Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Cold Climate: A climate characterized by COLD TEMPERATURE for a majority of the time during the year.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Water Cycle: Circulation of water among various ecological systems, in various states, on, above, and below the surface of the earth.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.FiresWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Anthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Baltic States: The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.North AmericaSoil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Atlantic OceanPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Marine Biology: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Malta: An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)Africa, Eastern: The geographical area of Africa comprising BURUNDI; DJIBOUTI; ETHIOPIA; KENYA; RWANDA; SOMALIA; SUDAN; TANZANIA; and UGANDA.El Nino-Southern Oscillation: El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)EuropeGreenlandOceanography: The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Coral Reefs: Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.North SeaCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Foraminifera: An order of amoeboid EUKARYOTES characterized by reticulating pseudopods and a complex life cycle with an alternation of generations. Most are less than 1mm in size and found in marine or brackish water.Extreme Heat: High temperature weather exceeding the average and of several weeks duration. Extreme heat is a dangerous situation that can bring on health emergencies in susceptible people.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Pacific OceanOxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.South AmericaDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Euphausiacea: An order of pelagic, shrimplike CRUSTACEA. Many consume ZOOPLANKTON and a few are predacious. Many antarctic species, such as Euphausia superba, constitute the chief food of other animals.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Animal DiseasesAbies: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. Balm of Gilead is a common name more often referring to POPULUS and sometimes to COMMIPHORA.Carbon Cycle: The cycle by which the element carbon is exchanged between organic matter and the earth's physical environment.Heat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Communicable DiseasesPredatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Bays: An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Pinus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Quercus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE that is a source of TANNINS. Do not confuse with Holly (ILEX).Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.AfricaIce: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Mytilus: A genus of marine mussels in the family MYTILIDAE, class BIVALVIA. The species MYTILUS EDULIS is the highly edible common mussel.Zooplankton: Minute free-floating animal organisms which live in practically all natural waters.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Tidal Waves: Water waves caused by the gravitational interactions between the EARTH; MOON; and SUN.Geography, Medical: The area of medicine concerned with the effects on health and disease due to geographic factors such as CLIMATE, environmental conditions, and geographic location.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Geographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Larix: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta.Carbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Mediterranean SeaCivilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.AlaskaCoffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Queensland: A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)

*  Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change (2016) : Division on Earth and Life Studies

Attribution of Extreme Weather Events in the Context of Climate Change (2016) Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate ... Confidence is lower for other types of events, such as hurricanes, whose relationship to climate change is more complex and ... Confidence is strongest in attributing types of extreme events that are influenced by climate change through a well-understood ... and Medicine concludes it is now possible to estimate the influence of climate change on some types of extreme events. The ...
dels-old.nas.edu/Report/Attribution-Extreme-Weather-Events/21852

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He agreed that climate change was a serious security issue.. If climate change was to be effectively slowed and eventually ... Of even more concern was the fact that climate change would lead to flooding, droughts and serious storms. Climate change could ... Now was time to consider the policy dimensions of climate change. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change had already ... The anticipated impacts of climate change also put at risk existing oil and electrical infrastructure. Climate change would ...
un.org/press/en/2007/sc9000.doc.htm

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... climate change and population growth.. The scientists used 19 climate models to project how climate change may affect urban ... Water scarcity in the tropical Andes: Population growth outweighs climate change. July 23, 2012 • Climate Change & Mitigation, ... "Despite all the uncertainty of the future impact of climate change, the impact of population growth is much bigger," said ... Two main stressors are climate change and population growth, but evaluating their relative impact is difficult, especially ...
https://populationmedia.org/2012/07/23/water-scarcity-in-the-tropical-andes-population-growth-outweighs-climate-change/

*  The Climate Change Regulation essay topics, buy custom The Climate Change Regulation essay paper sample cheap, service

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*  Global Climate Change | CARE

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*  Climate Change

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*  Anticipating, Preventing, and Mitigating Climate Change Impacts on Host-Parasite Interactions by using the Arctic as a Model |...

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*  Climate Change in the 'Hood - Page 3.14

Climate Change in the 'Hood. On Class M, James Hrynyshyn shows us how climate change will benefit the economies of some… ... Keywords: Calving, climate change, Denial, economy, Forecast, Fossil Fuels, Global Warming, Infrastructure, Larsen C, Local, ... On Class M, James Hrynyshyn shows us how climate change will benefit the economies of some U.S. counties while damaging many ... Climate Change in the 'Hood. Posted by Wesley Dodson on July 27, 2017 ...
scienceblogs.com/seed/2017/07/27/climate-change-in-the-hood/

*  Timothy yield and nutritive value with a three-harvest system under the projected future climate in Canada. - Agriculture and...

