Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.United StatesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.DenmarkLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Obsessive Hoarding: Persistent difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, regardless of the value of these possessions. Epidemiological studies suggest that hoarding occurs in 2-5% of the population and can lead to substantial distress and disability, as well as serious public health consequences.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Peritoneal Dialysis: Dialysis fluid being introduced into and removed from the peritoneal cavity as either a continuous or an intermittent procedure.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Hypochondriasis: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Cystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.AlabamaSpain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Renal Replacement Therapy: Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Headache Disorders: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Patient Readmission: Subsequent admissions of a patient to a hospital or other health care institution for treatment.Dyscalculia: Impaired ability in numerical concepts. These inabilities arise as a result of primary neurological lesion, are syndromic (e.g., GERSTMANN SYNDROME ) or acquired due to brain damage.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Mortality, Premature: Deaths that occur before LIFE EXPECTANCY is reached within a given population.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.GermanyPolypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Karnofsky Performance Status: A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Elimination Disorders: Excretory-related psychiatric disorders usually diagnosed in infancy or childhood.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Compulsive Personality Disorder: Disorder characterized by an emotionally constricted manner that is unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy, by preoccupation with trivial details, rules, order, organization, schedules, and lists, by stubborn insistence on having things one's own way without regard for the effects on others, by poor interpersonal relationships, and by indecisiveness due to fear of making mistakes.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.MinnesotaCompulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.PennsylvaniaSaskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Medicare Part A: The compulsory portion of Medicare that is known as the Hospital Insurance Program. All persons 65 years and older who are entitled to benefits under the Old Age, Survivors, Disability and Health Insurance Program or railroad retirement, persons under the age of 65 who have been eligible for disability for more than two years, and insured workers (and their dependents) requiring renal dialysis or kidney transplantation are automatically enrolled in Medicare Part A.Utilization Review: An organized procedure carried out through committees to review admissions, duration of stay, professional services furnished, and to evaluate the medical necessity of those services and promote their most efficient use.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Psychoneuroimmunology: The field concerned with the interrelationship between the brain, behavior and the immune system. Neuropsychologic, neuroanatomic and psychosocial studies have demonstrated their role in accentuating or diminishing immune/allergic responses.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.New JerseyAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Asperger Syndrome: A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)Hemodialysis Units, Hospital: Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.Geriatrics: The branch of medicine concerned with the physiological and pathological aspects of the aged, including the clinical problems of senescence and senility.Acting Out: Expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings, often of hostility or love, through overt behavior.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.

*  Comorbidity Affects the Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in DiabetesA Cohort Study | Annals of...

Comorbidity Affects the Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Diabetes: A Cohort Study Sheldon ... Comorbidity Affects the Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Diabetes: A Cohort Study. Ann ... Patients were categorized into high and low-to-moderate comorbidity subgroups by using the Total Illness Burden Index (TIBI), a ... Comorbidity should be considered when tailoring glucose-lowering therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. ...

*  A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.

The method of classifying comorbidity provides a simple, readily applicable and valid method of estimating risk of death from ... A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: development and validation.. ... With each increased level of the comorbidity index, there were stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality attributable to ...

*  Comorbidity definition |

Definition of comorbidity. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and definitions. ... comorbidity. Pronunciation: ko'mor-bid'i-te. Definition: A concomitant but unrelated pathologic or disease process; usually ...


Kate Click is an MFA student of poetry at Oklahoma State University and the winner of an Academy of American Poets prize. Her work has been published or is forthcoming in Up the Staircase Quarterly, Apalachee Review, and The Head and The Hand's anthology, The Bible Belt Almanac, among others.. ...

*  co-morbidity

Tags: 7996, co-morbidity, prediction, Psoriasis, Psoriatic-Arthritis, Rheumatoid-Arthritis, Rheumatological-conditions January ...

