Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Multilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Leisure Activities: Voluntary use of free time for activities outside the daily routine.ReadingIndividuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.

*  Impact of Neuroprotection on Incidence of Alzheimer's Disease

These results suggest that public health policies aimed at increasing the cognitive reserve in the general population (e.g., ... Most remarkably, a 5% increase in the cognitive reserve would prevent one third of Alzheimer's cases. ... It was found that the number of basic cognitive units decreases with age, but levels off in older people. There were no gender ... Using a simple mathematical regression model, it is shown here that age-specific counts of basic cognitive units (surrogate of ...

*  Cognitive reserve - Wikipedia

Cognitive reserve is commonly used to refer to both brain and cognitive reserves in the literature. In 1988 a study published ... There are two models that can be used when exploring the concept of "reserve": brain reserve and cognitive reserve. These terms ... The theory of cognitive reserve explains this phenomenon. People with high reserve go undiagnosed until damage is severe, then ... Cognitive reserve can be estimated clinically as it is effectively general cognitive ability and knowledge. The variables that ...

*  Cognitive Protection - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Cognitive Protection - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Cognitive Testing [ Time Frame: prior to surgery ]. *Cognitive Testing [ Time Frame: 3 months post surgery ]. *Cognitive ... Postoperative Delirium PD Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction POCD Drug: Precedex (Dexmedetomidine) Phase 4 ... Cognitive Dysfunction. Confusion. Neurobehavioral Manifestations. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. Signs and ...

*  Perioperative Cognitive Function - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Perioperative Cognitive Function - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve. Official Title ICMJE Perioperative Cognitive Function ... Perioperative Cognitive Function - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Based on both the concept of cognitive reserve as well as clinical experience, there is concern that patients with preoperative ... Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve. Brief Summary Elderly patients who undergo anesthesia and non-cardiac surgery are ...

*  Perioperative Cognitive Function - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve - Study Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Perioperative Cognitive Function - Dexmedetomidine and Cognitive Reserve. This study has been completed. ... Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) [Units: Participants]. Count of Participants 124 122 246 ...

*  Blood Test Predicts Cognitive Decline, and "Cognitive Reserve" Protects Against That Decline, Study Shows | UC San Francisco

... were associated with the risk of significant cognitive decline within nine years in a group of elders, in a study led by ... Blood Test Predicts Cognitive Decline, and 'Cognitive Reserve' Protects Against That Decline, Study Shows. By Steve Tokar on ... Home > UCSF News Center > Blood Test Predicts Cognitive Decline, and 'Cognitive Reserve' Protects Against That Decline, Study ... would be helpful in reducing risk of cognitive decline. "Can you increase cognitive reserve?" asked Yaffe. "We think so. It's ...

*  The influence of late-life university education on age-related cognitive decline and cognitive reserve : The Tasmanian Healthy...

age-related cognitive decline; cognitive reserve; aging; education; trajectory; neuropsychological; cognition;. Copyright ... Thow, ME (2015) The influence of late-life university education on age-related cognitive decline and cognitive reserve : The ... The influence of late-life university education on age-related cognitive decline and cognitive reserve : The Tasmanian Healthy ... The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of late-life education on cognitive reserve (CR), cognitive functioning; and ...

*  Cognitive reserve and the risk for Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study : Sussex Research Online

Cognitive reserve; a-MCI; AD; Relative risk; MTA; White matter lesions. Schools and Departments:. Brighton and Sussex Medical ... This study investigates how cognitive reserve (CR) interacts with neurodegeneration (quantified by medial temporal atrophy, MTA ... Cognitive reserve and the risk for Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study. Neurobiology of Aging, 36 (2). pp. 592-600. ISSN ... The patients' risk for conversion to AD because of CR was estimated by controlling for cognitive efficiency, MTA, and WMLs at ...

*  Neurobehavioral Toxicology: Neurological and Neuropsychological Perspectives: Volume III : Stanley Berent : 9781138876774

Cognitive Reserve Yaakov Stern 15 Aug 2014. Paperback. US$52.15 US$54.94 ...

