Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.BostonPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.MassachusettsHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.United StatesFinancing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Community Mental Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Community-Based Participatory Research: Collaborative process of research involving researchers and community representatives.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Physician Executives: Physicians who serve in a medical and administrative capacity as head of an organized medical staff and who also may serve as liaison for the medical staff with the administration and governing board.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Morale: The prevailing temper or spirit of an individual or group in relation to the tasks or functions which are expected.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)South CarolinaAmbulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Bankruptcy: The state of legal insolvency with assets taken over by judicial process so that they may be distributed among creditors.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Medical Staff: Professional medical personnel who provide care to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Community Medicine: A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.Midwestern United States: The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.ColoradoHealth Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Gynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Crisis Intervention: Brief therapeutic approach which is ameliorative rather than curative of acute psychiatric emergencies. Used in contexts such as emergency rooms of psychiatric or general hospitals, or in the home or place of crisis occurrence, this treatment approach focuses on interpersonal and intrapsychic factors and environmental modification. (APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.New York CityLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Nurse Practitioners: Nurses who are specially trained to assume an expanded role in providing medical care under the supervision of a physician.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.IndiaPublic Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MichiganHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.New MexicoRwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.North CarolinaCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.BrazilProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Community Health Center Hoping to Expand to Amherst Co. | WSETThe Blue Ridge Medical Center, based in Nelson County, could build a satellite center in northern Amherst County. ... That's the idea behind community health centers.. Whitehead says 33 % of the roughly 10,000 patients they see every year come ... The Blue Ridge Medical Center will find out if they'll receive the grant in September and hopes to have the new center open ... Amherst Co., VA - The Blue Ridge Medical Center, based in Nelson County, could build a satellite center in northern Amherst ...
State Provides More Naloxone to 10 Community Health Centers... June ... Community Health Center of Cape Cod is among the 10 centers selected by the state. ... The 10 community health centers were selected because of their involvement in the GE Foundation's SUSTAIN (Substance Use ... to 10 community health centers as part of increasing public awareness about the important role of the overdose reversal drug in ...
Community Health Center Expansion Program | NYCEDC... and grant support to federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) in New York City looking to expand. ... The Community Health Center Expansion Program will provide real estate expertise, technical assistance, ... Cylar Community Health Center. *. William F. Ryan Community Health Network - Ryan / Frederick Douglass Community Health Center ... William F. Ryan Community Health Network - Ryan / Frederick Douglass Community Health Center (Harlem, Manhattan) - Opened ...
WCMP Arthur Jewell Community Health Center | MaineHealthWaldo County Medical Partners Arthur Jewell Community Health Center is located in Brooks and is one of WCGH's regional health ... Waldo County Medical Partners Arthur Jewell Community Health Center is located in Brooks and is one of WCGH's regional health ...
Graham Center Policy One-Pagers: Graduates of Teaching Health Centers Are More Likely to Enter Practice in the Primary Care...... program funds new primary care residencies at community health centers caring for the nation's underserved population. In a ... health centers were more likely to plan to work in safety net clinics than residents who did not train in these centers. ... The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) ... community health centers, rural health clinics, Indian Health ... The Teaching Health Center Graduate Medical Education (THCGME) program funds new primary care residencies at community health ...
Fairfield Community Health Center Jobs | Indeed.com... posted by candidates and employees of Fairfield Community Health Center. Indeed.com one search. all jobs. ... Find Fairfield Community Health Center salaries, interviews, reviews... ... How to get a job at Fairfield Community Health Center. Do you work at Fairfield Community Health Center? How did you find the ... Fairfield Community Health Center News and Happenings. What do you think - will Fairfield Community Health Center grow fast? ...
About Gouverneur - Community Health CentersOur Community Health Centers:. Judson Health Center. 34 Spring Street. New York, NY 10012. 212-925-5000 ... For your convenience, we provide shuttle service directly from Gouverneur to each of our Community Health Centers. Please refer ... Smith Family Health Center. 60 Madison Street. (corner of Catherine St.). New York, NY 10038. 212-346-0500 ... Roberto Clemente Center. 540 East 13th Street. New York, NY 10009. 212-387-7400 ...
Sea Mar -Community Health CentersMedical Services, Dental Services , Behavioral Health Services, Preventive Health Services, Long Term Care Services and ... Medical Services, Dental Services , Behavioral Health Services, Preventive Health Services, Long Term Care Services and ... affordable Housing and Community, Education and Service learning. ... affordable Housing and Community, Education and Service learning. ...
