Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Independent Living: A housing and community arrangement that maximizes independence and self-determination.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.ReadingCultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Repression-Sensitization: Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases: Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

*  Does Nutrition Affect Cognitive Function? | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
A varied diet rich in vitamins also helps keep your brain functioning properly to support cognition. Several B-vitamins, ... Kale also contains nutrients for cognition, offering protein, B-vitamins and calcium. If you've noticed a decrease in your ... Salmon, for example, contains many nutrients required for cognition --protein, omega-3 fatty acids, B-vitamins, vitamin E and ... Magnesium also contributes to cognition. Like vitamin B-12, magnesium helps maintain your myelin sheath. It also activates ...
*  Cognitive Evolution: The Biological Imprint of Applied Intelligence
... deciphers the concepts of intelligence and cognition, and moves our kind to the precipices of digitizing the anatomical gnome ... deciphers the concepts of intelligence and cognition, and moves our kind to the precipices of digitizing the anatomical gnome ...
*  Genes and Vascular Risk Alter Effects of Aging on Brain and Cognition: WSU Researchers
Attempts to comprehend the method of aging process affecting the brain and cognition have traversed beyond plainly comparing ... "Although genes play a significant role in shaping the effects of age and vascular risk on the brain and cognition, the impact ... Attempts to comprehend the method of aging process affecting the brain and cognition have traversed beyond plainly comparing ... Genes and Vascular Risk Alter Effects of Aging on Brain and Cognition: WSU Researchers. ...
*  Cognitive representations of bodily parts and products: implications for health behavior. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Mots-cl s Pascal : Sch ma corporel, Repr sentation mentale, Cognition, Demande th rapeutique, Comportement, Sant , Homme, Sexe ... Mots-cl s Pascal anglais : Body schema, Mental representation, Cognition, Therapeutical request, Behavior, Health, Human, Sex, ...
*  What is Cognition?
... Human Cognition: Mechanisms involved in such processes in human beings as perception, attention, learning, ... Gain an understanding of the user in terms of cognition and the areas which the term covers i.e. attention, memory etc. Begin ...
*  Visual Cognition
Please be aware that the university is a state body and that what you write here can be included in a public document. Therefore, be careful if you are writing about sensitive or personal matters in this contact form. If you have a such an enquiry, please call us instead. All data will be treated in accordance with The Personal Data Act. ...
*  Embodied Cognition - The Frontal Cortex
And here is Walt Whitman, a poet who appreciated embodied cognition way back in the 19th century:. Was somebody asking to see ... "In the embodied view, if you're going to explain cognition it's not enough just to look inside the brain. In any particular ... Or, as the motto of the University of Wisconsin's Laboratory of Embodied Cognition puts it, "Ago ergo cogito": "I act, ...
*  Cognition - Journal - Elsevier
Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. It covers a ... Reviewers please refer to Editorial Policy on Reviewing for Cognition. Cognition publishes many of the most important papers in ... Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. It covers a ... Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. It covers a ...
*  Foundations of Augmented Cognition - Google Books
The second section discusses Augmented Cognition applications such as simulation and training, intent-driven user interfaces, ... The first section introduces general Augmented Cognition methods and techniques, including physiological and neurophysiological ... this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. ... and future directions in Augmented Cognition-enabled HCI. ... Cognition.html?id=CEHNQe7vq1cC&utm_source=gb-gplus-share ...
*  Cognition and Aging Lab
Cindy Lustig's Cognition and Aging Lab at the University of Michigan. Dr. Cindy Lustig's Cognition and Aging Lab • The ...
*  Cognition
Summary: Cognition in 2014. Terrence J. Sejnowski. Dorcas Cummings Lecture. Patricia Smith Churchland. Conversations at the ... Physiology of Cognition. A Neural Circuit That Controls Cortical State, Plasticity, and the Gain of Sensory Responses in Mouse ... Emergence of Cognition from Action. György Buzsáki, Adrien Peyrache, and John Kubie. Dynamic Hippocampal Circuits Support ... Internal States and Behavioral Decision-Making: Toward an Integration of Emotion and Cognition. Ann Kennedy, Kenta Asahina, ...
*  Exploring Cognition | Dickinson College