*  Publications - Comorbidity | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

DrugFacts-Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Disorders Revised March 2011. Offers basic facts about comorbidity between ... Research Reports: Comorbidity: Addiction and Other Mental Illnesses Published December 2008. Revised September 2010. Introduces ..., 114/Trends and Statistics, 160/DrugFacts

*  AAD: Psoriasis Comorbidity Increases over Time | Medpage Today

"This study doesn't answer those questions, but it does say that we need to be mindful of comorbidities in these patients and to ... AAD: Psoriasis Comorbidity Increases over Time. MIAMI BEACH -- Patients with psoriasis have multiple comorbid conditions that ... Source Reference: Kimball A, et al "Comorbidity risks increase over time in patients with psoriasis" AAD 2010; Abstract P202. ... The baseline for assessing comorbidity burden was six months after diagnosis or initiation of therapy for psoriasis, whichever ...

*  Comorbidities: Diseases that Go Together - Beliefnet

Comorbidities: Diseases that Go Together. Pick the diseases or conditions that go together. You will be suprised.. ... Sometimes comorbidities may seem related but aren't, such as the link between atrial fibrillation and heart failure. Both are ... Comorbidities can complicate healthcare but the real intrigue in these associations is where they can lead us in our ... Comorbidities and inverse relationships are of interest to scientists because they may help guide us to the underlying ...

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992

Judd, L.L., Kessler, R.C., Paulus, M.P., Zeller, P.V., Wittchen, H.U., Kunovac, J.L. . Comorbidity as a fundamental feature of ... National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992 (ICPSR 6693) Alternate Title: NCS-1, 1990-1992 ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ...[0]=AVAILABLE&q=NCS

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992

... (ICPSR 6693) Alternate Title: NCS-1, 1990-1992 ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... 2006-03-06 This collection, formerly distributed as National Comorbidity Survey, 1990-1992, has been retitled to provide a more ...

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992

... (ICPSR 6693) Alternate Title: NCS-1, 1990-1992 ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich, Kessler, Ronald C. National Comorbidity Survey: Prevalence and risk factors for GAD. 102nd Annual ..."risk factors"

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002

... - Download All Files (87.703 MB) Documentation:. Codebook.pdf ... National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002 (ICPSR 35067) Alternate Title: NCS-2, 2001-2002 ... National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002 . ICPSR35067-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for ... For more information on the National Comorbidity Survey, please visit the NCS Web site. ...[0]=drug abuse&paging.startRow=1

*  Comorbidities - definition of Comorbidities by The Free Dictionary

Comorbidities synonyms, Comorbidities pronunciation, Comorbidities translation, English dictionary definition of Comorbidities ... comorbidity. (redirected from Comorbidities). Also found in: Medical. co·mor·bid. (kō-môr′bĭd). adj.. Coexisting or concomitant ... Comorbidities - definition of Comorbidities by The Free Dictionary ... Complications and Comorbidities - Physician insight on diabetic complications, comorbidities and treatment" report to their ...

*  "Matevosyan NR. Schizophrenia and Stein-Leventhal syndrome: comorbidity...

Results : Results of both analyses suggest that insulin resistance and elevated testosterone are predictive to comorbidity. ... Schizophrenia and Stein-Leventhal syndrome: comorbidity features. Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics (Springer Verlag) (2011) ... Results : Results of both analyses suggest that insulin resistance and elevated testosterone are predictive to comorbidity. ... Schizophrenia and Stein-Leventhal syndrome: comorbidity features" Archives of Gynecology & Obstetrics (Springer Verlag) Vol. ...

*  Somatization increases disability independent of comorbidity.

Migraine and neurological disorders comorbidity: Consideration of sinus hypoxic nitric oxide theory. PPT Version , PDF Version ... Adjusting the results for psychiatric and medical co-morbidity had little effect on these findings. ... though their independent contribution to disability has been unclear because of prevalent medical and psychiatric comorbidity. ...