The Community Health Center of Burlington Volunteer Opportunities - VolunteerMatchFind The Community Health Center of Burlington volunteering opportunities at VolunteerMatch! ... Volunteer with The Community Health Center of Burlington. ... The Community Health Center of Burlington The Community Health ... As one of Vermont's few Federally Qualified Health Centers, the Community Health Center is committed to welcoming all community ... The Community Health Center of Burlington's mission is to improve the health of all within the communities we serve. We are ...
A Project Update From The Contra Costa County Tobacco Prevention Project - Contra Costa Health ServicesProviders at the Richmond Health Center, Antioch Park and Brookside Community Health Center, Richmond and San Pablo, have ... skip navigation , health centers and clinics , search , accessibility statement , Página en español , Search ... Topic: Smokefree Health Care Campuses and Families. Tuesday, June 28 10 a.m. - noon George Miller Center 300 S. 27th St. ... Tobacco Health Topics , Tobacco Prevention Coalition , Programs & Organizations , Tobacco Prevention Project , Monthly ...
Effectiveness of PRECEDE Model for Health Education on Changes and Level of Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus -...METHODS: An open community randomized clinical trial will be carried out in 8 urban community health centers in the ... Assignment to the Health Promotion Education (HPE) will be random, three centers will use conventional HPE (the control group) ... BACKGROUND: Individual health education is considered to be essential in the overall care of patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2 ... Effectiveness of PRECEDE Model for Health Education on Changes and Level of Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. ...
Healthcare reform could stifle growth of Ohio community health centers | cleveland.comNow, with the Senate bill being released, expansion plans are on hold, as those at the community health centers wait to see how ... community health centers were able to expand across the state, opening new locations and hiring more people. ... Compass Community Health, like NFP and Signature Health, is one of 49 community health centers in the state that combined now ... Health and Fitness Healthcare reform could stifle growth of Ohio community health centers. Comment Updated on June 26, 2017 at ...
Community Health Centers Encouraged to Screen for Hepatitis C Based on Birth Year Criteria5, 2016 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Community Health Centers Encouraged to Screen for Hepatitis C Based on Birth Year Criteria. ... points to the crucial role community health centers play in public health, serving more than 22 million patients from the ... Community Health Centers Encouraged to Screen for Hepatitis C Based on Birth Year Criteria The Journal of the American ... Community Health Centers Encouraged to Screen for Hepatitis C Based on Birth Year Criteria. News provided by ...
TAIBU Community Health Centre launches its 5 year Strategic Plan "RISE - Excellence in BlackTAIBU Community Health Centre launches its 5 year Strategic Plan 'RISE - Excellence in Black Community Health'. ... TAIBU Community Health Centre launches its 5 year Strategic Plan 'RISE - Excellence in Black Community Health' ... SOURCE TAIBU Community Health Centre For further information: Liben Gebremikael, Executive Director, TAIBU Community Health ... TAIBU Community Health Centre's mission is to provide primary health care and related services for Black populations across the ...
Shasta Community Health Center Salary | PayScaleShasta Community Health Center - Salary - Get a free salary comparison based on job title, skills, experience and education. ...
Community Health Centers and the ACA Future - NECNHe shares some eye-opening figures on the number of people who get their health care at community health centers in the area. ... CEO of the Massachusetts League of Community Health Centers, on the potential repeal of Obamacare. ... He shares some eye-opening figures on the number of people who get their health care at community health centers in the area. ... Jim Hunt, CEO of the Massachusetts League of Community Health Centers, on the potential repeal of Obamacare. ...
Access Community Health Center - Company Profile - BlackPlanet.comWorlds largest free African-American online community where Black women and Black men meet to chat, discuss and engage on what ... Company profile and jobs for Access Community Health Center. ...
Grant: COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTERS INC | ProPublica Recovery TrackerMary Mahoney Memorial Health Center. CHCI is remodeling 9,500 sq. ft. of existing space to offer more provider offices while ...
People for Peoples Community Health CenterInformational website on how to serve at People's Community Health Center ...
Cobridge Community Health Centre opens - BBC News... including two GP practices and a sexual health unit. ... 14m health centre opens in Stoke-on-Trent, ... 14m health centre has opened in Stoke-on-Trent.. The new Cobridge Community Health Centre includes a community health centre, ... two GP practices and a sexual health unit.. A Sexual Assault Referral Centre to serve the whole of Staffordshire will also open ... Image caption A Sexual Assault Referral Centre will also open on the £14m site next year A new £ ...