*  Brain games: A great defense against Alzheimer's

Here's how brain games can increase your cognitive reserve and potentially ward off the brain-degenerating disease. ... The importance of Cognitive Reserve. Cognitive reserve is a term that describes your brain's resilience to neuropathological ... A well rounded approach of treating your body right, keeping yourself physically healthy, and building your cognitive reserve ... hindering any improvement in your cognitive reserve). Brain games should challenge you to perform at your peak at all times, ...

*  Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer's Disease Center Parking Đ Reserve Guaranteed Parking Đ SpotHero

... reserve parking near Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer's Disease Center. Book guaranteed parking online & save with SpotHero. ... Cognitive Neurology & Alzheimer's Disease Center Parking - Find, compare & ...

*  International Council on Active Aging®

Build cognitive reserve with midlife challenges. The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that people's lifestyle in early and ... Cognitive skills fluctuate over time. How do researchers find a large group of people for a study without using college ... Report: Evidence for strategies to slow cognitive decline. A comprehensive report from the US National Academies of Sciences, ... on preventing cognitive decline and dementia provides a compelling view of the evidence for interventions such as cognitive ...

*  Cognitive training - Wikipedia

Cognitive reserve is the capacity of a person to meet the various cognitive demands of life and is evident in an ability to ... Cognitive training is a hypothesis that certain activities, done regularly, might help maintain or improve cognitive reserve. ... Scarmeas, N; Y Stern (2003). "Cognitive reserve and lifestyle". J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 25 (5): 625-33. doi:10.1076/jcen.25.5. ... The term cognitive training (also called brain training or neurobics) reflects a hypothesis that cognitive abilities can be ...

*  Plus it

What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc2002;8:448-60. doi:doi ... 1920 This implies that an individual with more cognitive reserve (for instance from higher education or intelligence) uses more ... One pathway is through increased cognitive reserve, which refers to the ability to recruit alternative brain networks or ... What provides cerebral reserve?Brain2004;127:1191-9. doi:doi:10.1093/brain/awh144.pmid:15047587. ...

*  Cognitive Dysfunction in MS: New Insights and Clinical Management | Medienmitteilung Serono Symposia International Foundation

... suffer from cognitive impairment.[1] This condition frequently affects... ... cognitive reserve; new techniques of MRI and clinical assessment tools. One session of the meeting will focus on cognition in ... Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis, 2012 3) Amato MP et al., Treatment of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis: ... "This cognitive dysfunction associated with MS has a strong impact on the daily life of patients" - explains Professor Francesco ...

*  When do I die? - Depression - MedHelp

That is called 'cognitive reserve'. My brain has been able to rewire itself to circumvent the damage, but not entirely More ... That is called 'cognitive reserve'. My brain has been able to rewire itself to circumvent the damage, but not entirely More ... Copyright 1994-2017 MedHelp. All rights reserved.. MedHelp is a division of Vitals Consumer Services, LLC. ...

*  The Paradox of Overnutrition in Aging and Cognition | The New York Academy of Sciences

Stern Y. What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2002;8(3): ... Cognitive reserve-flexibility in cognitive networks-may protect against dementia, enabling the brain to adapt to pathology. ... His clinical work focuses on dementias and cognitive dysfunction. His research began with a study of cognitive reserve. More ... Stern noted that although brain reserve and cognitive reserve are not accepted by all researchers, epidemiological work ...

*  Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal a | CIA

The impact of employment on cognition and cognitive reserve: implications across diseases and aging Vance DE, Bail J, Enah CC, ... All rights reserved. This site is owned and operated by Informa PLC ( "Informa") whose registered office is 5 Howick Place, ...

*  A Rubric for Extracting Idea Density from Oral Language Samples - Current Protocols

... risk for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease pathology, there are no published rubrics for collecting and analyzing ... What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 8:448‐460. ... Is idea density in late life a marker of cognitive reserve? Effects on cognitive decline. 38th Annual Meeting of the ... The concept of cognitive reserve: A catalyst for research. J. Clin. Exp. Neuropsychol. 25:589‐593. ...

