLink

Much has been written about insect damage to standing crops, but an area that has received little attention within agricultural development, conservation, and primatological literature is that of primates and the potential damage they can cause to farmers' fields. This is likely to become an increasingly important issue for people interested in primates, as conservation projects adopt a more integrated approach to take account of local people's perspectives and needs. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of crop raiding by primates, particularly baboons, on farmers living around the southern edge of the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda. I use data gathered during monthly farm surveys and informal discussion groups, along with time budget data, to demonstrate that 1) baboons can cause extensive damage to field crops, such as maize and cassava; 2) proximity of the farm to the forest edge and the presence or absence of neighboring farms affect the likelihood of any farm sustaining crop ...

*  Letters to the Editor: Clarification Regarding AFP's Conflict of Interest Policy - American Family Physician

AFP's conflict of interest policy is highly atypical among medical journals. Virtually all medical journals permit review ... 3(February 1, 2014) / Clarification Regarding AFP's Conflict of Interest Policy ... conflict of interest policy to a high standard. To further clarify our policy, had Dr. Marghoob's affiliations been disclosed ... Possible conflicts of interest must be disclosed at time of submission. Submission of a letter will be construed as granting ...

*  D.A. Clears Councilman After Interest-Conflict Investigation - latimes

... the Los Angeles County district attorney's office announced after concluding a conflict-of-interest investigation into ... the Los Angeles County district attorney's office announced after concluding a conflict-of-interest investigation into ... "Where . . . a public official publicly discloses his interest and promises to divest, removal seems inappropriate," she wrote. ... 2 and said then that he would sell his interest to his partner, attorney Jim Sloey. ...

*  Food company sponsorship of nutrition research and professional activities: a conflict of interest? | Public Health Nutrition |...

... a conflict of interest? - Volume 4 Issue 5 - Marion Nestle ... Conflict of interest: the new McCarthyism in science. JAMA 1993 ... Conflict of interest: an import issue in nutrition research and communications. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1999; 99: 31-2. ... Evaluation of conflict of interest in economic analyses of new drugs used in oncology. JAMA 1999; 282: 1453-7. ... Conflict of interest in the debate over calcium-channel antagonists. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998; 338: 101-6. ...

*  Norplant and contraceptive pricing : conflict of interest, protection of public ownership in drug development deals between tax...

Norplant and contraceptive pricing : conflict of interest, protection of public ownership in drug development deals between tax ... Norplant and contraceptive pricing : conflict of interest, protection of public ownership in drug development deals between tax ...

*  The Conflict of Interest Between Physician as Therapist and as Experimenter

Conflict of Interest Between Therapist-Patient Confidentiality and the Duty to Report Sexual Abuse of Children  Miller, Robert ... Conflict of Interest Between Therapist-Patient Confidentiality and the Duty to Report Sexual Abuse of Children  Miller, Robert ... The Conflict of Interest Between Physician as Therapist and as Experimenter. Author. Lasagna, Louis ... Potential Conflict of Interest of a Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee Member -- Scenario; Position 1: Physician's Membership ...

*  A conflict of interest: the evolutionary arms race between mammalian APOBEC3 and lentiviral Vif | Retrovirology | Full Text

A conflict of interest: the evolutionary arms race between mammalian APOBEC3 and lentiviral Vif. ... Importantly, the A3G-mediated antiviral action is antagonized by HIV-1 Vif [30]. This report initiated research interest in Vif ... To gain a better understanding of the evolutionary conflict between lentiviruses and their host species, cell-based virological ... The host restriction factor APOBEC3G and retroviral Vif protein coevolve due to ongoing genetic conflict. Cell Host Microbe. ...