Exploring Cognition - Cai Guo '16, who majors in philosophy and psychology, discusses his ideal internship at Harvard ... Exploring Cognition. Cai Guo '16 poses in Harvard University's Laboratory for Developmental Studies, where he interned in ... As a psychology and philosophy double major, I have long been interested in the development of [human] cognition and ... cognition and consciousness and the theory of mind, and the program's principal investigator, Professor Susan Carey, is not ...
*  Perception, Action & Cognition | NSF - National Science Foundation
Perception, Action & Cognition (PAC) CONTACTS Name. Email. Phone. Room. Betty K. Tuller - Program Director (703 ... epigenetics of cognition, computational models of cognition, and cross-modal and multimodal processing. The program welcomes a ... Report from the NSF Workshop on Integrating Approaches to Computational Cognition * Tutorials in Contemporary Nonlinear Methods ... Dear Colleague Letter: Stimulating Integrative Research in Computational Cognition (NSF 16-122) ...
*  Cognition and Watching Television | SpringerLink
Burns J.J., Anderson D.R. (1991) Cognition and Watching Television. In: Tupper D.E., Cicerone K.D. (eds) The Neuropsychology of ... Salomon, G. (1979). Interaction of media, cognition and learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar ...
*  Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre
UCL Deafness Cognition and Language Research Centre. We conduct world-class research into deafness, cognition and language. Our ... DCAL provides face-to-face clinical assessment and online assessments of language and cognition in deaf people. ... Our research informs our understanding of how deafness affects cognition, language and the brain. ...
*  Religion and Cognition
This volume explores "cognition" in the study of religion - that is, the mental processes that govern religious belief and ... the theoretical models of cognition that are employed in the cognitive science of religion, (c) the prominent cognitive ...
*  Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound
... : An Introduction to Psychoacoustics. Perry R. Cook (Editor). MIT Press, 1999.. ... Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound is the first book to provide that coverage, and it does so via a unique and useful ...
*  Cognition News from Psych Central News
News Articles on Cognition. More Daily Activity Linked to More Gray Matter in Older Adults' Brains. Higher levels of everyday ...
*  Cognition Enhancement Strategies | Journal of Neuroscience
Stress contributes to numerous mental disorders and impairs cognition. Exercise may promote cognition (Lautenschlager et al., ... Cognition Enhancement Strategies. James A. Bibb, Mark R. Mayford, Joe Z. Tsien and Cristina M. Alberini ... Cognition may be viewed as the product of several interrelated general processes that feed both forward and backward onto ... Cognition involves synaptic activity-dependent initiation of transcription of immediate early genes (IEGs) that direct de novo ...
*  Music Perception and Cognition Lab - McGill University
Music Perception and Cognition Lab (MPCL). Suite 500, Music Technology Area. 550 Sherbrooke Street West. Montreal, Quebec, ... In the Music Perception and Cognition Laboratory (MPCL), we explore how listeners perceive musical sounds, how they comprehend ... Au sein du Laboratoire de perception et cognition musicales nous explorons comment les auditeurs comprennent une scène musicale ... The Music Perception and Cognition Lab is affiliated with the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music Media and ...
*  Cognition: God Complex - Music on Google Play
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*  Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition - Routledge
Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition. As a member of the Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition, we're ... Cognition-Based Studies on Chinese Grammar. By Yulin Yuan. Introducing the English translations of 8 selected research articles ... Crosslinguistic Influence in Language and Cognition. By Scott Jarvis, Aneta Pavlenko. A cogent, freshly written synthesis of ... originally written in Chinese by Professor Yuan Yulin, Cognition-based Studies on Chinese Grammar is an essential reading for ...
*  Cognition and Representation - Oxford Scholarship
Cognition and Representation. Cognition and Representation. Chapter:. (p.88) 6 Cognition and Representation. Source:. The ... Keywords: Cognitive Science of Religion, representation, cognition, Dan Sperber, Lucian On the Dance ...
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*  Matti Schneider on Cognition | Lanyrd