Moloka'i Community Health Center | Scarleteenabuse birth control body image choices communication condoms gender health help identity intercourse love men partner pleasure ... The information contained herein is not meant to be used to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease, or for prescribing ... You should always consult your own healthcare provider if you have a health problem or medical condition. ... behavioral health services, dental services, family support, medical services (wart removal, skin biopsies, osteopathic ...
Episiotomy | HCA VirginiaWomen's Health Services * Wound Healing Care Centers * Find A Doctor * Medical Professionals Back to main navigation Close menu ... Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with ...
Videos - Canadian Digestive Health FoundationThe Foundation is working to establish Digestive Health, Healthy Living and Prevention as a national priority. ... The Canadian Digestive Health Foundation provides expert advice and compassionate support to the millions of Canadians who ... Karen Madsen, Professor of Medicine at the University of Alberta and Co-director of the "Center of Excellence for ... This amazing community, comprised of a troop of hard-working, microscopic superheroes is called the human microbiome and it's ...
Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV TropesEarth, being the center of power for the Federation, may have a stronger defense grid than any other planet around, and while ... Nero's torture has probably had very serious side-effects to his health. ... Community. *Ask The Tropers. *Trope Launch Pad. *Trope Finder. *You Know That Show ... They just DO, okay?) But if you put the hole in the center of the planet, you ensure that it will crumble into rubble BEFORE it ...
Northeast Community Health CentreCommunity health agent: Community health agent (agente comunitário de saúde or ACS, in Portuguese language) is the title of a specific lay health care worker developed in Brazil by way of PACS (Program of Community Health Workers) in 1991 as part of the construction of the Brazilian Unified Health System established by Constitutional rule in 1988.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Boston University Medical Campus: The Boston University Medical Campus (BUMC) is one of the two campuses of Boston University, the other being the Charles River Campus. The campus is situated in the South End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, United States.Halfdan T. MahlerHealthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Global Health Delivery ProjectPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Massachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program: The Massachusetts Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Program (MTCP) is an anti-tobacco program run by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health with the goal of decreasing tobacco prevalence in the state of Massachusetts. MTCP has four main components: preventing youth smoking, assisting current smokers with quitting, protecting against second hand smoke, and eliminating tobacco related disparities.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Q Services Corps (South Africa): The establishment of the 'Q' Services Corps as part of the South African Permanent Force was promulgated in the Government Gazette dated 10 November 1939.Typed copy of Proclamation 276 of 1939List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Standard evaluation frameworkWoodhull Medical and Mental Health CenterCommunity mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Venture capital in Israel: Venture capital in Israel refers to the financial capital provided to early-stage, high-potential, high risk, growth startup companies based in Israel. Israel's venture capital industry was born in the mid-1980s and has rapidly developed since.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Domestic policy of Evo Morales: The domestic policy of Evo Morales refers to the domestic policy initiatives of the current President of Bolivia, including past pre-presidential advocacies by Morales.Chronic disease in Northern OntarioFlorence Crittenton Home (Charleston, South Carolina)Cancer screeningBankruptcyVibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.Indian Journal of Community Medicine: The Indian Journal of Community Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published by Medknow Publications on behalf of the Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine. The journal publishes articles on family health care, epidemiology, biostatistics, public health administration, health care delivery, national health problems, medical anthropology, and social medicine.Speedway LLC: Speedway LLC is the operator of a chain of combination gas stations and convenience stores in the Midwestern United States operating under its namesake brand and along the East Coast of the United States under the Hess and WilcoHess brands. Speedway LLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Marathon Petroleum Corporation and is the largest chain in central Ohio.Uranium mining in Colorado: Uranium mining in Colorado, United States, goes back to 1872, when pitchblende ore was taken from gold mines near Central City, Colorado. The Colorado uranium industry has seen booms and busts, but continues to this day.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Ken Anderlini: Ken Anderlini (September 11, 1962–2007) was an avant-garde Canadian filmmaker, educator and gay activist. Born in Langley, British Columbia, Canada on September 11, 1962, his family was in the dairy farming business.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Bio Base EuropePromtov's signOntario Correctional ServicesCross-cultural leadership: Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other (Abbe et al., 2007).List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Dene Barton Community Hospital: Dene Barton Community Hospital is a small NHS hospital located in Cotford St Luke, near Taunton, Somerset, England. Formerly run by Somerset Community Health, part of the Somerset Primary Care Trust.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.