*  Rifampin monoresistant tuberculosis and HIV comorbidity in C... : AIDS

Home , October 23, 2013 - Volume 27 - Issue 16 , Rifampin monoresistant tuberculosis and HIV comorbidity in C... ... Further, RMR-TB is associated with HIV comorbidity, especially in the setting of intermittent TB treatment regimens [7-10], and ... Among 3254 (7.5% of total) culture-confirmed TB patients with HIV comorbidity, 74 (2.3%) had RMR-TB/HIV, 172 (5.3%) had IMR-TB/ ... Rifampin monoresistant tuberculosis and HIV comorbidity in California, 1993-2008: a retrospective cohort study. Prach, Lisa M.a ...

*  Psychiatric comorbidity in older adults with bipolar disorder

Abstract: Introduction Comorbidity patterns and correlates among older adults with bipolar disorder (BPD) are not well ... Citation: Sajatovic, Martha; Blow, Frederic C.; Ignacio, Rosalinda V. (2006). "Psychiatric comorbidity in older adults with ... Methods Patients were identified from case registry files during Federal Fiscal Year 2001(FY01). Comorbidity groups were ... Mean age of all veterans in the four comorbidity groups was 70.0 years (±SD 7.2 years). Substance abuse was seen in 1,460 (8.9 ...

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002 [Restricted-Use]

... (ICPSR 30921) Alternate Title: NCS-2, 2001-2002 ... National Comorbidity Survey: Reinterview (NCS-2), 2001-2002 [Restricted-Use]. ICPSR30921-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university ... For more information on the National Comorbidity Survey, please visit the NCS Web site. ... Long-term effects of mental disorders on educational attainment in the National Comorbidity Survey ten-year follow-up. Social ...[0]=NAHDAP&q=&y=12&x=31&dataFormat[0]=SPSS&paging.startRow=1

*  National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992 (Restricted Version)

... (ICPSR 25381) Principal Investigator(s): Kessler ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) is a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) is a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the ... This is a restricted-use version of the National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992 (ICPSR 6693). Interested users ...

*  NonCardiac comorbidities in heart failure | Heart

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...

*  Comorbidity Australia| Alcohol & Drugs | Drug Support | Mental Health

ADIN provides leading resource material and research information on comorbidity of drugs and mental health problems, including ... Tags: Cannabis, Comorbidity, Consumers, Counselling, Detox, Disabilities, Diversion, Education, Families, Indigenous, Outreach ... Tags: Addiction, Advocacy, Alternative treatments, Comorbidity, Counselling, Early intervention, Harm reduction, Rehab, Youth ... Australia, VIC Creator: Eastern Hume Dual Diagnosis Service Last reviewed: 27/01/2016 Tags: Assessment, Comorbidity, Events, ...

*  Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases

Warninghoff, Jan C.; Bayer, Otmar; Ferrari, Uta und Straube, Andreas: Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases. In: BMC Neurology ... Background: Co-morbidities of vertiginous diseases have so far not been investigated systematically. Thus, it is still unclear ... There was an increased prevalence of psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with PPV, and the prevalence of hypertension was ... Methods: All patients from a cohort of 131 participants were surveyed using a standardised questionnaire about the co- ...

*  Narcolepsy: clinical features, co-morbidities & treatment.

... Author(s): Peacock J, Benca RM ...

*  HFpEF: Cardiovascular Abnormalities Not Just Comorbidities

... World Heart Congress. May 22- 24, 2017 Osaka, Japan. Samer Ellahham ...

*  Pregablin for Anxiety-comorbidity in Patients With Schizophrenia - Full Text View -

Schizophrenia Anxiety-comorbidity to Schizophrenia Drug: Pregabalin Drug: Pregabalin Placebo Capsules Phase 4 ... Pregablin for Anxiety-comorbidity in Patients With Schizophrenia (PACS). This study has been completed. ... Pregablin for Anxiety-comorbidity in Patients With Schizophrenia - a Double-blinded Randomized Placebo Controlled Study. ..."Schizophrenia"&rank=4

Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Mental disorderSchizophreniaSocial anxiety disorderList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Skyland Trail: Skyland Trail is a private, not-for profit organization in Atlanta, Georgia offering treatment to adults with mental illness. Skyland Trail specializes in treating adults with Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depression, and Dual Diagnosis.Substance-related disorderClaustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.BrexpiprazolePersonality disorder not otherwise specifiedKleptomaniaResearch Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Veterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States: The United States provides a wide range of benefits for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was incurred in, or aggravated by, their military service. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) will provide benefits to veterans that the VA has determined suffer from PTSD, which developed during, or as a result of, their military service.Panic Disorder Severity Scale: The Panic Disorder Severity Scale is a questionnaire developed for measuring the severity of panic disorder. The clinician-administered PDSS is intended to assess severity and considered a reliable tool for monitoring of treatment outcome.Bipolar disorderRelationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Themis MedicareCancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTime-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Nathan W. LevinDialysis adequacy: In nephrology, dialysis adequacy is the measurement of renal dialysis for the purpose of determining dialysis treatment regime and to better understand the pathophysiology of renal dialysis. It is an area of considerable controversy in nephrology.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, usually called by the short-form name International Classification of Diseases (ICD), is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.The Otwell Twins: The Otwell Twins are an American singing duo made up of identical twin brothers Roger and David, born August 2, 1956, in Tulia, Texas. They are best known as members of The Lawrence Welk Show from 1977-1982.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaBristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Colmar Treasure: The Colmar Treasure or Colmar hoard is a hoard of precious objects buried by Jews at the time of the Black Death.Eating Disorder Inventory: The Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) is a self-report questionnaire used to assess the presence of eating disorders, (a) Anorexia Nervosa both restricting and binge-eating/purging type; (b) Bulimia Nervosa; and (c) Eating disorder not otherwise specified including Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The original questionnaire consisted of 64 questions, divided into eight subscales.Panic and Agoraphobia Scale: The Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS) is a rating scale developed for measuring severity of agoraphobia with or without panic attacks.Bandelow B.DialysisMigraine Disability Assessment Test: The MIDAS or Migraine Disability Assessment Test is a test used by doctors to determine how severely migraines affect a patient's life. Patients are asked questions about the frequency and duration of their headaches, as well as how often these headaches limited their ability to participate in activities at work, at school, or at home.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.HypochondriasisInsanityCystectomyOutline of Alabama: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the U.S.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Loader (computing): In computing, a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries. It is one of the essential stages in the process of starting a program, as it places programs into memory and prepares them for execution.

(1/12384) Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995.

CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported.  (+info)

(2/12384) Prevalence and clinical outcome associated with preexisting malnutrition in acute renal failure: a prospective cohort study.

Malnutrition is a frequent finding in hospitalized patients and is associated with an increased risk of subsequent in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Both prevalence and prognostic relevance of preexisting malnutrition in patients referred to nephrology wards for acute renal failure (ARF) are still unknown. This study tests the hypothesis that malnutrition is frequent in such clinical setting, and is associated with excess in-hospital morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort of 309 patients admitted to a renal intermediate care unit during a 42-mo period with ARF diagnosis was studied. Patients with malnutrition were identified at admission by the Subjective Global Assessment of nutritional status method (SGA); nutritional status was also evaluated by anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic parameters. Outcome measures included in-hospital mortality and morbidity, and use of health care resources. In-hospital mortality was 39% (120 of 309); renal replacement therapies (hemodialysis or continuous hemofiltration) were performed in 67% of patients (206 of 309); APACHE II score was 23.1+/-8.2 (range, 10 to 52). Severe malnutrition by SGA was found in 42% of patients with ARF; anthropometric, biochemical, and immunologic nutritional indexes were significantly reduced in this group compared with patients with normal nutritional status. Severely malnourished patients, as compared to patients with normal nutritional status, had significantly increased morbidity for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53 to 5.42, P < 0.001), septic shock (OR 4.05; 95% CI, 1.46 to 11.28, P < 0.01), hemorrhage (OR 2.98; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.13, P < 0.01), intestinal occlusion (OR 5.57; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.74, P < 0.01), cardiac dysrhythmia (OR 2.29; 95% CI, 1.36 to 3.85, P < 0.01), cardiogenic shock (OR 4.39; 95% CI, 1.83 to 10.55, P < .001), and acute respiratory failure with mechanical ventilation need (OR 3.35; 95% CI, 3.35 to 8.74, P < 0.05). Hospital length of stay was significantly increased (P < 0.01), and the presence of severe malnutrition was associated with a significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR 7.21; 95% CI, 4.08 to 12.73, P < 0.001). Preexisting malnutrition was a statistically significant, independent predictor of in-hospital mortality at multivariable logistic regression analysis both with comorbidities (OR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.71, P < 0.001), and with comorbidities and complications (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.89, P < 0.001). Malnutrition is highly prevalent among ARF patients and increases the likelihood of in-hospital death, complications, and use of health care resources.  (+info)

