Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Border disease virus: A species of PESTIVIRUS causing a congenital sheep disease characterized by an abnormally hairy birth-coat, tremors, and poor growth.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Pestivirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus PESTIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.

*  Classical Swine Fever Virus - QIAGEN

For detection of RNA from classical swine fever virus in samples from swine Show details ...
https://qiagen.com/gb/products/animal-and-veterinary-testing/swine-testing/classical swine fever virus/

*  Classical Swine Fever Reported in Latvia - The Pig Site

Two new outbreaks of Classical Swine Fever have been found in Latvia. ... LATVIA - Two new outbreaks of Classical Swine Fever have been found in Latvia. ...
thepigsite.com/swinenews/39305/classical-swine-fever-reported-in-latvia/

*  Classical Swine Fever Virus Reported in Ukraine - The Pig Site

Three wild boar have tested positive for classical swine fever in Ukraine; affected animals have been destroyed. ... UKRAINE - Three wild boar have tested positive for classical swine fever in Ukraine; affected animals have been destroyed. ... The last outbreak of classical swine fever in the country was in July 2001. ...
thepigsite.com/swinenews/38672/classical-swine-fever-reported-in-ukraine/

*  Classical Swine Fever Outbreak Reported in Latvia - The Pig Site

There has been one new outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) reported by the World Organisation for Animal Heath. ... LATVIA - There has been one new outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) reported by the World Organisation for Animal Heath. ...
thepigsite.com/swinenews/37753/classical-swine-fever-outbreak-reported-in-latvia/

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER DISEASE. SEROLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE VIRUS IN FRANCE AND...

CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER DISEASE. SEROLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE VIRUS IN FRANCE AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISEASE IN ... CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER DISEASE. SEROLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE VIRUS IN FRANCE AND ITS ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISEASE IN ...
cordis.europa.eu/publication/rcn/1989114055611_en.html

*  Commission Européenne - COMMUNIQUES DE PRESSE - Communiqué de presse - New case of Classical Swine Fever in Spain: Commission...

... in response to a new outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF). The new outbreak appears two weeks after the end of the ... New case of Classical Swine Fever in Spain: Commission adopts export restrictions. The European Commission has taken a decision ... in response to a new outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF). The new outbreak appears two weeks after the end of the ... The Commission services were notified today of an outbreak of classical swine fever in a holding in the district (comarca) of ...
europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-01-1751_en.htm?locale=FR

*  Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs - DTU Orbit

Early pathogenesis of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains in Danish pigs. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal ... Control of African swine fever epidemics in industrialized swine populations. Publication: Research - peer-review › Journal ... Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza ... or severe disease including high fever within the first week after inoculation. Gross-pathological findings varied between ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/early-pathogenesis-of-classical-swine-fever-virus-csfv-strains-in-danish-pigs

*  Diagnostic value of meat juice in early detection of classical swine fever infection - DTU Orbit

Swine, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Meat juice, Classical swine fever virus ... Diagnostic value of meat juice in early detection of classical swine fever infection. Publication: Research - peer-review › ... To evaluate the diagnostic potential of meat juice for early detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), meat juice and ... Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/diagnostic-value-of-meat-juice-in-early-detection-of-classical-swine-fever-infection

*  Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany - DTU Orbit

Classical swine fever (CSF) has caused significant economic losses in industrialized pig production, and is still present in ... Molecular epidemiology of current classical swine fever virus isolates of wild boar in Germany. Publication: Research - peer- ... there is very little information available on longer fragments or whole classical swine fever virus (CSFV) genomes. Furthermore ... Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/molecular-epidemiology-of-current-classical-swine-fever-virus-isolates-of-wild-boar-in-germany

*  Cytopathic effect of classical swine fever virus NS3 protein o...

In order to further research the relationship between classical swine fever virus' ... Cytopathic effect of classical swine fever virus NS3 protein on PK-15 cells.: ... Cytopathic effect of classical swine fever virus NS3 protein on PK-15 cells.. Authors * Xu, Hao ... In order to further research the relationship between classical swine fever virus' (CSFV) NS3 protein and the cytopathic effect ...
https://mysciencework.com/publication/show/cytopathic-effect-classical-swine-fever-virus-ns3-protein-pk-15-cells-ec9a94ca

*  Classical swine fever virus vaccine stability in Lao PDR - Murdoch Research Repository

Classical swine fever (CSF) virus is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease of swine. A locally produced lapinised ... 2008) Classical swine fever virus vaccine stability in Lao PDR. In: Conlan, J., Blacksell, S., Morrissy, C. and Colling, A., ( ... Management of classical swine fever and foot-and-mouth disease in Lao PDR : proceedings of an international workshop held in ...
researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/15993/

*  Global Classical Swine Fever Vaccines Market 2017 - WINSUN, CAHIC, Merial, MSD Animal Health, Chopper Biology - Long Short...