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Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), developed by Gerard Gioia, Ph.D.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Familial British dementia: Familial British dementia is a form of dementia. It was first reported by Cecil Charles Worster-Drought in 1933 and is therefore also known as Worster-Drought syndrome.HyperintensityAlzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is a worldwide project that provides reliable clinical data for the research of pathology principle, prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Multiple research groups contribute their findings of the biological markers to the understanding of the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in the human brain.Learning Plan: A Learning Plan is a document (possibly an interactive or on-line document) that is used to plan learning, usually over an extended period of time.Coluracetam: Coluracetam (INN) (code name BCI-540; formerly MKC-231) is a nootropic agent of the racetam family. It was initially developed and tested by the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation for Alzheimer's disease.Memory clinic: A memory clinic is a dedicated medical clinic specialising in the assessment and diagnosis of memory disorders. Memory clinics were first seen in the UK in the 1980s, mainly in academic research centres.Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Rake angleManas Kumar Mandal: Manas Kumar Mandal, is a scientist and psychologist who is the former director of the Defence Institute of Psychological Research, Delhi, India since January 5, 2004 to February, 2013. Presently he is Chief Controller (Life Sciences), Defence Research and Development Organisation; India.Psychiatric assessment: A psychiatric assessment, or psychological screening, is a process of gathering information about a person within a psychiatric (or mental health) service, with the purpose of making a diagnosis. The assessment is usually the first stage of a treatment process, but psychiatric assessments may also be used for various legal purposes.NeurogeneticsDavid Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Daniel Kane (linguist): Daniel Kane is an Australian linguist, one of the world's foremost authorities on the extinct Jurchen and Khitan languages and their scripts.Place cellMartha Foote Crow: Martha Emily Foote Crow (1854 - January 1, 1924) was an educator and writer. Born in Sackets Harbor, New York,KM.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS) was established in year 2002 as an initiative of the University Grants Commission (India) and was set us as a Centre of Excellence.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Simulation theory of empathy: Simulation theory of empathy is a theory that holds that humans anticipate and make sense of the behavior of others by activating mental processes that, if carried into action, would produce similar behavior. This includes intentional behavior as well as the expression of emotions.Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteriesAdaptive comparative judgement: Adaptive Comparative Judgement is a technique borrowed from psychophysics which is able to generate reliable results for educational assessment - as such it is an alternative to traditional exam script marking. In the approach judges are presented with pairs of student work and are then asked to choose which is better, one or the other.TBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Middle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.DonepezilSpaced retrieval: Spaced retrieval, also known as expanded retrieval or uniform retrieval, is a learning technique, which requires users to rehearse information to be learned at different and increasing spaced intervals of time or a set uniform amount of time.Haslam, C.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Bicameralism (psychology): Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind. The term was coined by Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality came to be the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind until as recently as 3000 years ago.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.Emotional responsivity: Emotional responsivity refers to the ability to acknowledge an affective stimuli by exhibiting emotion. Any response, whether it is appropriate or not, would showcase the presence of this phenomena.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Curiosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Print permanence: Print permanence refers to the longevity of printed material, especially photographs, and preservation issues. Over time, the optical density, color balance, lustre, and other qualities of a print will degrade.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Homeostatic plasticity: In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity.Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.Senile plaquesCognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Paranoid anxiety: Paranoid anxiety is a term used in object relations theory, particularity in discussions about the Paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions. The term was frequently used by Melanie Klein, especially to refer to a pre-depressive and persecutory sense of anxiety characterised by the psychological splitting of objects.Testicular atrophy: Testicular atrophy is a medical condition in which the male reproductive organs (the testes, which in humans are located in the scrotum) diminish in size and may be accompanied by loss of function. This does not refer to temporary changes, such as those brought on by cold.