Odd Eriksen: 250px|thumb|Odd EriksenBarry Dorn: Barry C. Dorn, M.List of military conflicts spanning multiple wars: Early histories of a war typically describe the war as it was declared by the states involved. It is not uncommon for later historians to group together a series of wars over a long period or spread over several theaters as part of a broader conflict or strategic campaign.Never Come UndoneSexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Yeidckol Polevnsky Gurwitz: Yeidckol Polevnsky Gurwitz (born January 25, 1958 in Mexico City as Citlali Ibáñez Camacho) is a Mexican entrepreneur and current Senator. In 2005 she was nominated by the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) as the State of México governor candidate.Scientific misconduct: Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.David S. Cafiso: David S. Cafiso (born 18 March 1952) is an American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.Gift registry: A gift registry is a particular type of wish list.Pharmaceutical manufacturing: Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies. The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Cingulate sulcus: The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex. The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the cingulate gyrus by the cingulate sulcus.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).International College of Dentists: InternationalFootprints (poem): "Footprints", also known as "Footprints in the Sand", is a popular allegorical text written in prose.Erga omnes: Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Victor Willard: Victor M. Willard (1813 – December 10, 1869) was an American farmer from Waterford, Wisconsin who spent two years (1849–1850) as a Free Soil Party member of the Wisconsin State Senate from the 17th District.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentOpinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Biological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.Fasting, Feasting: Fasting, Feasting is a novel by Indian writer Anita Desai, first published in 1999 in Great Britain by Chatto and Windus. It was shortlisted for the Booker Prize for fiction in 1999.Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship: Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship is the entrepreneurship school of Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur which offers graduate and doctoral programs in entrepreneurship for engineers. The school also offers an option to all the undergraduate students of IIT Kharagpur to opt for an integrated dual degree course, which would offer them a master's degree in entrepreneurship apart from a bachelor's degree in the respective branch of engineering the student may be enrolled in.Amiriyah FallujahHyperintensityClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsI Love You Love Me Love: "I Love You Love Me Love" was a popular song by Gary Glitter. Written by Gary Glitter and Mike Leander and produced by Mike Leander, "I Love You Love Me Love" was Glitter's second number one single in the UK Singles Chart, spending four weeks at the top of the chart in November 1973, and establishing itself as Britain's best-selling single in 1973.Selection (relational algebra): In relational algebra, a selection (sometimes called a restriction to avoid confusion with SQL's use of SELECT) is a unary operation written asMorality and religion: Morality and religion is the relationship between religious views and morals. Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Anssi JoutsenlahtiBritish Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Humanitarian crisis: A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people."What Is a Humanitarian Crisis", Humanitarian Coalition, Retrieved on 6 May 2013.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Research participant: A research participant, also called a human subject or an experiment, trial, or study participant or subject, is a person who participates in human subject research by being the target of observation by researchers.United States Military Academy class ringAl-Waleed (camp): Al-Waleed () is a makeshift Palestinian refugee camp in Iraq, near the border with Syria and the al-Tanf Crossing, and not far from the border with Jordan. It was set up in 2006 by Palestinian refugees stranded at the Iraqi-Syrian border The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has two field staff stationed in the camp.Council of Ministers (Afghanistan): The Council of Ministers was the governmental organ in the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan and later the Republic of Afghanistan. The leader of the Council of Ministers chose ministers for the different ministeral posts in the country.Toronto Western Research Institute: The Toronto Western Research Institute (TWRI) is a non-profit academic medical research institute located in Canada’s largest city, Toronto. The TWRI is one the principal research institutes of the University Health Network of academic teaching hospitals associated with the University of Toronto; the TWRI is also one of the largest research institutes in Canada focussing on human neurological disease from both a basic science and clinical research perspective.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Female education: Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.Patient advocacySwadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Camponotus vagus: Camponotus vagus is a species of large, black, West Palaearctic carpenter ant with a wide range that includes much of Europe, a large area of Asia, and part of Africa.Norwegian Journal of EntomologyEncyclopedia of Life: Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763)Donald Guthrie (physician)Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Cynicism (contemporary): Cynic}}Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDamage to Baghdad during the Iraq War: The city of Baghdad suffered significant damage during the Iraq War.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Peer-led Team Learning: Peer-led Team Learning, (PLTL), is a model of teaching undergraduate science, math, and engineering courses that introduces peer-led workshops as an integral part of a course.Gosser,D.Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.

(1/473) To tell the truth: disclosing the incentives and limits of managed care.