Global Classical Swine Fever Vaccines Market 2017 - WINSUN, CAHIC, Merial, MSD Animal Health, Chopper Biology. David , October ... With the Classical Swine Fever Vaccines market having undergone certain inherent shifts in the past decades, the report ... Companies in the Classical Swine Fever Vaccines market have realized that innovation is of utmost importance for sustained ... Classical Swine Fever Vaccines Industry including (both global and regions) Market Size (both volume - Unit and value - million ...
longshortreport.com/2017/10/02/global-classical-swine-fever-vaccines-market-2017-2022/

*  Challenge of Pigs with Classical Swine Fever Viruses after C-Strain Vaccination Reveals Remarkably Rapid Protection and...

Challenge of Pigs with Classical Swine Fever Viruses after C-Strain Vaccination Reveals Remarkably Rapid Protection and ... Challenge of Pigs with Classical Swine Fever Viruses after C-Strain Vaccination Reveals Remarkably Rapid Protection and ... Challenge of Pigs with Classical Swine Fever Viruses after C-Strain Vaccination Reveals Remarkably Rapid Protection and ... including classical swine fever CSF. This has prompted discussions on the use of emergency vaccination to control future CSF ...
books.duhnnae.com/2017/jun7/149810317954-Challenge-of-Pigs-with-Classical-Swine-Fever-Viruses-after-C-Strain-Vaccination-Reveals-Remarkably-Rapid-Protection-and-Insights-into-Early-Immunity.php

*  Technical disease cards: OIE - World Organisation for Animal Health

Home > Animal health in the World > Official disease status > Classical Swine Fever ...
oie.int/animal-health-in-the-world/official-disease-status/classical-swine-fever/technical-disease-cards/

*  Thomas Bruun Rasmussen - Activities - DTU Orbit

Workshop of the African and Classical Swine Fever National Reference Laboratories. Rasmussen, T. B. (Speaker). 9 Jun 2015 → 10 ... Workshop on Immunopathology of Classical swine fever. Rasmussen, T. B. (Participant). 27 Sep 2011 ... Annual meeting of the National Reference Laboratories for Swine fever. Rasmussen, T. B. (Participant). 19 May 2010 → 20 May ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/persons/thomas-bruun-rasmussen

*  Ulrik Fahnøe - DTU Orbit

Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus. Publication: Research - peer-review › Poster ... Virulence determinants within the E2 glycoprotein of Classical Swine Fever Virus. Publication: Research - peer-review › ... Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs. ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/persons/ulrik-fahnoee

*  Patent US5380833 - Polynucleotide reagents containing selectable cleavage sites - Google Patents

Method of detection of classical swine fever. US7759065. May 22, 2008. Jul 20, 2010. Sequenom, Inc.. Mass spectrometric methods ...
google.com/patents/US5380833?dq=5319712

*  Estimation of diagnostic-test sensitivity and specificity through Bayesian modeling.

Classical Swine Fever / diagnosis. Coccidiosis / diagnosis, veterinary. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnostic Tests, Routine / ... Swine. Swine Diseases / diagnosis, parasitology. Toxoplasmosis, Animal / diagnosis. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Estimation-diagnostic-test-sensitivity-specificity/15820113.html

*  Detection Solutions - QIAGEN Online Shop

Classical swine fever virus CSFV (4) *. Cytomegalovirus (3) *. Influenza virus (3) *. M tuberculosis complex (3) ...
https://qiagen.com/hu/shop/detection-solutions/

*  PPT - SSBA Regulatory Scheme Road Show PowerPoint Presentation - ID:746672

Classical swine fever virus Clostridium botulinum (Botulism; toxin-producing strains) Francisella tularensis (Tularæmia) ...
slideserve.com/manny/ssba-regulatory-scheme-road-show