(3/12384) Hematocrit level and associated mortality in hemodialysis patients.

Although a number of clinical studies have shown that increased hematocrits are associated with improved outcomes in terms of cognitive function, reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, increased exercise tolerance, and improved quality of life, the optimal hematocrit level associated with survival has yet to be determined. The association between hematocrit levels and patient mortality was retrospectively studied in a prevalent Medicare hemodialysis cohort on a national scale. All patients survived a 6-mo entry period during which their hematocrit levels were assessed, from July 1 through December 31, 1993, with follow-up from January 1 through December 31, 1994. Patient comorbid conditions relative to clinical events and severity of disease were determined from Medicare claims data and correlated with the entry period hematocrit level. After adjusting for medical diseases, our results showed that patients with hematocrit levels less than 30% had significantly higher risk of all-cause (12 to 33%) and cause-specific death, compared to patients with hematocrits in the 30% to less than 33% range. Without severity of disease adjustment, patients with hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% appear to have the lowest risk for all-cause and cardiac mortality. After adjusting for severity of disease, the impact of hematocrit levels of 33% to less than 36% is vulnerable to the patient sample size but also demonstrates a further 4% reduced risk of death. Overall, these findings suggest that sustained increases in hematocrit levels are associated with improved patient survival.  (+info)

(4/12384) A comparison of the use, effectiveness and safety of bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin in normal clinical practice using the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP).

AIMS: Because of the importance of treating dyslipidaemia in the prevention of ischaemic heart disease and because patient selection criteria and outcomes in clinical trials do not necessarily reflect what happens in normal clinical practice, we compared outcomes from bezafibrate, gemfibrozil and simvastatin therapy under conditions of normal use. METHODS: A random sample of 200 patients was selected from the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme's (IMMP) patient cohorts for each drug. Questionnaires sent to prescribers requested information on indications, risk factors for ischaemic heart disease, lipid profiles with changes during treatment and reasons for stopping therapy. RESULTS: 80% of prescribers replied and 83% of these contained useful information. The three groups were similar for age, sex and geographical region, but significantly more patients on bezafibrate had diabetes and/or hypertension than those on gemfibrozil or simvastatin. After treatment and taking the initial measure into account, the changes in serum lipid values were consistent with those generally observed, but with gemfibrozil being significantly less effective than expected. More patients (15.8%S) stopped gemfibrozil because of an inadequate response compared with bezafibrate (5.4%) and simvastatin (1.6%). Gemfibrozil treatment was also withdrawn significantly more frequently due to a possible adverse reaction compared with the other two drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In normal clinical practice in New Zealand gemfibrozil appears less effective and more frequently causes adverse effects leading to withdrawal of treatment than either bezafibrate or simvastatin.  (+info)

(5/12384) Pulmonary embolism: one-year follow-up with echocardiography doppler and five-year survival analysis.