As managed care becomes more prevalent in the United States, concerns have arisen over the business practices of managed care companies. A particular concern is whether patients should be made aware of the financial incentives and treatment limits of their healthcare plan. At present, managed care organizations are not legally required to make such disclosures. However, such disclosures would be advisable for reasons of ethical fidelity, contractual clarity, and practical prudence. Physicians themselves may also have a fiduciary responsibility to discuss incentives and limits with their patients. Once the decision to disclose has been made, the managed care organization must draft a document that explains, clearly and honestly, limits of care in the plan and physician incentives that might restrict the care a patient receives.  (+info)

(2/473) Outcomes research: collaboration among academic researchers, managed care organizations, and pharmaceutical manufacturers.

Medical and pharmaceutical outcomes research has been of increasing interest in the past 10 to 15 years among healthcare providers, payers, and regulatory agencies. Outcomes research has become a multidisciplinary field involving clinicians, health services researchers, epidemiologists, psychometricians, statisticians, psychologists, sociologists, economists, and ethicists. Collaboration among researchers in different organizations that offer different types of services and various research expertise is the essential element for any successful outcomes project. In this article we discuss collaboration on outcomes research among academic researchers (mainly those who work in colleges of pharmacy), managed care organizations, and research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers, with a focus on the opportunities and challenges facing each party. The pharmaceutical industry needs information to make product and promotion decisions; the managed care industry has data to offer but needs analysis of these data; and pharmacy schools, among other academic institutions, have skilled researchers and data-processing capacity but require projects for revenue, research training, experience, and publications. Challenges do exist with such endeavors, but collaboration could be beneficial in satisfying the needs of the individual parties.  (+info)

(3/473) Technology assessment, coverage decisions, and conflict: the role of guidelines.

As pressure grows for health plans to be accountable for increasing quality of care within a cost-control environment, coverage of new technologies becomes a particularly challenging issue. For a number of reasons, health plans have adopted evidence-based methods for guiding technology decisions. The implementation of these methods has not been free of controversy, and conflicts have arisen between plans and proponents of technologies who often use the political and legal arena in an attempt to secure coverage. Unless these conflicts are resolved, the healthcare system may have difficulty meeting cost and quality objectives. Technology assessment and coverage process guidelines and flexible coverage approaches may be possible ways of resolving these conflicts.  (+info)

(4/473) The ethical dilemma of population-based medical decision making.

Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in population-based medicine. Some elements in healthcare have used population-based medicine as a technique to decrease healthcare expenditures. However, in their daily practice of medicine, physicians must grapple with the question of whether they incorporate population-based medicine when making decisions for an individual patient. They therefore may encounter an ethical dilemma. Physicians must remember that the physician-patient relationship is of paramount importance and that even well-conducted research may not be applicable to an individual patient.  (+info)

(5/473) Research, ethics and conflicts of interest.

In this paper, I have tried to develop a critique of committee procedures and conflict of interest within research advisory committees and ethical review committees (ERCs). There are specific features of conflict of interest in medical research. Scientists, communities and the subjects of research all have legitimate stakeholdings. The interests of medical scientists are particularly complex, since they are justified by the moral and physical welfare of their research subjects, while the reputations and incomes of scientists depend on the success of their science. Tensions of this kind must at times produce conflict of interest. It is important to recognise that conflicts of interest may unwittingly lead to manipulation of research subjects and their lay representatives on research committees. It is equally important to recognise distinctions between the legal and moral aspects of conflict of interest. Some practical suggestions are made which may go some way towards resolving these difficulties. They indicate what might be needed to ensure the validity of ethical discourse, and to reduce the risks associated with conflict of interest.  (+info)

(6/473) One editor's views on conflict of interest.

The purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of recognizing conflict of interest or bias situations in the peer review and publication process of research papers and to identify some important guidelines or policies that help to minimize these situations. Communication of thoughts, ideas, and information is the basis of how we function as a society. Communicating research results requires us to clearly and accurately communicate all aspects of the research process, including the appropriate interpretation of results. A working definition for conflict of interest or bias with regard to publishing research results is that conflict of interest is a situation in which personal benefit (either direct or indirect) takes priority over the clarity and(or) accuracy of reporting research. These situations are ethical issues and can represent either real or assumed situations. It is true that the review and publication process is not perfect; thus, some bias probably is always present and can be brought to the review and publication process by either the author or those responsible for the process. However, conflict of interest or bias that detracts from the objective evaluation of research or the integrity of a scientific journal is inappropriate. Conflict of interest or bias situations can occur at all levels of the review and publication process and should be dealt with on a factual basis. This article describes several situations as examples and several important guidelines that help minimize the occurrence of conflict of interest or bias.  (+info)

(7/473) Managed care and ethical conflicts: anything new?