*  Patent US20090029355 - Abnormalities of Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) for Diagnosis and Treatment of ... - Google Patents

Alzheimer's disease: etiologies, pathophysiology, cognitive reserve, and treatment opportunities. Neurology 51, S2-S17. ... Compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function. US8221804 *. Feb 3, 2006. Jul 17, 2012. Signum Biosciences, Inc.. ... Compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function. US20060171938 *. Feb 3, 2006. Aug 3, 2006. Stock Jeffry B. ... Compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function. US20080213406 *. Aug 3, 2007. Sep 4, 2008. Signum Biosciences, Inc. ...

*  Choroba Alzheimera - Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia

a b Stern Y. Cognitive reserve and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. . 20 (2), s. 112-117, 2006-07 ... Cognitive reserve hypothesis: Pittsburgh Compound B and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in relation to ... Meditation effects on cognitive function and cerebral blood flow in subjects with memory loss: a preliminary study. „Journal of ... Multiple cognitive deficits during the transition to Alzheimer's disease. „J Intern Med". 256 (3), s. 195-204, 09 2004. DOI: ...

*  Medical Dictionary of Health Terms: A-C - Harvard Health

What is cognitive reserve? An important concept that is crucial to the understanding of cognitive health is known as cognitive ... cognitive reserve: The capacity of the brain to use alternative neural pathways or thinking strategies in response to ... age-related cognitive decline: The slight loss of memory and slowing of the brain's information processing that occurs with ... cognitive behavioral therapy: A form of therapy that aimed at recognizing and changing negative thoughts and behaviors. ...

*  UCLA on Alzheimer's- Food for thought | ConductDisorders - A soft place to land for battle weary parents.

All these contribute to a bigger, better functioning brain with more so-called 'cognitive reserve.' High cognitive reserve ... It's called 'cognitive reserve.' A rich accumulation of life experiences - education, marriage, socializing, a stimulating job ... You can even have significant Alzheimer's pathology and no symptoms of dementia if you have high cognitive reserve, says David ... b. Tea: Only a cup of black or green tea a week cut rates of cognitive decline in older people by 37%, reports the Alzheimer's ...

*  Neurology

... has found that brain reserve and cognitive reserve help protect against cognitive decline over 4.5 years. Read more and read ... Study: Brain and cognitive reserves protect against cognitive decline in patients with MS ... All rights reserved. No part of this website or publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form or by any ... Premature menopause is associated with long-term negative effects on cognitive function, suggests a study in BJOG: An ...

*  Protofibrillar Intermediates of Amyloid β-Protein Induce Acute Electrophysiological Changes and Progressive Neurotoxicity in...

1998) Alzheimer's disease: etiologies, pathophysiology, cognitive reserve, and treatment opportunities. Neurology 51:S2-S17. ... 1991) Physical basis of cognitive alterations in Alzheimer's disease: synapse loss is the major correlate of cognitive ... Early symptoms of mild memory loss and minimal cognitive impairment lead gradually over 5-15 years to profound dementia and ... 1997) Loss of the presynaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin in hippocampus correlates with cognitive decline in Alzheimer ...

Lawn sweeper: A lawn sweeper, also known as a leaf sweeper, is a garden tool for the mechanical removal of debris, such as fallen leaves, pine needles, twigs, grass clippings or litter, from a lawn or paved area. Lawn sweepers operate via a rotating brush mechanism that sweeps up the debris and deposits it in a collection hopper for disposal.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Time-Based Prospective Memory: Time-based prospective memory is a type of prospective memory in which remembrance is triggered by a time-related cue that indicates that a given action needs to be performed. An example is remembering to watch a television program at 3 p.Neuroscience of multilingualism: Various aspects of multilingualism have been studied in the field of neurology. These include the representation of different language systems in the brain, the effects of multilingualism on the brain's structural plasticity, aphasia in multilingual individuals, and bimodal bilinguals (people who can speak one sign language and one oral language).Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Testicular atrophy: Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function. This does not refer to temporary changes, such as those brought on by cold.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.Spalding Method

(1/57) Prominent hippocampal CA3 gene expression profile in neurocognitive aging.