(1/789) A blood pressure clinic in a health centre.
Following a screening survey for hypertension in Renfrew, a blood pressure clinic was established in a health centre. Three hospital doctors, each working an average of two sessions weekly, saw 368 patients. A specially trained nurse played an important part in the running of the clinic. Attendance of patients was high, and defaulting amongst those needing treatment was low. Blood pressures were well controlled in 75% of the patients. The clinic has proved an acceptable method of managing large numbers of hypertensives without reference to hospital. (+info)
(2/789) Indigenous perceptions and quality of care of family planning services in Haiti.
This paper presents a method for evaluating and monitoring the quality of care of family planning services. The method was implemented in Haiti by International Planned Parenthood Federation Western Hemisphere Region (IPPF/WHR), the managerial agency for the Private Sector Family Planning Project (PSFPP), which is sponsored by the USAID Mission. The process consists of direct observations of family planning services and clinic conditions by trained Haitian housewives playing the role of 'mystery clients', who visit clinics on a random basis without prior notice. Observations conducted by mystery clients during one year, from April 1990 to April 1991, are presented and illustrate the use of the method. In addition, measurements for rating the acceptability of the services were developed, providing a quantitative assessment of the services based on mystery clients' terms. Statistical results demonstrate that simulated clients ranked some criteria of acceptability higher than others. These criteria are: the interaction provider/client, information adequacy, and competence of the promoter. Likewise, simulated clients' direct observations of the services permitted the identification of deficiencies regarding the quality of care such as the paternalistic attitudes of the medical staff; the lack of competence of promoters; and the lack of informed choice. Based on its reliability since its implementation in 1990 the method has proven to be a useful tool in programme design and monitoring. (+info)
(3/789) Micro-level planning using rapid assessment for primary health care services.
This paper describes the use of a rapid assessment technique in micro-level planning for primary health care services which has been developed in India. This methodology involves collecting household-level data through a quick sample survey to estimate client needs, coverage of services and unmet need, and using this data to formulate micro-level plans aimed at improving service coverage and quality for a primary health centre area. Analysis of the data helps to identify village level variations in unmet need and develop village profiles from which general interventions for overall improvement of service coverage and targeted interventions for selected villages are identified. A PHC area plan is developed based on such interventions. This system was tried out in 113 villages of three PHC centres of a district in Gujarat state of India. It demonstrated the feasibility and utility of this approach. However, it also revealed the barriers in the institutionalization of the system on a wider scale. The proposed micro-level planning methodology using rapid assessment would improve client-responsiveness of the health care system and provide a basis for increased decentralization. By focusing attention on under-served areas, it would promote equity in the use of health services. It would also help improve efficiency by making it possible to focus efforts on a small group of villages which account for most of the unmet need for services in an area. Thus the proposed methodology seems to be a feasible and an attractive alternative to the current top-down, target-based health planning in India. (+info)
(4/789) Community asthma clinics: 1993 survey of primary care by the National Asthma Task Force.
OBJECTIVES: To establish a baseline of work done in primary care asthma clinics in the United Kingdom and to assess the degree of clinical delegation to nurses and the appropriateness of their training. DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire survey of asthma care in general practices and a subsidiary survey of all family health services authorities (FHSAs) of the number of asthma clinics in their area. SETTING: All 14,251 general practices in the United Kingdom and 117 FHSAs or health boards (Scotland and Northern Ireland). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 4327 (30.4%) general practices, 54% being completed by practice nurses and 22% by general practitioners; in 24% profession was not stated. In all, 77.2% (3339/4327) of respondents ran an asthma clinic. 60 FHSAs state the number of asthma clinics at the time of the general practice survey (total 3653 clinics); within responding FHSAs 1702 (46.6%) practices running an asthma clinic replied to the general practice survey. Clinics exclusive for patients with asthma mostly occurred in practices with five or more general practitioners (70.2%), compared with single-handed practices (31.7%). The average number of asthma clinics run per practice was five a month; the average duration was 2 hours and 20 minutes. 1131 (48.8%) nurses ran clinics by themselves, 1180 (47.9%) with the doctor, and 39 (1.7%) had no medical input. Comprehensive questioning occurred other than for nasal (872, 26.1%) or oesophageal (335, 10.0%) symptoms and use of aspirin and non-steroidal drugs (1161, 33.4%). Growth in children was measured by only a third of respondents. Of the 1131 nurses who ran clinics alone, 251 (22.2%) did so without formal training entailing assessment. CONCLUSION: Asthma clinics are now common in general practice and much of their work is done by nurses, a significant minority of whom may not have had sufficient training. IMPLICATIONS: As this survey is probably biased toward the more asthma aware practices, greater deficiencies in training and standards may exist in other practices. Further evaluation of the effectiveness of asthma clinics is needed. (+info)
(5/789) User charges in government health facilities in Kenya: effect on attendance and revenue.