... using two global climate models under the forcing of two Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios and, then ... Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is harvested twice annually in Canada but with projected climate change, an additional harvest may ... Our results indicate that timothy will take advantage of projected climate change, through taking a third harvest, thereby ... to a three-harvest system under projected future climate conditions at 10 sites across Canada. Future climate scenarios were ...
agr.gc.ca/eng/abstract/publication?id=32354000003467

*  Simulation Modeling of Lakes in Undergraduate and Graduate Classrooms Increases Comprehension of Climate Change Concepts and...

Climate Change Item B asked students to predict how climate scenarios would affect lake heating. Climate Change Item C asked ... Climate Change as a Context for Learning. Climate change is an ideal context in which to engage students in modeling and ... Much of the climate change education literature focuses on students' perceptions of climate change and the plausibility of it ... We measured understanding of climate change effects on lakes using four items (A-D). Climate Change Item A asked students to ...
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10956-016-9644-2

*  Climate change: dealing with uncertainty | University of Oxford

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ox.ac.uk/event/climate-change-dealing-uncertainty

*  An analysis of regional climate model performance over the tropical Americas. Part II : simulating subseasonal variability of...

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diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:807313

*  Climate Change - Wikipedia

... ascolta il nuovo album Climate Change..., rnbjunk.com, 17 marzo 2017. (EN) Climate Change, su AllMusic, All Media Network.. ... Climate Change è il decimo album in studio del rapper e cantante statunitense Pitbull, pubblicato nel marzo 2017. We Are Strong ...
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*  Ecuador Case Study: Climate Change Impact on Fisheries | Human Development Reports

2. After the bank assets were frozen in March 1999, the dollar became the national currency (instead of "sucre") and the salary scale suffered in the conversion. Unemployment went high and the exodus of more than a million Ecuadorians to Europe (mainly Spain and Italy) and USA started. Currently, remittance from the immigrants account for the second income of the country after petroleum, and in 2003 there were in the amount of 1,656 millions of dollars ...
hdr.undp.org/en/content/ecuador-case-study-climate-change-impact-fisheries

*  Environmental Thoughts - Rochester, NY: Living environmentally friendly in a warmer Rochester, NY

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rochesterenvironmentny.blogspot.com/2013/10/living-environmentally-friendly-in.html

*  Global Climate Change Scrapbook (Copy) - Photo Book

27: Section 3: Effects of Global Climate Change. 28: Climate Change as Positive Feedback Loops: Climate Change is the change in ... Causes of Global Climate Change , Section 3: Effects of Global Climate Change , Section 4: Solutions to Climate Change ... Global Climate Change Scrapbook (Copy) - Page Text Content. S: Global Climate Change Scrapbook ... These examples bolster the fact that global ice is reducing due to global climate change. , As ice melts, risk of ice dams ...
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*  Differing Perceptions of Climate Change and Global Warming Among Floridians | www.bebr.ufl.edu

... "climate change" or "global warming." Respondents were asked a series of 5 questions about their concern for climate change or ... about climate change. In January 2010, respondents worried significantly more about climate change than global warming (p,0.05 ... how much they worry about climate change or global warming, the extent to which they agree that scientists believe climate ... how personally affected they feel by climate change or global warming, and how likely they are to change their personal ...
https://bebr.ufl.edu/survey/website-article/differing-perceptions-climate-change-and-global-warming-among-floridians

*  Videos on Climate Change Humanity's Leap to the Golden Era - Washington, D.C., Climate Change Conference November 8, 2009 - USA

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*  Broad Irony « RealClimate

Movie did not ignore past climate change. Mr. Gore pointed out past climate swings and also showed their correlation to Co2 in ... Re #62 Climate change and diseases:. The Harvard Medical School provides a very readable report on this here. Careful if you ... The current climate change is .76 C in the past century. 20 times that would be a temperature increase of 15.2 C. That would ... True, this climate change is in the natural range as recorded history shows. Within the natural range it has been hotter and ...
realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2007/03/broad-irony/comment-page-3/?wpmp_switcher=desktop

*  3 Ways Governments Can Involve the Private Sector in Climate Change Adaptation

As the impacts of climate change become ever-clearer, so does the challenge of adaptation. While the World Bank estimates that ... Each post explores ways to engage the private sector in helping vulnerable communities adapt to the impacts of climate change. ... In order to engage the private sector in helping vulnerable populations prepare for the effects of climate change, developing ... Governments can do this by raising awareness about climate change and providing technical assistance to help companies in ...
wri.org/print/41256