(1/9619) Frontal cognitive impairments and saccadic deficits in low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys.

There is considerable overlap between the cognitive deficits observed in humans with frontal lobe damage and those described in patients with Parkinson's disease. Similar frontal impairments have been found in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) primate model of Parkinsonism. Here we provide quantitative documentation of the cognitive, oculomotor, and skeletomotor dysfunctions of monkeys trained on a frontal task and treated with low-doses (LD) of MPTP. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to perform a spatial delayed-response task with frequent alternations between two behavioral modes (GO and NO-GO). After control recordings, the monkeys were treated with one placebo and successive LD MPTP courses. Monkey C developed motor Parkinsonian signs after a fourth course of medium-dose (MD) MPTP and later was treated with combined dopaminergic therapy (CDoT). There were no gross motor changes after the LD MPTP courses, and the average movement time (MT) did not increase. However, reaction time (RT) increased significantly. Both RT and MT were further increased in the symptomatic state, under CDoT. Self-initiated saccades became hypometric after LD MPTP treatments and their frequency decreased. Visually triggered saccades were affected to a lesser extent by the LD MPTP treatments. All saccadic parameters declined further in the symptomatic state and improved partially during CDoT. The number of GO mode (no-response, location, and early release) errors increased after MPTP treatment. The monkeys made more perseverative errors while switching from the GO to the NO-GO mode. Saccadic eye movement patterns suggest that frontal deficits were involved in most observed errors. CDoT had a differential effect on the behavioral errors. It decreased omission errors but did not improve location errors or perseverative errors. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed moderate ( approximately 70-80%) reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta after MPTP treatment. These results show that cognitive and motor disorders can be dissociated in the LD MPTP model and that cognitive and oculomotor impairments develop before the onset of skeletal motor symptoms. The behavioral and saccadic deficits probably result from the marked reduction of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. We suggest that these behavioral changes result from modified neuronal activity in the frontal cortex.  (+info)

(2/9619) Non-motor associative learning in patients with isolated degenerative cerebellar disease.

In recent decades it has become clear that the cerebellum is involved in associative motor learning, but its exact role in motor learning as such is still controversial. Recently, a contribution of the cerebellum to different cognitive abilities has also been considered, but it remains unclear whether the cerebellum contributes to cognitive associative learning. We compared nine patients with an isolated cerebellar degenerative disease in a cognitive associative learning task with 10 controls. Patients and controls were matched for age, sex, handedness, level of education, intelligence and capabilities of visual memory. The subjects were asked to learn the association between six pairs of colours and numerals by trial and error. Additionally, a simple reaction time and a visual scanning test were conducted in order to control for the influence of motor performance deficits in cerebellar patients. In comparison with the controls, it took the patients significantly longer to learn the correct associations between colours and numerals, and they were impaired in recognizing them later on. Two patients showed no associative learning effect at all. Neither the simple reaction time nor the visual scanning time correlated substantially with the results of associative learning. Therefore, motor-associated disabilities are unlikely to be the reason for the learning deficit in cerebellar patients. Our results suggest that the cerebellum might contribute to motor-independent processes that are generally involved in associative learning.  (+info)

(3/9619) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

(4/9619) Effect of iron-, iodine-, and beta-carotene-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children: a randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Deficiencies of iron, iodine, and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide and can affect the mental development and learning ability of schoolchildren. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of micronutrient-fortified biscuits on the micronutrient status of primary school children. DESIGN: Micronutrient status was assessed in 115 children aged 6-11 y before and after consumption of biscuits (fortified with iron, iodine, and beta-carotene) for 43 wk over a 12-mo period and was compared with that in a control group (n = 113) who consumed nonfortified biscuits. Cognitive function, growth, and morbidity were assessed as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: There was a significant between-group treatment effect on serum retinol, serum ferritin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, and urinary iodine (P <0.0001) and in hemoglobin and hematocrit (P <0.05). The prevalence of low serum retinol concentrations (<0.70 micromol/L) decreased from 39.1% to 12.2%, of low serum ferritin concentrations (<20 microg/L) from 27.8% to 13.9%, of anemia (hemoglobin <120 g/L) from 29.6% to 15.6%, and of low urinary iodine concentrations (<100 microg/L) from 97.5% to 5.4%. There was a significant between-group treatment effect (P <0.05) in cognitive function with the digit span forward task (short-term memory). Fewer school days were missed in the intervention than in the control group because of respiratory- (P = 0.097) and diarrhea-related (P = 0.013) illnesses. The intervention had no effect on anthropometric status [corrected]. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified biscuits resulted in a significant improvement in the micronutrient status of primary school children from a poor rural community and also appeared to have a favorable effect on morbidity and cognitive function [corrected].  (+info)

(5/9619) Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

OBJECTIVES: Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation. METHODS: Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample. RESULTS: Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.  (+info)

(6/9619) Dissociable deficits in the decision-making cognition of chronic amphetamine abusers, opiate abusers, patients with focal damage to prefrontal cortex, and tryptophan-depleted normal volunteers: evidence for monoaminergic mechanisms.