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(2/57) White matter hyperintensities and cognition: testing the reserve hypothesis.

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(3/57) IQ trajectory, cognitive reserve, and clinical outcome following a first episode of psychosis: a 3-year longitudinal study.

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(4/57) Cognitive reserve and brain volumes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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(5/57) Delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease: bilingualism as a form of cognitive reserve.

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(6/57) Intracranial volume and dementia: some evidence in support of the cerebral reserve hypothesis.

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(7/57) Cognitive reserve in aging.

Cognitive reserve explains why those with higher IQ, education, occupational attainment, or participation in leisure activities evidence less severe clinical or cognitive changes in the presence of age-related or Alzheimer's disease pathology. Specifically, the cognitive reserve hypothesis is that individual differences in how tasks are processed provide reserve against brain pathology. Cognitive reserve may allow for more flexible strategy usage, an ability thought to be captured by executive functions tasks. Additionally, cognitive reserve allows individuals greater neural efficiency, greater neural capacity, and the ability for compensation via the recruitment of additional brain regions. Taking cognitive reserve into account may allow for earlier detection and better characterization of age-related cognitive changes and Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, cognitive reserve is not fixed but continues to evolve across the lifespan. Thus, even late-stage interventions hold promise to boost cognitive reserve and thus reduce the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease and other age-related problems.  (+info)

(8/57) Association of plasma beta-amyloid level and cognitive reserve with subsequent cognitive decline.

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Alzheimer's

  • Background: A strong link between education and cognitive performance suggests that a period of education in later-life could reduce age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). (edu.au)
  • This study investigates how cognitive reserve (CR) interacts with neurodegeneration (quantified by medial temporal atrophy, MTA) and macroscopic white matter lesions (WMLs) in delaying the conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD). (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Here's what you need to know about Alzheimer's disease and how to ward off cognitive decline through games that train your brain. (sheknows.com)
  • Alzheimer's is a degenerative cognitive disease. (sheknows.com)
  • As we age, building and maintaining this reserve is one of our best defenses in risk management against Alzheimer's. (sheknows.com)
  • The FTC found that Lumosity's marketing "preyed on consumers' fears about age-related cognitive decline, suggesting their games could stave off memory loss, dementia, and even Alzheimer's disease", without providing any scientific evidence to back its claims. (wikipedia.org)
  • Age is a major risk factor for most common neurodegenerative diseases, including mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research on animals finds that environmental enrichment could aid the treatment and recovery of numerous brain-related dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's disease and those connected to aging, whereas a lack of stimulation might impair cognitive development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sahakian is best known for her work on cognitive enhancement using pharmacological treatments, early detection of Alzheimer's disease, cognition and depression and neuroethics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2007, Sahakian raised concerns regarding the ethics of using drugs intended to help dementia and Alzheimer's sufferers to instead enhance cognitive function in healthy people. (wikipedia.org)