*  Business of climate change

Last year Edinburgh launched an MSc in climate change and it is also developing an MSc in carbon finance, which will examine ... The first report - to be published this month - will evaluate the climate-change performance of the UK supermarket sector and ... In 2007 when the school decided to make climate change an area of specialisation, it worked closely with the university's ... Given that options in business climate change are also offered in MBA and undergraduate courses, Prof Oliver estimates the ...
https://ft.com/content/75f9cea6-3669-11de-af40-00144feabdc0

*  Some poleward movement of British native vascular plants is occurring, but the fingerprint of climate change is not evident ...

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https://peerj.com/articles/77/

*  ClimateDialogue: Exploring different views on climate change « RealClimate

"We can trust climate scientists to tell us the truth about climate change" (see 'Time to raft up' in Nature, 30 August 2012). ... to also involve climate skeptics in future studies on climate change'.. In response, the Ministry of Infrastructure and the ... 282 Responses to "ClimateDialogue: Exploring different views on climate change". « Previous 1 … 3 4 5 6 Next » ... Climate change is just one relatively new facet of a series of confounding resource issues. We are wasting time arguing about ...
realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2012/11/climatedialogue-exploring-different-views-on-climate-change/comment-page-5/?wpmp_switcher=mobile&attest=true&wpmp_tp=1

*  aninconvenientclashofscienceandmarketing - Climate Change

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truth-out.org/art/item/25856-climate-change