BACKGROUND: The long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) is dependent on the underlying disease, degree of pulmonary hypertension (PH), and degree of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. A precise description of the time course of pulmonary artery pressure (PAsP)/RV function is therefore of importance for the early identification of persistent PH/RV dysfunction in patients treated for acute PE. Other objectives were to identify variables associated with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and to analyze the 5-year survival rate for patients alive 1 month after inclusion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiography Doppler was performed in 78 patients with acute PE at the time of diagnosis and repeatedly during the next year. A 5-year survival analysis was made. The PAsP decreased exponentially until the beginning of a stable phase, which was 50 mm Hg at the time of diagnosis of acute PE was associated with persistent PH after 1 year. The 5-year mortality rate was associated with underlying disease. Only patients with persistent PH in the stable phase required pulmonary thromboendarterectomy within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: An echocardiography Doppler investigation performed 6 weeks after diagnosis of acute PE can identify patients with persistent PH/RV dysfunction and may be of value in planning the follow-up and care of these patients.  (+info)

(6/12384) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia before and after the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine.

The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in men who underwent surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) before and after the Chernobyl nuclear accident was studied. BPH samples were obtained by adenomectomy from 45 patients operated in 1984 before the accident (Group I), and 47 patients from the low contaminated Kiev City (Group II) and 76 from high contaminated area (Group III) operated between 1996 and 1998. Their BPH samples were examined histologically and immunohistochemically. The incidences of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and high grade PIN (HGPIN) were 15.5 and 11.1% in Group I, 29.8 and 14.9% in Grpoup II, and 35. 5 and 19.7% in Group III. The difference between the incidences of PIN in Group I and III is significant (p<0.02). There was increased apoptosis in areas of PIN in Group II and III as compared to Group I (p<0.001). Since apoptosis has been shown to be associated with ionizing radiation and it is now found to be associated with PIN in patients diagnosed after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this suggests that long-term low dose internal ionizing radiation potentially may cause prostate cancer.  (+info)

(7/12384) The cost of obesity in Canada.

BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National Population Health Survey, 1994-1995. Ten comorbidities of obesity were identified from the medical literature. A population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for each comorbidity with data from large cohort studies to determine the extent to which each comorbidity and its management costs were attributable to obesity. The direct cost of each comorbidity was determined using data from the Canadian Institute of Health Information (for direct expenditure categories) and from Health Canada (for the proportion of expenditure category attributable to the comorbidity). This prevalence-based approach identified the direct costs of hospital care, physician services, services of other health professionals, drugs, other health care and health research. For each comorbidity, the cost attributable to obesity was determined by multiplying the PAF by the total direct cost of the comorbidity. The overall impact of obesity was estimated as the sum of the PAF-weighted costs of treating the comorbidities. A sensitivity analysis was completed on both the estimated costs and the PAFs. RESULTS: The total direct cost of obesity in Canada in 1997 was estimated to be over $1.8 billion. This corresponded to 2.4% of the total health care expenditures for all diseases in Canada in 1997. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the total cost could be as high as $3.5 billion or as low as $829.4 million; this corresponded to 4.6% and 1.1% respectively of the total health care expenditures in 1997. When the contributions of the comorbidities to the total cost were considered, the 3 largest contributors were hypertension ($656.6 million), type 2 diabetes mellitus ($423.2 million) and coronary artery disease ($346.0 million). INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of health care dollars is devoted to the treatment and management of obesity-related comorbidities in Canada. Further research into the therapeutic benefits and cost-effectiveness of management strategies for obesity is required. It is anticipated that the prevention and treatment of obesity will have major positive effects on the overall cost of health care.  (+info)

(8/12384) Synergistic effects of prothrombotic polymorphisms and atherogenic factors on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males.