decline

  • Furthermore, those with higher capacity once they become clinically impaired show more rapid decline, probably indicating a failure of all compensatory systems and strategies put in place by the individual with greater reserve to cope with the increasing neuropathological damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low blood levels of beta-amyloid 42, a protein-like substance, were associated with the risk of significant cognitive decline within nine years in a group of elders, in a study led by Kristine Yaffe, MD, chief of geriatric psychiatry at the San Francisco VA Medical Center. (ucsf.edu)
  • The study also showed that, among the elders with low beta-amyloid 42, cognitive decline was less pronounced in those who had higher literacy, or more education, or who lacked the APOE e4 gene known to be associated with a greater risk of dementia. (ucsf.edu)
  • We show that a blood test for beta-amyloid 42 might be a good way to predict those at risk for cognitive decline," said Yaffe. (ucsf.edu)
  • Currently, she said, "there is no reliable method of predicting ahead of time who will experience cognitive decline and go on to develop dementia. (ucsf.edu)
  • If you find out that you have low beta-amyloid 42, but you haven't yet experienced any obvious cognitive decline, you might try and increase your cognitive reserve by staying mentally active - reading, taking classes - and thereby mitigate or at least delay the damage. (ucsf.edu)
  • Relationship between education and age-related cognitive decline: a review of recent research, Psychogeriatrics, 15(2), 154-162, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12083 This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving. (edu.au)
  • A comprehensive report from the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine on preventing cognitive decline and dementia provides a compelling view of the evidence for interventions such as cognitive training and physical activity, and points the way to improving future research. (icaa.cc)
  • Also, while the treatment of cognitive decline is still under discussion, controlled studies indicate that immunomodulatory therapies are associated with a modest cognitive improvement. (presseportal.ch)
  • It has been suggested that age-related cognitive decline is due in part not to neuronal death but to synaptic alterations. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been found that the width of sulcus not only increases with age, but also with cognitive decline in the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another Scottish study found that once individuals had reached old age (79 in this study), it was no longer childhood intelligence or current intelligence scores that best predicted mortality but the relative decline in cognitive abilities from age 11 to age 79. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are also age-related benefits, which seem to help older adults on the battle against cognitive decline. (wikipedia.org)

impairment

  • This might indicate a vulnerability to the manifestation of clinical cognitive impairment, although there may be other explanations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vascular surgery patients who are transferred from the PACU to a monitored step-sown unit will continue dexmedetomidine for 24 hours.Participants will be screened for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and undergo preoperative cognitive testing. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Forty-two amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients were consecutively recruited. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Up to 70% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) suffer from cognitive impairment. (presseportal.ch)
  • Cognitive impairment typically involves complex attention, information processing speed, (episodic) memory and executive functions, and often affects personal life and vocational status. (presseportal.ch)
  • This disease mainly affects young people, so it is very important to improve the management of cognitive impairment" - says Professor Giancarlo Comi, President of the SSIF Scientific Committee. (presseportal.ch)
  • 1) Patti F, Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis, Multiple Sclerosis, 2009 2) Jongen PJ, Ter Horst AT, Brands AM, Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis, 2012 3) Amato MP et al. (presseportal.ch)
  • Przedkliniczny okres AD nazywa się także fazą łagodnych zaburzeń poznawczych (MCI - Mild Cognitive Impairment) , aczkolwiek cały czas podlega dyskusji, czy ten termin określa pierwszy etap choroby, czy też osobne rozpoznanie diagnostyczne . (wikipedia.org)
  • The preclinical stage of the disease has also been termed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). (wikipedia.org)

dementia

  • As of 2016, companies offering products and services for cognitive training have marketed them as improving educational outcomes for children, and for adults as improving memory, processing speed, and problem-solving, and even as preventing dementia or Alzheimers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, this research also suggests that environmental enrichment leads to a greater level of cognitive reserve, the brain's resilience to the effects of conditions such as aging and dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve by preventing effects of cognitive delay and prolonging the onset of sicknesses such as dementia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other models of mental disorder or phenomena development concern, e.g. the "motivational reserve" (parallel to cognitive reserve) (with S. Forstmeier) of older people which is based on life and learning history resources and is assumed to temporarily compensate for a dementia-induced reduction in intelligence and general abilities. (wikipedia.org)

brain's resilience

  • Brain reserve may be defined as the brain's resilience, its ability to cope with increasing damage while still functioning adequately. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive reserve is a term that describes your brain's resilience to neuropathological damage. (sheknows.com)

cognition

  • Childhood cognition, educational attainment, and adult occupation all contribute to cognitive reserve independently. (wikipedia.org)