Climate change in the United Kingdom: Climate change in the United Kingdom has been a subject of protests and controversies, and various policies have been developed to mitigate its effects. It is estimated to demand at least 80-85% emission reductions in the EU during 2008-2050 with reductions as soon as technically possible.Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightIPCC Second Assessment Report: The Second Assessment Report (SAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), published in 1996, is an assessment of the then available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change. It was superseded by the Third Assessment Report (TAR) in 2001.EcosystemThe Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Meramec Conservation AreaWater Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Anoxic event: Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area. During some of these events, euxinia develops - euxinia refers to anoxic waters that contain hydrogen sulfide.Mawson StationPermissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Circumpolar Health Bibliographic DatabaseCambrian–Ordovician extinction eventAlliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Snow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.List of glaciers in the Antarctic: A-H: This is a list of glaciers in the Antarctic with a name starting with the letters A–H. This list does not include ice sheets, ice caps or ice fields, such as the Antarctic ice sheet, but includes glacial features that are defined by their flow, rather than general bodies of ice.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Geolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.MSN Encarta Dictionary.Energy policy of Malaysia: The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy production, distribution, and consumption. The Department of Electricity and Gas Supply acts as the regulator while other players in the energy sector include energy supply and service companies, research and development institutions and consumers.Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Global Energy and Water Cycle ExperimentAcclimatization: Acclimatization (UK also acclimatisation; US also acclimation) is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment (such as a change in temperature, humidity, photoperiod, or pH), allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions. Acclimation occurs in a short period of time (days to weeks), and within the organism's lifetime (compare to adaptation).Evolution in Variable EnvironmentDasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Food Race: American environmental author Daniel Quinn coined the term Food Race (by analogy to the Cold War's "nuclear arms race") to describe an understanding of the current overpopulation emergency as a perpetually escalating crisis between growing human population and growing food production, fueled by the latter. Quinn argues that as the worldwide human population increases, the typical international response is to more intensely produce and distribute food to feed these greater numbers of people.Outline of hydrology: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to hydrology:Food desert: A food desert is a geographic area where affordable and nutritious food is difficult to obtain, particularly for those without access to an automobile.USDA Defines Food Deserts | American Nutrition Association Some research links food deserts to diet-related health problems and health disparities in affected populations, but this phenomenon has been disputed.Revegetation: Revegetation is the process of replanting and rebuilding the soil of disturbed land. This may be a natural process produced by plant colonization and succession, or an artificial (manmade) wilderness engineering, accelerated process designed to repair damage to a landscape due to wildfire, mining, flood, or other cause.Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: The Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development (ENVI) is a standing committee in the Canadian House of Commons.Timeline of historic inventionsAppropriation (By Any Other Name): June 13, 2005Climate change feedback: Climate change feedback is important in the understanding of global warming because feedback processes may amplify or diminish the effect of each climate forcing, and so play an important part in determining the climate sensitivity and future climate state. Feedback in general is the process in which changing one quantity changes a second quantity, and the change in the second quantity in turn changes the first.National Fire Academy: The National Fire Academy (NFA)National Fire Academy Mission Accessed: 6/12/2012 is one of two schools in the United States operated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) at the National Emergency Training Center (NETC) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Operated and governed by the United States Fire Administration (USFA) as part of the U.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.White band disease: White band disease is a coral disease that affects acroporid corals and is distinguishable by the white band of dead coral tissue that it forms. The disease completely destroys the coral tissue of Caribbean acroporid corals, specifically elkhorn coral (Acropora palmata) and staghorn coral (A.The White ReindeerBird trapping: Bird trapping techniques to capture wild birds include a wide range of techniques that have their origins in the hunting of birds for food. While hunting for food does not require birds to be caught alive, some trapping techniques capture birds without harming them and are of use in ornithology research.Natural Park of El FondoLists of invasive species: These are lists of invasive species by country or region. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.Tadas Karosas: Tadas Karosas (born 1963 in Vilnius) is a businessman, serial entrepreneur, the founder and developer of e-commerce enterprises,the owner of holding company "LTk Capital", the founder and owner of restaurants chain "Čili Holdings".Chaenocephalus aceratus: Chaenocephalus aceratus, the blackfin icefish, is a species of crocodile icefish known from around Bouvet Island and the northern Antarctic Peninsula where it occurs at depths of . This species grows to a length of TL.Paleoproterozoic: The Paleoproterozoic (; also Palaeoproterozoic) is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic occurring (2.5–1.American Medical Student AssociationIndex of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.In Memory of Celtic Frost: In Memory of... Celtic Frost is a Celtic Frost tribute album released in 1996.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Bodega Marine Reserve: Bodega Marine Reserve is a nature reserve and marine reserve on the coast of northern California, located in the vicinity of the Bodega Marine Laboratory on Bodega Head. It is a unit of the University of California Natural Reserve System, that is administered by the University of California, Davis.Breeding for drought stress toleranceList of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Microbial food web: The microbial food web refers the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).List of countries by carbon dioxide emissionsPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.History of the New York State College of Forestry: The New York State College of Forestry, the first professional school of forestry in North America, opened its doors at Cornell University, in Ithaca, New York, in the autumn of 1898.http://foresthistory.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.Lake MarathonHuman impact on the nitrogen cycleDitch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Index of geology articles: This is a list of all articles related to geology that cannot be readily placed on the following subtopic pages:Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Quasiperiodicity: Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity. Periodic behavior is defined as recurring at regular intervals, such as "every 24 hours".Deep chlorophyll maximum: A deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is a subsurface maximum in the concentration of chlorophyll in the ocean or a lake. A DCM is not always present--sometimes there is more chlorophyll at the surface than at any greater depth--but it is a common feature of most aquatic ecosystems.List of geological phenomena: A geological phenomenon is a phenomenon which is explained by or sheds light on the science of geology.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.HumidifierFlightless birdMalta in the Eurovision Song Contest 2007: Malta chose their entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 during the Malta Song for Europe 2007. After a semi-final on 1 February and a final on 3 February, the Maltese televoters decided that Olivia Lewis would represent Malta at Eurovision with the song "Vertigo".Natrocarbonatite: Natrocarbonatite is a rare carbonatite lava which erupts from the Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania within the East African Rift of eastern Africa.Nina ArvesenGA²LENGreenland Provincial Council: The Greenland Provincial Council () was the provincial government of Greenland between 1950, when it was formed from the union of the earlier North and South Greenland Provincial Councils, and 1 May 1979, when it was replaced by the Greenland Home Rule Government and its Parliament (; ).Acoustical oceanography: Acoustical oceanography is the use of underwater sound to study the sea, its boundaries and its contents.Model risk: In finance, model risk is the risk of loss resulting from using models to make decisions, initially and frequently referring to valuing financial securities. However model risk is more and more prevalent in industries other than financial securities valuation, such as consumer credit score, real-time probability prediction of a fraudulent credit card transaction to the probability of air flight passenger being a terrorist.PhytoplanktonAfrican coral reefs: African coral reefs are coral reefs mainly found along the south and east coasts of Africa. The east coast corals extend from the Red Sea to Madagascar in the south, and are an important resource for the fishersmen of Kenya, Tanzania and Madagascar.Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.Middle North Sea Group: The Middle North Sea Group (abbreviation: NM) is a group of geologic formations in the Dutch subsurface, part of the North Sea Supergroup. The three formations of this group form a thick sequence of sediments in the Dutch subsurface, they crop out in parts of the southern Netherlands.Carbon–carbon bond: A carbon–carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. The most common form is the single bond: a bond composed of two electrons, one from each of the two atoms.Salt lake: Salt Lake (Disambiguation)}}

(1/1431) Shifts in phenology due to global climate change: the need for a yardstick.