Does managed care represent the death knell for the ethical provision of medical care? Much of the current literature suggests as much. In this essay I argue that the types of ethical conflicts brought on by managed care are, in fact, similar to those long faced by physicians and by other professionals. Managed care presents new, but not fundamentally different, factors to be considered in medical decision making. I also suggest ways of better understanding and resolving these conflicts, in part by distinguishing among conflicts of interest, of bias and of obligation.  (+info)

(8/473) Coverage by the news media of the benefits and risks of medications.

BACKGROUND: The news media are an important source of information about new medical treatments, but there is concern that some coverage may be inaccurate and overly enthusiastic. METHODS: We studied coverage by U.S. news media of the benefits and risks of three medications that are used to prevent major diseases. The medications were pravastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; alendronate, a bisphosphonate for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis; and aspirin, which is used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed a systematic probability sample of 180 newspaper articles (60 for each drug) and 27 television reports that appeared between 1994 and 1998. RESULTS: Of the 207 stories, 83 (40 percent) did not report benefits quantitatively. Of the 124 that did, 103 (83 percent) reported relative benefits only, 3 (2 percent) absolute benefits only, and 18 (15 percent) both absolute and relative benefits. Of the 207 stories, 98 (47 percent) mentioned potential harm to patients, and only 63 (30 percent) mentioned costs. Of the 170 stories citing an expert or a scientific study, 85 (50 percent) cited at least one expert or study with a financial tie to a manufacturer of the drug that had been disclosed in the scientific literature. These ties were disclosed in only 33 (39 percent) of the 85 stories. CONCLUSIONS: News-media stories about medications may include inadequate or incomplete information about the benefits, risks, and costs of the drugs as well as the financial ties between study groups or experts and pharmaceutical manufacturers.  (+info)

conflicts of inter

  • All protocols with conflicts of interest must be reviewed by the JHM IRB and not WIRB. (
  • If you have a potential conflict of interest or questions concerning conflicts of interest, please contact the Office of Policy Coordination at 410-516-5560 or . (
  • She said that HHS would undertake an extensive public consultation to identify new or improved means to manage financial conflicts of interest that could threaten the safety of research subjects or the objectivity of the research itself. (
  • Hi I'm Jordan Alps with ABC news and today we're taking into the potential conflicts of interest surrounding Donald trams DC kowtow. (
  • The editor, Dr. Siwek, stated that the article's first author, Dr. Marghoob, had initially failed to disclose some potential conflicts of interest. (
  • My concern, though, is that there may have been an inadequate representation of the author's conflicts of interest and potential gains from publication of the article. (


  • The Lawrence school district has appealed a ruling from the Universal Service Administrative Company that found district officials violated federal conflict-of-interest rules. (


  • The Conference will review the current regulatory requirements and guidance, serve as a forum for presentations of current approaches being taken for dealing with real and potential financial conflict of interest at the institution, IRB, and clinical investigator levels. (


  • Who should I contact if I have a question about a potential conflict of interest? (


  • While you may not have a personal financial conflict of interest, you may work with individuals who have significant personal relationships with industry. (
  • A Conference on Human Subject Protection and Financial Conflict of Interest will be held at Natcher Auditorium, NIH Campus on August 15-16, 2000. (
  • The issue of financial conflict of interest is one of the 5 main issues identified by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in her announcement of steps being taken to strengthen human subject protection during clinical trials. (
  • Emphasis will be placed on the informed consent process and how it might be clarified and enhanced in dealing with issues related to financial conflict of interest. (
  • We don't want them having to choose on an issue by issue basis between their own personal and financial interest and the interest of the nation. (


  • Do I need to take the Conflict of Interest Training Module? (
  • The Coordinator has got back to me saying he'll take a note of the conflict in case there's any dispute over finalists. (
  • So if Donald Trump gets bored with the GSA administrator he can remove them and put in someone who will be more inclined to take care of Trump's interest rather than the government's. (
  • She also wrote that Andersen, as a council member, did not vote or take any other action affecting the property during the brief period that he held an interest in it. (