abilities

  • Their cognitive abilities were measured at the beginning and end of the study with a standard neurocognitive test. (ucsf.edu)
  • The term cognitive training (also called brain training or neurobics) reflects a hypothesis that cognitive abilities can be maintained or improved by exercising the brain, in an analogy to the way physical fitness is improved by exercising the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • To successfully age, a person must retain sufficient cognitive abilities, which include not only neuropsychological domains, such as memory and executive function, but also must retain cognitive schemas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long term sick leave in adulthood has been shown to be related to lower cognitive abilities, as has likelihood of receiving a disability pension. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one study which measured around 70,000 children in the UK, they investigated how a general factor in the Cognitive Abilities Test taken at age 11 correlated with GCSE scores taken at age 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • The general opinion was that bilinguals would have smaller vocabularies, stunted cognitive abilities and that children learning two languages from a young age would be spending too much of their energy differentiating and building the two languages to become competent in either one. (wikipedia.org)

crystallised cognitive function

  • Conclusions: Attending university improved CR and triggered a commensurate improvement in crystallised cognitive function (language processing capacity) but not fluid cognitive functions (episodic memory, working memory or executive function). (edu.au)

bilingualism

  • Much of Bialystok's current research concentrates on bilingualism from childhood through older adulthood and aging, and its effects on cognitive processes over the lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilingualism has been shown through various studies to have a significant effect on certain aspects of cognitive development, especially in comparison to that of monolingual individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bialystok has investigated this idea further, attempting to figure out what parts of cognitive development, specifically, are affected by bilingualism. (wikipedia.org)
  • While bilingualism has repeatedly been shown to affect cognitive development, research has been less focused on which aspects of cognitive development, in particular, are affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that bilingualism itself provides an advantage in the nonverbal, executive control aspect of cognitive development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This positive increase matches the shift to more positive beliefs about the cognitive advantages of bilingualism. (wikipedia.org)

mild

  • Detailed neuropsychological testing can reveal mild cognitive difficulties up to eight years before a person fulfils the clinical criteria for diagnosis of AD. (wikipedia.org)

postoperative delirium

  • Elderly patients who undergo anesthesia and non-cardiac surgery are subject to deterioration of brain function including the development of postoperative delirium (PD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Postoperative Delirium or PD and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction or POCD are syndromes of central nervous system dysfunction that significantly complicate the recovery of a proportion of elderly patients following surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)

emotional

  • This established the importance of social stimulation for normal cognitive and emotional development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sahakian's research is aimed at understanding the neural basis of cognitive, emotional and behavioural dysfunction to develop more effective pharmacological and psychological treatments. (wikipedia.org)

clinical

  • Higher reserve was found to provide a greater threshold before clinical deficit appears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serono Symposia International Foundation (SSIF) has organized an international conference, 'Cognitive dysfunction in MS: New insights and clinical management' starting today in Taormina with the participation of leading international experts in the field of MS. (presseportal.ch)

dysfunction

  • This cognitive dysfunction associated with MS has a strong impact on the daily life of patients" - explains Professor Francesco Patti from the Department of Neurosciences, University of Catania, Italy. (presseportal.ch)

suggests

  • In the last decade there is a growing body of scientific research that suggests that there are ways you can enhance brain function and increase this reserve. (sheknows.com)
  • The theory of cognitive reserve suggests that people's lifestyle in early and middle ages challenges the brain, which makes them more able to tolerate illness or declines as they age. (icaa.cc)
  • Research on humans suggests that lack of stimulation delays and impairs cognitive development. (wikipedia.org)