Climate change has led to shifts in phenology in many species distributed widely across taxonomic groups. It is, however, unclear how we should interpret these shifts without some sort of a yardstick: a measure that will reflect how much a species should be shifting to match the change in its environment caused by climate change. Here, we assume that the shift in the phenology of a species' food abundance is, by a first approximation, an appropriate yardstick. We review the few examples that are available, ranging from birds to marine plankton. In almost all of these examples, the phenology of the focal species shifts either too little (five out of 11) or too much (three out of 11) compared to the yardstick. Thus, many species are becoming mistimed due to climate change. We urge researchers with long-term datasets on phenology to link their data with those that may serve as a yardstick, because documentation of the incidence of climate change-induced mistiming is crucial in assessing the impact of global climate change on the natural world.  (+info)

(2/1431) Protistan diversity in the Arctic: a case of paleoclimate shaping modern biodiversity?

BACKGROUND: The impact of climate on biodiversity is indisputable. Climate changes over geological time must have significantly influenced the evolution of biodiversity, ultimately leading to its present pattern. Here we consider the paleoclimate data record, inferring that present-day hot and cold environments should contain, respectively, the largest and the smallest diversity of ancestral lineages of microbial eukaryotes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate this hypothesis by analyzing an original dataset of 18S rRNA gene sequences from Western Greenland in the Arctic, and data from the existing literature on 18S rRNA gene diversity in hydrothermal vent, temperate sediments, and anoxic water column communities. Unexpectedly, the community from the cold environment emerged as one of the richest observed to date in protistan species, and most diverse in ancestral lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This pattern is consistent with natural selection sweeps on aerobic non-psychrophilic microbial eukaryotes repeatedly caused by low temperatures and global anoxia of snowball Earth conditions. It implies that cold refuges persisted through the periods of greenhouse conditions, which agrees with some, although not all, current views on the extent of the past global cooling and warming events. We therefore identify cold environments as promising targets for microbial discovery.  (+info)

(3/1431) Cryptic biodiversity in a changing world.

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(4/1431) Islands in the sky: the impact of Pleistocene climate cycles on biodiversity.

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(5/1431) Exploring the likelihood and mechanism of a climate-change-induced dieback of the Amazon rainforest.

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(6/1431) Climate change and respiratory disease: European Respiratory Society position statement.

 (+info)

(7/1431) Australia's dengue risk driven by human adaptation to climate change.

 (+info)

(8/1431) Climate change and sexual size dimorphism in an Arctic spider.

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Arctic


  • With the rapid onset of climate change-and its related summer sea-ice melt and the prospects of future oil and natural gas development and shorter shipping routes-the Arctic remained a region of political interest throughout 2008. (britannica.com)
  • The European Union plans to enhance its activities and presence in the Arctic region with 39 measures that are mainly related to climate change, environmental protection, long-term development and international cooperation. (bnn-news.com)
  • The role of the Arctic in climate change has become more significant over the past several years, as this region serves as the regulator of the Earth's climate. (bnn-news.com)
  • Safety in the Arctic region covers themes like risks due to long distances, people's cold protection in sparsely populated areas, Arctic environmental risks, and climate change, but also development of the Arctic region in terms of new energy resources and logistical connections. (luc.fi)

development


  • Governments can incentivize innovation, such as creating business competitions or small business incubators that stimulate the development of local climate change solutions. (wri.org)
  • Climate-smart zoning regulations might shift new hotel development back from the water altogether. (wri.org)

National


  • With the emerging threat of climate change, full national implementation and remeasurement of a forest health inventory should allow for more robust assessment of forest communities that are undergoing unprecedented changes, aiding future land management and policy decisions. (usda.gov)

agriculture


  • For example, small-scale farmers may already be engaged in climate-smart agriculture practices, like planting trees to shade crops from the heat. (wri.org)
  • It also directly influences weather change and agriculture in Europe. (bnn-news.com)

significant


  • Rather, the world needs the human, technical, and financial resources of the private sector to help bridge this significant adaptation finance gap and make vulnerable communities more climate-resilient. (wri.org)

cannot


  • In particular, the models, driven as they are simply by the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, cannot account for the discrepancy in temperature change in the two polar regions. (sjsu.edu)