We used a novel computerized decision-making task to compare the decision-making behavior of chronic amphetamine abusers, chronic opiate abusers, and patients with focal lesions of orbital prefrontal cortex (PFC) or dorsolateral/medial PFC. We also assessed the effects of reducing central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity using a tryptophan-depleting amino acid drink in normal volunteers. Chronic amphetamine abusers showed suboptimal decisions (correlated with years of abuse), and deliberated for significantly longer before making their choices. The opiate abusers exhibited only the second of these behavioral changes. Importantly, both sub-optimal choices and increased deliberation times were evident in the patients with damage to orbitofrontal PFC but not other sectors of PFC. Qualitatively, the performance of the subjects with lowered plasma tryptophan was similar to that associated with amphetamine abuse, consistent with recent reports of depleted 5-HT in the orbital regions of PFC of methamphetamine abusers. Overall, these data suggest that chronic amphetamine abusers show similar decision-making deficits to those seen after focal damage to orbitofrontal PFC. These deficits may reflect altered neuromodulation of the orbitofrontal PFC and interconnected limbic-striatal systems by both the ascending 5-HT and mesocortical dopamine (DA) projections.  (+info)

(7/9619) The neural consequences of conflict between intention and the senses.

Normal sensorimotor states involve integration of intention, action and sensory feedback. An example is the congruence between motor intention and sensory experience (both proprioceptive and visual) when we move a limb through space. Such goal-directed action necessitates a mechanism that monitors sensorimotor inputs to ensure that motor outputs are congruent with current intentions. Monitoring in this sense is usually implicit and automatic but becomes conscious whenever there is a mismatch between expected and realized sensorimotor states. To investigate how the latter type of monitoring is achieved we conducted three fully factorial functional neuroimaging experiments using PET measures of relative regional cerebral blood flow with healthy volunteers. In the first experiment subjects were asked to perform Luria's bimanual co-ordination task which involves either in-phase (conditions 1 and 3) or out-of-phase (conditions 2 and 4) bimanual movements (factor one), while looking towards their left hand. In half of the conditions (conditions 3 and 4) a mirror was used that altered visual feedback (factor two) by replacing their left hand with the mirror image of their right hand. Hence (in the critical condition 4) subjects saw in-phase movements despite performing out-of-phase movements. This mismatch between intention, proprioception and visual feedback engendered cognitive conflict. The main effect of out-of-phase movements was associated with increased neural activity in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) bilaterally [Brodmann area (BA) 40, extending into BA 7] and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) bilaterally (BA 9/46). The main effect of the mirror showed increased neural activity in right DLPFC (BA 9/ 46) and right superior PPC (BA 7) only. Analysis of the critical interaction revealed that the mismatch condition led to a specific activation in the right DLPFC alone (BA 9/46). Study 2, using an identical experimental set-up but manipulating visual feedback from the right hand (instead of the left), subsequently demonstrated that this right DLPFC activation was independent of the hand attended. Finally, study 3 removed the motor intentional component by moving the subjects' hand passively, thus engendering a mismatch between proprioception and vision only. Activation in the right lateral prefrontal cortex was now more ventral than in studies 1 or 2 (BA 44/45). A direct comparison of studies 1 and 3 (which both manipulated visual feedback from the left hand) confirmed that a ventral right lateral prefrontal region is primarily activated by discrepancies between signals from sensory systems, while a more dorsal area in right lateral prefrontal cortex is activated when actions must be maintained in the face of a conflict between intention and sensory outcome.  (+info)

(8/9619) Optical imaging of functional domains in the cortex of the awake and behaving monkey.