Evidence

  • Evidence from a twin study indicates a genetic contribution to cognitive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laura Fay is the CEO of HAPPYneuron, a company dedicated to improving cognitive health vitality and ability through evidence based products for individuals, cognitive therapy professionals, and employers. (sheknows.com)
  • However, there is significant evidence that playing certain types of brain games contribute to building up your cognitive reserve. (sheknows.com)
  • Evidence in support of this idea from animal work has also suggested that this cognitive deficit is due to functional and biochemical factors such as changes in enzymatic activity, chemical messengers, or gene expression in cortical circuits. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is converging evidence from cognitive neuroscientists around the world that age-induced cognitive deficits may not be due to neuronal loss or cell death, but rather may be the result of small region-specific changes to the morphology of neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beyond this general advantage to cognitive development seen in bilinguals, there is remarkable evidence for an advantage regarding executive control in particular - specifically in cases where multiple components of this executive control is required for perform a task. (wikipedia.org)
  • A systematic review of studies carried out between 1999 and 2012 found that the evidence for cognitive advantages is mixed and that reporting may be subject to publication bias, which has therefore given a distorted view of the evidence. (wikipedia.org)

brain

  • The term cognitive reserve describes the mind's resistance to damage of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two models that can be used when exploring the concept of "reserve": brain reserve and cognitive reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a computer analogy brain reserve can be seen as hardware and cognitive reserve as software. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive reserve is commonly used to refer to both brain and cognitive reserves in the literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structures like the cerebellum contribute to brain reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cerebellum contains the majority of neurons in the brain and participates to both cognitive and motor operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive reserve also indicates a resilience to neuropathological damage, but the emphasis here is in the way the brain uses its damaged resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • It could be defined as the ability to optimize or maximize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks and/or alternative cognitive strategies. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studies have shown that certain education, socio-economic status, and lifestyle factors provide cognitive reserve, pathological studies of human brains donated to science have shown few correlations with brain damage and cognitive reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, for the first time, we show that cognitive reserve - a general level of resiliency in the brain - might modify that risk in the elderly. (ucsf.edu)
  • Sending your grandparents to university increases cognitive reserve: the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project, Neuropsychology, 30(5), 525-531. (edu.au)
  • This can be achieved through consistent engagement with interactive brain games that stimulate a multitude of cognitive functions. (sheknows.com)
  • Similar to weight training, if the brain games become too routine, new neural pathways are less likely to form (hindering any improvement in your cognitive reserve). (sheknows.com)
  • Brain games should challenge you to perform at your peak at all times, and they should be designed to emulate cognitive skills used in the real world. (sheknows.com)
  • Cogmed was founded in 2001, Posit Science in 2002, and Brain Age was first released in 2005, all capitalizing on the growing interest within the public in neuroscience, along with heightened worries by parents about ADHD and other learning disabilities in their children, and concern about their own cognitive health as they aged. (wikipedia.org)

processes

  • Executive function is the domain of high-level cognitive processes that assist in goal-oriented tasks, such as problem solving, mental flexibility, attentional control, inhibitory control, and task switching. (wikipedia.org)

monolingual

  • Research on executive functions such as working memory, perception, and attentional and inhibitory control, has suggested that bilinguals can benefit from significant cognitive advantages over monolingual peers in various settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was a specific pattern of conclusions, namely that being bilingual was detrimental to a child's linguistic and cognitive development, and that it put the individual at a disadvantage compared to monolingual peers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since then, the literature has consistently found advantages for bilinguals over matched monolingual peers, in particular in relation to cognitive areas of aptitude such as perception and executive functioning. (wikipedia.org)

function

  • There was no influence of genetic factors (APOE ε4 or BDNF Val66Met) on cognitive function over time or on intervention response. (edu.au)
  • First, most older adults maintain enough cognitive ability to retain their ability to function well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research has studied how a bilingual individual's first language (L1) and second language (L2) interact, and it has been shown that both languages have an influence on the function of one another, and on cognitive function outside of language. (wikipedia.org)

efficiency

  • The patients' risk for conversion to AD because of CR was estimated by controlling for cognitive efficiency, MTA, and WMLs at baseline. (sussex.ac.uk)

reflects

  • In a study of normal aging, education was found to be related to levels of cognitive functioning but unrelated to rates of cognitive change, suggesting that cognitive reserve reflects the persistence of earlier differences in cognitive functioning rather than differential rates of age-associated cognitive declines. (wikipedia.org)

differential

  • The focus of her lab is on early detection of neuropsychiatric disorders, differential diagnosis and proof of concept studies using cognitive enhancing drugs and cognitive training. (wikipedia.org)

differences

  • The results of these studies suggest that there are clear differences in the explicit cognitive processing of stimuli between AN individuals and healthy controls and that length of the illness can affect the extent of these memory biases. (wikipedia.org)

functional

  • In addition, she was early to highlight the 'hot' and 'cold' cognitive changes in unipolar and bipolar depression, as well as their significance for functional outcome. (wikipedia.org)