In this paper we study demand effects of user charges in a district health care system using cross-sectional data from household and facility surveys. The effects are examined in public as well as in private health facilities. We also look briefly at the impact of fees on revenue and service quality in government facilities. During the period of cost-sharing in public clinics, attendance dropped by about 50%. This drop prompted the government to suspend the fees for approximately 20 months. Over the 7 months after suspension of fees, attendance at government health centres increased by 41%. The suspension further caused a notable movement of patients from the private sector to government health facilities. The revenue generated by user fees covered 2.4% of the recurrent health budget. Some 40% of the facilities did not spend the fee revenue they collected, mainly due to cumbersome procedures of expenditure approvals. The paper concludes with lessons from Kenya's experience with user charges. (+info)
(6/789) Quality of primary outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam: a comparison of government and voluntary providers.
This study aimed to test whether voluntary agencies provide care of better quality than that provided by government with respect to primary curative outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam. All non-government primary services were included, and government primary facilities were randomly sampled within the three districts of the city. Details of consultations were recorded and assessed by a panel who classed consultations as adequate, inadequate but serious consequences unlikely, and consultations where deficiencies in the care could have serious consequences. Interpersonal conduct was assessed and exit interviews were conducted. The study found that government registers of non-government 'voluntary' providers actually contained a high proportion of for-profit private providers. Comparisons between facilities showed that care was better overall at voluntary providers, but that there was a high level of inadequate care at both government and non-government providers. (+info)
(7/789) Measuring time utilization in rural health centres.
OBJECTIVES: During the recent re-design of the primary health care system in Cameroon a time-motion study was undertaken to determine how health workers at rural health centres use their time before redefining their roles. METHODS: The study developed a simple, effective and inexpensive tool which uses the activity sampling technique, and was applied to 20 health centres with a total of 19,080 observations being made of 64 health workers who represented all grades of worker in the government health services. RESULTS: The study developed a clear picture of how health centre staff apportion their time, and how the division of labour and tasks is carried out in a rural health centre. It found that only 27% of health workers' time is currently being spent on productive, health-related activities, and of this time, the largest proportion is spent on curative, clinical work. Less than 1% of health workers' time is spent on preventive and outreach activities. DISCUSSION: This study has developed a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used in any health facility to determine how health-related activities are carried out. This is an important step if changes in the delivery structure are to be made, because it establishes the discrepancy between expected and actual behaviour, and provides an important baseline for the evaluation of the effectiveness of any changes that are introduced within the system. (+info)
(8/789) Primary health care, community participation and community-financing: experiences of two middle hill villages in Nepal.
Although community involvement in health related activities is generally acknowledged by international and national health planners to be the key to the successful organization of primary health care, comparatively little is known about its potential and limitations. Drawing on the experiences of two middle hill villages in Nepal, this paper reports on research undertaken to compare and contrast the scope and extent of community participation in the delivery of primary health care in a community run and financed health post and a state run and financed health post. Unlike many other health posts in Nepal these facilities do provide effective curative services, and neither of them suffer from chronic shortage of drugs. However, community-financing did not appear to widen the scope and the extent of participation. Villagers in both communities relied on the health post for the treatment of less than one-third of symptoms, and despite the planners' intentions, community involvement outside participation in benefits was found to be very limited. (+info)
Manatee County Rural Health Services
- Manatee County Rural Health Services, Inc. (mcrhs.org)
- The Annual Senator Edgar H. Price, Jr. Lifetime Achievement Awards Dinner is always an exciting occasion for the Manatee County Rural Health Services Foundation. (mcrhs.org)
- Certified Application Counselors are available to assist you with enrollment into the Marketplace or other health insurance options. (mcrhs.org)
- Members have the flexibility of selecting or changing their enrollment in a Community Network at any time by calling the Academy's national office at (847) 737-6000. (aapmr.org)
- Published On 10/1/2017 Evidence on the Validity of a Comprehensive Health Risk Index and Implications for Ambulatory Care and Population Health Management. (bu.edu)