As demonstrated by anatomical and physiological studies, the cerebral cortex consists of groups of cortical modules, each comprising populations of neurons with similar functional properties. This functional modularity exists in both sensory and association neocortices. However, the role of such cortical modules in perceptual and cognitive behavior is unknown. To aid in the examination of this issue we have applied the high spatial resolution optical imaging methodology to the study of awake, behaving animals. In this paper, we report the optical imaging of orientation domains and blob structures, approximately 100-200 micrometer in size, in visual cortex of the awake and behaving monkey. By overcoming the spatial limitations of other existing imaging methods, optical imaging will permit the study of a wide variety of cortical functions at the columnar level, including motor and cognitive functions traditionally studied with positron-emission tomography or functional MRI techniques.  (+info)

  • processes
  • This volume explores "cognition" in the study of religion - that is, the mental processes that govern religious belief and behavior across cultures and eras. (
  • Cognition may be viewed as the product of several interrelated general processes that feed both forward and backward onto downstream and upstream effectors, respectively ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Motor cognition takes into account the preparation and production of actions, as well as the processes involved in recognizing, predicting, mimicking and understanding the behavior of other people. (
  • Thus the quantum cognition approach can be considered as an attempt to formalize contextuality of mental processes by using the mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics. (
  • There are many processes in which implicit memory works, which include learning, our social cognition, and our problem solving skills. (
  • These representation-based frameworks consider distributed cognition as "a cognitive system whose structures and processes are distributed between internal and external representations, across a group of individuals, and across space and time" (Zhang and Patel, 2006). (
  • Cognition is said to be "socially distributed" when it is applied to demonstrate how interpersonal processes can be used to coordinate activity within a social group. (
  • Extended cognition is the view that mental processes and mind extend beyond the body to include aspects of the environment in which an organism is embedded and the organism's interaction with that environment. (
  • The field of extended cognition focuses upon the processes involved in this creation, and subsumes these processes as part of consciousness. (
  • This view of cognition is sometimes referred to as 'enaction' to emphasise the role of interplay between the organism and its environment and the feedback processes involved in developing an awareness of, and a reformation of, the environment. (
  • Embodiment
  • Marcin Miłkowski: Explaining the Computational Mind, p. 4 The separation of embodied cognition from extended cognition and situated cognition can be based upon the embodiment thesis, a narrower view of embodiment than that of Varela et al. (
  • or that of Dawson: Embodiment thesis: Many features of cognition are embodied in that they are deeply dependent upon characteristics of the physical body of an agent, such that the agent's beyond-the-brain body plays a significant causal role, or a physically constitutive role, in that agent's cognitive processing. (
  • Grounded Cognition, concerned with the role of simulations and embodiment in cognition, encompasses Cognitive Linguistics, Situated Action, Simulation and Social Simulation theories. (
  • According to Zhang & Norman (1994), the distributed cognition approach has three key components: Embodiment of information that is embedded in representations of interaction Coordination of enaction among embodied agents Ecological contributions to a cognitive ecosystem 'Dcog' studies the "propagation of representational states across media" (Rogers and Ellis, ibid. (
  • emphasizes
  • For example, according to Michael Dawson, the relationship is tangled: "In viewing cognition as embedded or situated, embodied cognitive science emphasizes feedback between an agent and the world. (
  • Situated cognition emphasizes that this extension is not just a matter of including resources outside the head, but stresses the role of probing and modifying interaction with the agent's world. (
  • Using insights from sociology, cognitive science, and the psychology of Vygotsky (cf. cultural-historical psychology) it emphasizes the ways that cognition is off-loaded into the environment through social and technological means. (
  • primates
  • This states that motor cognition provides both human and nonhuman primates with a direct, prereflexive understanding of biological actions that match their own action catalog. (
  • Primate cognition is the study of the intellectual and behavioral skills of non-human primates, particularly in the fields of psychology, behavioral biology, primatology, and anthropology. (
  • capacities
  • defined "embodied": "By using the term embodied we mean to highlight two points: first that cognition depends upon the kinds of experience that come from having a body with various sensorimotor capacities, and second, that these individual sensorimotor capacities are themselves embedded in a more encompassing biological, psychological and cultural context. (
  • The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition, page 62 Some authors explain the dependence of cognition upon the body and its environmental interactions by saying cognition in real biological systems is not an end in itself but is constrained by the system's goals and capacities. (