  • IN REPLY: I appreciate Dr. Jeppesen's careful reading of Dr. Marghoob's disclosure and the accompanying editor's note, as well as his desire to hold American Family Physician 's ( AFP 's) conflict of interest policy to a high standard. (
  • AFP 's conflict of interest policy is highly atypical among medical journals. (


  • In fact, such undertakings represent the University's "third mission" following education and research, even while entailing the risk of a conflict of interest, referred to as a "side effect" of external collaboration. (
  • Food company sponsorship of nutrition research and professional activities: a conflict of interest? (


  • oh, and, I doubt it's a conflict of interest, the head of the judge people type thing wont even have known it's your site, right? (


  • In addition, the University has established a Conflict of Interest Management Office to support these Committees, organize seminars on related topics, provide counseling, and perform other necessary activities. (
  • The Purchasing Office will prepare the necessary paperwork and submit for approval from the State once a conflict of interest has been noted on a contract, Direct Pay Authorization or an Online Purchase Requisition. (
  • Hawthorne Councilman Steve Andersen will not be prosecuted, the Los Angeles County district attorney's office announced after concluding a conflict-of-interest investigation into Andersen's purchase of a mobile home park in a city redevelopment area. (


  • SAN FRANCISCO (JTA) - Lawyers for former Agriprocessors CEO Sholom Rubashkin accused the presiding judge in the case of a conflict of interest, filing papers demanding a retrial and her recusal. (


  • A technical conflict of interest (employee or employee's immediate family is not in a position to influence the selection of their firm). (
  • If the conflict of interest is technical, the originating department must indicate in the Letter of Justification that the employee is not in a position to influence the selection of the employee's (or the employee's immediate family's) firm. (
  • If the conflict of interest is real, or could be perceived as real, the originating department must indicate in the Letter of Justification that the employee is in a position to influence the selection of the employee's firm. (
  • Senator Larry Campbell says he not in a conflict of interest advising a medical marijuana firm. (


  • We hypothesize that the equity bull market of the 1990s, along with the boom in investment banking business, exacerbated analysts' conflict of interest and their incentives to adjust strategically forecasts to avoid earnings disappointments. (
  • OTTAWA - Senator Larry Campbell, while acting within ethics guidelines, has put himself in a clear "appearance" of being in a conflict of interest by accepting a post as adviser to a Vancouver company breaking into the medical marijuana business, say ethics experts. (


  • Community college official faces conflict-of-interest. (


  • Who should I contact if I have questions about technical aspects of the Conflict of Interest Training Module? (


  • I am unable to locate the Conflict of Interest Training Module once I login to the website - how do I find it? (
  • The Conflict of Interest Training Module will be available once you answer the questions appropriately. (


  • A real conflict of interest (employee is in a position to influence the outcome of the selection of a vendor or an award of contract). (


  • However, when there is an operational necessity and it is in the best interest of the State to purchase commodities, equipment, or services from an employee or immediate family of employees, prior approval must be received from the State. (
  • If the purchase is from the employee's immediate family, the department will be required to justify the transaction as "beneficial" to University operations and in the best interest of the State. (
  • State law prohibits city council members from acquiring any interest in such areas. (


  • I don't think any family member of any candidate should have any kind of vested interest in any of the voting documentation. (


  • They said an argument can be made that it's ethical for senators and ordinary MPs to maintain an interest in family companies after their election or appointment, as long as they recuse themselves from votes that affect the interest of those investments. (
  • Either Mitt know's that it is completely a Conflict of Interest for any of his family or friends to have anything to do with voting machines, especially so close to the election, and he just DOESN'T CARE. (


  • Now that this in the public arena and the perception is as it is, and it has been talked about this conflict of interest thing, it is potentially a very big deal,'' he said. (


  • And this is a class a conflict of interest at numerous different levels and I'm sure we'll talk more about the fact. (


  • I get a whole bunch of free publicity for my site, ergo it's in my interest for the book to be short listed, ergo it's a conflict of interest as the sites featuring the book cover would be my direct market. (