- The opioid crisis has broken many families across the Commonwealth and our administration remains committed to providing resources to our communities to curb this public health epidemic," said Governor Charlie Baker. (capecod.com)
- Last year, Massachusetts Department of Public Health reported more than 2,800 bystander overdose reversals using naloxone. (capecod.com)
- L. 104-73) and is extended Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) protections under 28 U.S.C. 1346(b), 2401(b), and 2679-81 as an eligible health center funded under the Health Center Program, section 330 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 254b), as amended. (mcrhs.org)
- Fundamental to public health research and policy, biostatistics is also one of the most interdisciplinary departments at Boston University School of Public Health. (bu.edu)
- They have a long history of collaborating to address some of the world's most pressing public health concerns, as well as training the next generation of students to tackle emerging public health and medical issues with cutting-edge methods and technological skills. (bu.edu)
- As a common and potentially prolonged drug exposure, the effects of statins on physiologic processes and noncardiovascular diseases have become an important public health concern. (aacrjournals.org)
- said Randy Kuykendall, interim director of EMS for the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. (brushnewstribune.com)
- DPH's Bureau of Substance Abuse Services, whose naloxone budget was $2.8 million in Fiscal Year 2017, has provided naloxone grants to 32 high-need communities. (capecod.com)
- Expanding access to Narcan for health care workers on the front lines of this epidemic is a valuable tool and we are pleased to award these grants to strengthen services at community health centers in Massachusetts. (capecod.com)
- The more people who administer naloxone the better our chances of reducing the magnitude and severity of harm related to opioid overdose deaths,'' said Health and Human Services Secretary Marylou Sudders. (capecod.com)
- MCR Health Services is protected by the Federally Supported Health Centers Assistance Acts (FSHCAA) of 1992 (Pub. (mcrhs.org)
- A new round of crises and challenges in rural Colorado medicine has health experts and public officials on alert, scrambling to shore up services in far-flung areas. (brushnewstribune.com)
- The state allows a licensure category below a full acute-care hospital, calling it a "community clinic" with emergency services. (brushnewstribune.com)
- How do we keep some level of care, even if it's just stabilizing care, in these very small communities? (brushnewstribune.com)
- He shares some eye-opening figures on the number of people who get their health care at community health centers in the area. (necn.com)
- By designing studies, developing new methodologies, and extracting and analyzing information from data, we help inform decisions to promote better health. (bu.edu)
- Please consult the Centre for Nursing and Health Studies website for the most recent information relating to clinical course registration and start dates. (athabascau.ca)
- The award-winning CapeCod.com NewsCenter provides the Cape Cod community with a constant, credible source for local, regional, and national news. (capecod.com)
- Jim Hunt, CEO of the Massachusetts League of Community Health Centers, on the potential repeal of Obamacare. (necn.com)
- People living with HIV are at increased risk of multiple drug prescribing to treat HIV and other health conditions. (bu.edu)
- The Academy's non-clinical, or social focused groups are called Community Networks. (aapmr.org)
- Community Networks are social focused groups that can network at Annual Assembly or online through the Academy's PhyzForum discussion boards. (aapmr.org)
- Nursing 435: Professional Practice in Mental Health Promotion This 16-week paced online course provides opportunities to integrate theory and develop further skills related to mental health promotion with a focus on individuals, families and groups experiencing mental health alterations. (athabascau.ca)
- The 10 community health centers were selected because of their involvement in the GE Foundation's SUSTAIN (Substance Use Support & Technical Assistance in Communities) initiative that support efforts to prevent and treat substance use disorders in local communities. (capecod.com)
- If you do not see a Community Network listed below that fits your needs, please contact the Academy at firstname.lastname@example.org or by calling the Academy at (847) 737-6000. (aapmr.org)
- HYANNIS -The state has announced that it is providing $100,000 in naloxone, also known by its brand name Narcan, to 10 community health centers as part of increasing public awareness about the important role of the overdose reversal drug in saving lives. (capecod.com)
- We investigated the hypothesis that statins lower serum androgen levels in community-dwelling men using data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a population-based epidemiologic study conducted in Boston, Massachusetts. (aacrjournals.org)
- Every year we honor those inspiring individuals who have contributed to the health and welfare of our community. (mcrhs.org)
- We investigated whether levels of circulating androgens and their carrier protein, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), varied by statin exposure among a sample of 1,812 men from a population-based epidemiologic study, the Boston Area Community Health Survey. (aacrjournals.org)