  • Plant cognition is the study of the mental capacities of plants. (
  • 1994
  • This focus on agent-situation interactions in ecological psychology was consistent with the situated cognition program of researchers such as James G. Greeno (1994, 1998), who appreciated Gibson's apparent rejection of the factoring assumptions underlying experimental psychology. (
  • Foglia
  • RA Wilson and L Foglia, Embodied Cognition in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy This thesis omits direct mention of some aspects of the "more encompassing biological, psychological and cultural context" included by Varela et al. (
  • Emergence
  • Cognition goes beyond the manipulation of symbols to include the emergence of order and structure evolving from active engagement with the world. (
  • Major advancements in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been pivotal in the emergence of augmented cognition technologies which seek to monitor the user's cognitive abilities. (
  • human
  • As a psychology and philosophy double major, I have long been interested in the development of [human] cognition and intelligence, and I wanted to work on a project that uses empirical methods to investigate philosophical questions. (
  • The research program in the Harvard University Laboratory for Developmental Studies combines psychological approaches with philosophical inquiries to research many deep philosophical questions [regarding the] human knowledge system, conceptual structures, cognition and consciousness and the theory of mind, and the program's principal investigator, Professor Susan Carey, is not only a psychologist but also a philosopher. (
  • Topics included in the domain of numerical cognition include: How do non-human animals process numerosity? (
  • Non-human research still has a major place in this field, however, and is especially useful in illuminating which nonverbal behaviors signify components of theory of mind, and in pointing to possible stepping points in the evolution of what many claim to be a uniquely human aspect of social cognition. (
  • Recently, most non-human theory of mind research has focused on monkeys and great apes, who are of most interest in the study of the evolution of human social cognition. (
  • Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism. (
  • Eleanor Rosch, Evan Thompson, Francisco J. Varela: The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience pages 172-173 The Varela enactive definition is broad enough to overlap the views of extended cognition and situated cognition, and indeed, these ideas are not always carefully separated. (
  • Augmented cognition research generally focuses on tasks and environments where human-computer interaction and interfaces already exist. (
  • In 1962 Douglas C. Engelbart released the report "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework" which introduced, and laid the groundwork for, augmented cognition. (
  • Many of the same arguments in the debate around human enhancement can be analogized to augmented cognition. (
  • Mechanisms
  • In conjunction with an SFN2010 symposium, we provided here a brief overview of the molecular mechanisms of cognition, with emphasis on the development of treatments for cognitive disorders. (
  • researchers
  • Introducing the English translations of 8 selected research articles originally written in Chinese by Professor Yuan Yulin, Cognition-based Studies on Chinese Grammar is an essential reading for researchers in Chinese syntax. (
  • Study
  • Cognition is an international journal that publishes theoretical and experimental papers on the study of the mind. (
  • A neuronal activity-dependent molecular tagging system that uses the gene expression program to record memory circuit formation represents one new tool to study cognition. (
  • Centuries later, as psychology became a burgeoning field of study in Europe and then gained a following in America, other scientists like Wilhelm Wundt, Herman Ebbinghaus, Mary Whiton Calkins, and William James would offer their contributions to the study of cognition. (
  • Nevertheless, computational cognitive models can still contribute to the study of cognition mostly when it is combined with other research approaches, as implements by John Anderson with his ACT-R model. (
  • paradigm
  • The fundamental unit of the motor cognition paradigm is action, defined as the movements produced to satisfy an intention towards a specific motor goal, or in reaction to a meaningful event in the physical and social environments. (
  • Quantum cognition is based on the quantum-like paradigm or generalized quantum paradigm or quantum structure paradigm that information processing by complex systems such as the brain, taking into account contextual dependence of information and probabilistic reasoning, can be mathematically described in the framework of quantum information and quantum probability theory. (
  • Foundations
  • Recent derivations of the complete quantum formalism from simple operational principles for representation of information supports the foundations of quantum cognition. (
  • behavior
  • However, they argue, such constraints do not mean cognition is set by adaptive behavior (or autopoiesis) alone, but cognition requires "some kind of information processing. (
  • In 2014, Anthony Trewavas released a book called Plant Behavior and Intelligence that highlighted a plant's cognition through its colonial-organization skills reflecting insect swarm behaviors. (
  • draws
  • He considered that distributed cognition draws from the information processing metaphor of cognitive science where a system is considered in terms of its inputs and outputs and tasks are decomposed into a problem space (Perry, 1998). (