Several recent studies evaluated a possible effect of the prothrombotic polymorphisms such as 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) nt 677C --> T, factor V (F V) nt 1691G --> A (F V Leiden), and factor II (F II) nt 20210 G --> A on the risk of myocardial infarction. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of these prothrombotic polymorphisms, as well as apolipoprotein (Apo) E4, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia, on the risk of myocardial infarction in young males. We conducted a case-control study of 112 young males with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before the age of 52 and 187 healthy controls of similar age. The prevalences of heterozygotes for F V G1691A and F II G20210A were not significantly different between cases and controls (6.3% v 6.4% and 5.9% v 3.4% among cases and controls, respectively). In contrast, the prevalence of MTHFR 677T homozygosity and the allele frequency of Apo E4 were significantly higher among patients (24.1% v 10.7% and 9.4% v 5.3% among cases and controls, respectively). Concomitant presence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or diabetes and one or more of the four examined polymorphisms increased the risk by almost ninefold (odds ratio [OR] = 8.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.49 to 21.5) and concomitant smoking by almost 18-fold (OR = 17.6; 95% CI, 6.30 to 48.9). When all atherogenic risk factors were analyzed simultaneously by a logistic model, the combination of prothrombotic and Apo E4 polymorphisms with current smoking increased the risk 25-fold (OR = 24.7; 95% CI, 7.17 to 84.9). The presented data suggest a synergistic effect between atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factors in the pathogenesis of AMI, as was recently found in a similar cohort of women.  (+info)

National Comorbidity Survey

  • The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) was a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the prevalence and correlates of DSM III-R disorders and patterns and correlates of service utilization for these disorders. (
  • Kessler, Ronald C. National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992. (
  • The National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1) is a collaborative epidemiologic investigation designed to study the prevalence and patterns of disorders in the third and revised edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM III-R) as well as correlates of service utilization for these disorders. (
  • This is a restricted-use version of the National Comorbidity Survey: Baseline (NCS-1), 1990-1992 (ICPSR 6693). (


  • BACKGROUND: Somatoform disorders are an important factor in functional disability and role impairment, though their independent contribution to disability has been unclear because of prevalent medical and psychiatric comorbidity. (


  • The baseline for assessing comorbidity burden was six months after diagnosis or initiation of therapy for psoriasis, whichever came first. (


  • Comorbidity groups were compared on selected clinical characteristics, inpatient and outpatient health resource use, and costs of care. (


  • First, greater exposure to the health care system for racial/ethnic minorities with comorbidities improves initiation of mental health care. (

bipolar disorder

  • PITTSBURGH -- Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder have an unexpectedly high prevalence of medical comorbidities , based on findings from a study of 175 patients. (
  • Introduction Comorbidity patterns and correlates among older adults with bipolar disorder (BPD) are not well understood. (


  • Somatization increases disability independent of comorbidity. (


  • Offers basic facts about comorbidity between drug use disorders and other mental illnesses, including why these disorders can co-occur, how common they are, and how they are diagnosed and treated. (
  • LOS ANGELES -- Three-fourths of 82 adolescent girls with chronic daily headache also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, and other pain-related disorders and comorbidities were common in a screening study. (


  • Medical scientists call these comorbidities-diseases that for some reason or other go together. (
  • as of October 2007, the Medicare Severity DRGs [MS-DRGs]) combined with a set of payment adjustors for comorbidities (medical and behavioral) recorded as secondary diagnoses on a Medicare claim. (


  • Several studies have demonstrated that psoriasis patients have a higher comorbidity burden compared with the general population, but none had examined how the differences between patients with and without psoriasis changed over time, said Kimball. (


  • This study doesn't answer those questions, but it does say that we need to be mindful of comorbidities in these patients and to try to figure out whether there are preventive aspects that might be important in modifying the risk factors and ultimately the types of events associated with them. (
  • However, mortality has risen in patients with relevant comorbidities (0. (
  • We conclude that step-down monitoring in an intensive care unit is not necessary, although caution should be exercised in monitoring patients with comorbidities because they appear to be more prone to desaturation. (


  • com/research/122bb9/hot_topics_in_type) has announced the addition of the "Hot Topics in Type 2 Diabetes: Complications and Comorbidities - Physician insight on diabetic complications, comorbidities and treatment" report to their offering. (