Conclusions

  • Cognitive reserve is the capacity of a person to meet the various cognitive demands of life and is evident in an ability to assimilate information, comprehend relationships, and develop reasonable conclusions and plans. (wikipedia.org)

language

  • She received her Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1976 with a specialization in cognitive and language development in children. (wikipedia.org)

genetic

  • Method: A sample of 459 participants aged 50-79 years (M = 60.24, SD = 6.75) enrolled in the first four years of the THBP, provided salivary samples for genetic analysis and completed comprehensive annual cognitive assessments. (edu.au)

research

  • Research also finds that attaining and engaging in higher levels of education, environments in which people participate in more challenging cognitively stimulating activities, results in greater cognitive reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cognitive epidemiology is a field of research that examines the associations between intelligence test scores (IQ scores or extracted g-factors) and health, more specifically morbidity (mental and physical) and mortality. (wikipedia.org)

Participants

  • In another study, AN participants were found to have less ability to concentrate in the presence of explicit distractors, as well as to have a conscious cognitive bias towards illness-related words. (wikipedia.org)

findings

  • Among the findings of cognitive epidemiology is that men with a higher IQ have less risk of dying from coronary heart disease. (wikipedia.org)

risk

  • A study of one million Swedish men found showed "a strong link between cognitive ability and the risk of death. (wikipedia.org)

study

  • A study combining twin and adoption studies found all cognitive functions to be heritable. (wikipedia.org)
  • One study found visuospatial reasoning was the best predictor of stroke compared to other cognitive tests. (wikipedia.org)

general

  • Heritability estimates have been found to be high for general cognitive functions but low for memory itself. (wikipedia.org)

ability

  • While it was widely acknowledged that some of a person's cognitive ability decreases after age 65, two factors exist that mitigate against the effects of the decrease. (wikipedia.org)

found

  • Some memory impairments found in individuals with ED, are due to nutritional deficiencies, as well as various cognitive and attentional biases. (wikipedia.org)

factors

  • All these factors are currently believed to contribute to global reserve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early environmental factors, ethnicity, and adult cognitive test performance. (currentprotocols.com)

studies

  • Follow up studies will include surveillance for delirium while in the hospital and cognitive testing at 3 months following surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)

functions

  • It is important that all five major cognitive functions are being addressed. (sheknows.com)

researchers

  • The researchers describe this set of conditions as "cognitive reserve. (ucsf.edu)

further

  • Next, the concept of high cognitive functioning was further analyzed. (wikipedia.org)

Turner

  • Mark Turner (born 1954) is a cognitive scientist, linguist, and author. (wikipedia.org)
  • Turner is also the director of the Cognitive Science Network (CSN) and co-director of the Distributed Little Red Hen Lab. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Origin of Ideas: Blending, Creativity, and the Human Spark (Oxford University Press, 2014) Conceptual blending Conceptual metaphor Cognitive linguistics Cognitive rhetoric Cognitive philology Metaphor Biography page at Case Western Alexander von Humboldt Foundation page for Mark Turner French Academy Page for Mark Turner The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. (wikipedia.org)

certain

  • Cognitive training is a hypothesis that certain activities, done regularly, might help maintain or improve cognitive reserve. (wikipedia.org)

patients

  • In conclusion, CR interacts with both patients' cognitive features and WMLs in modulating the impact of AD pathology. (sussex.ac.uk)

health

  • In addition to exploring and establishing these associations, cognitive epidemiology seeks to understand causal relationships between intelligence and health outcomes. (wikipedia.org)