  • theoretical
  • A paper's theoretical relevance to cognition, overall soundness of the argument and degree of empirical motivation, especially from converging sources, are more important than adherence to specific methodological principles. (
  • Because Cognition enjoys a wide readership from many disciplines, authors should explicitly consider the general theoretical issues raised by their work and its relevance to other topics and methods. (
  • Complex
  • DCog is a useful approach for (re)designing the technologically mediated social aspects of cognition by putting emphasis on the individual and his/her environment, and the media channels with which people interact, either in order to communicate with each other, or socially coordinate to perform complex tasks. (
  • field
  • - Bringing together a comprehensive and diverse collection of research, theory, and thought, this volume builds a foundation for the new field of Augmented Cognition research and development. (
  • These and other different approaches to the analysis of cognition are synthesised in the developing field of cognitive science, a progressively autonomous academic discipline. (
  • Advances in cognitive, behavioral, and neurological sciences during the 1990s set the stage for the emerging field of augmented cognition - this period has been termed the "Decade of the Brain. (
  • research
  • Cognition occasionally publishes special issues devoted to a research area that has seen rapid recent progress, promising new approaches, and convergence among different disciplines. (
  • We conduct world-class research into deafness, cognition and language. (
  • Our research informs our understanding of how deafness affects cognition, language and the brain. (
  • Recently theorists have recognized a natural affinity between situated cognition, New Literacy Studies and new literacies research (Gee, 2010). (
  • The agenda focused on near-, medium-, and long-term research and development goals in key augmented cognition science and technology areas. (
  • tasks
  • The features of cognition include high level mental constructs (such as concepts and categories) and performance on various cognitive tasks (such as reasoning or judgment). (
  • notion
  • The concept of motor cognition grasps the notion that cognition is embodied in action, and that the motor system participates in what is usually considered as mental processing, including those involved in social interaction. (
  • interactions
  • Regulation of protein translation, protein degradation, cytoskeletal dynamics, extracellular matrix interactions, second messenger signaling, and neurotransmitter receptor trafficking and function are all components of synaptic remodeling essential for cognition. (
  • More recent perspectives of situated cognition have focused on and draw from the concept of identity formation as people negotiate meaning through interactions within communities of practice. (
  • environments
  • As these tools were primarily used in controlled environments, their further development was essential to pragmatic augmented cognition applications. (
  • brain
  • In the embodied view, if you're going to explain cognition it's not enough just to look inside the brain. (
  • Disjunctive cognitions reveal much about how the brain is organized. (
  • Since the brain has separate systems for deciding what a person looks like and who the person is, this division of labor may be responsible not only for disjunctive cognitions, but also the phenomenon of transference. (
  • language
  • DCAL provides face-to-face clinical assessment and online assessments of language and cognition in deaf people. (
  • As a member of the Scandinavian Association for Language & Cognition, we're delighted to offer you a 20% discount and FREE shipping on our complete range of Routledge Linguistics books. (
  • approach
  • Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound is the first book to provide that coverage, and it does so via a unique and useful approach. (
  • The subjective probability viewpoint on quantum probability which was developed by C. Fuchs and collaborators also supports the quantum cognition approach, especially using of quantum probabilities to describe the process of decision making. (
  • In their proposal for an enactive approach to cognition Varela et al. (
  • DCog" is a specific approach to distributed cognition (distinct from other meanings) which takes a computational perspective towards goal-based activity systems. (
  • simulation
  • The second section discusses Augmented Cognition applications such as simulation and training, intent-driven user interfaces, closed-loop command and control systems, then goes on to explore lessons learned to date, and future directions in Augmented Cognition-enabled HCI. (
  • contributions
  • Developed by Phoenix Online Studios (makers of the King's Quest spin-off The Silver Lining ), with contributions from veteran game designer Jane Jensen ( Gabriel Knight, Gray Matter ) and comic book artist Romano Molenaar ( Batman, X-Men, The Darkness ), Cognition is a thrilling adventure that grips you and won't let go. (
  • representations
  • It would be a mistake, however, to suppose that cognition consists simply of building maximally accurate representations of input information. (
  • In general terms, they consider a distributed cognition system to have two components: internal and external representations. (
  • Distributed cognition views a system of cognition as a set of representations propagated through specific media, and models the interchange of information between these representational media. (