*  Use of H-Index and Other Bibliometric Indicators to Evaluate Research Productivity Outcome on Swine Diseases

Swine pathogen H-indexes were highly dispersed ranging from 0 to 106 and were generally higher for pathogens causing endemic ... In this study, the use of the H-index to evaluate scientific production in swine veterinary medicine was explored. A database ... Swine influenza virus (SIV), Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV), Classical swine fever virus ( ... Classical swine fever virus; ADV: Aujeszky's disease virus; FMDV: Foot-and-Mouth disease virus; E coli: Escherichia coli; App: ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149690

*  Therapeutic abortion | definition of therapeutic abortion by Medical dictionary

... classical swine fever; and African swine fever. ... fever over 100.4°F (38.2°C). *heavy bleeding that soaks through ... Potomac horse fever; and in the USA the mare reproductive loss syndrome associated with ingestion of the Eastern tent ...
medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/therapeutic abortion

*  Lack of effect of aerial ammonia on atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and toxigenic...

Sequence adaptations during growth of rescued classical swine fever viruses in cell culture and within infected pigs. ... Identification of cross-reacting T-cell epitopes in structural and non-structural proteins of swine and pandemic H1N1 influenza ...
orbit.dtu.dk/en/publications/lack-of-effect-of-aerial-ammonia-on-atrophic-rhinitis-and-pneumonia-induced-by-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-and-toxigenic-pasteurella-multocida

*  Homeland Security Wants to Build Bio-Defense Lab in Kansas - NBC 7 San Diego

Classical Swine Fever: Wild and domestic swine are the only known natural reservoir; widespread throughout the world and has ... African Swine Fever: Infected animals have high mortality rates; effective countermeasures are not available for infected ... any outbreak of CSF would have serious consequences for domestic and international trade of swine and swine products; improved ... Rift Valley Fever: Virus affects human beings and cloven-hoofed animals (sheep, goats, cattle, camels, buffalo and deer); ...
nbcsandiego.com/news/green/Homeland_Security_Wants_to_Build_Bio-Defense_Lab_in_Kansas.html

*  Notifiable diseases or pests | Deer Industry New Zealand

Classical swine fever. *Equine infectious anemia. *Equine influenza. *European foulbrood disease. *Epizootic haemorrhagic ...
deernz.org/deerhub/regulatory-obligations/biosecurity/regulations

Classical swine fever: Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs).Subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Immunoglobulin C2-set domain: A:317–388 B:317–388 B:317–388Rabbit feverMegalocytivirus: Megalocytivirus is one of five genera of viruses within the family Iridoviridae and one of three genera within this family which infect teleost fishes, along with Lymphocystivirus and Ranavirus. The megalocytiviruses are an emerging group of closely related dsDNA viruses which cause systemic infections in a wide variety of wild and cultured fresh and saltwater fishes.Pseudotyping: Pseudotyping is the process of producing viruses or viral vectors in combination with foreign viral envelope proteins. The result is a pseudotyped virus particle.Bovine virus diarrhea: Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) or Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as Bovine Virus Diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle which is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. The causative agent, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a member of the Pestivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae.Palatine tonsilVirulence: Virulence is, by MeSH definition, the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.NS3 (HCV): Nonstructural protein 3 (NS3), also known as p-70, is a viral nonstructural protein that is 70 kDa cleavage product of the hepatitis C virus polyprotein. It acts as a serine protease.Coles PhillipsViral structural protein: A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus.Cytopathic effectSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Global Vaccines: Global Vaccines, Inc is a mission-driven non-profit company applying state-of-the-art science and innovative business strategies to design and develop affordable vaccines for people in poor countries.

(1/149) Immunopathogenesis of classical swine fever: role of monocytic cells.

Virulent classical swine fever (CSF) represents an immunomodulatory viral infection that perturbs immune functions. Circulatory and immunopathological disorders include leukopenia, immunosuppression and haemorrhage. Monocytic cells - targets for CSF virus (CSFV) infection - could play critical roles in the immunopathology, owing to their production of immunomodulatory and vasoactive factors. Monocytes and macrophages (Mphi) are susceptible to virus infection, as a consequence of which prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is enhanced. The presence of PGE2 in serum from CSFV-infected pigs correlated with elevated PGE2 productivity by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these same animals. It was noted that these PGE2-containing preparations did not inhibit, but actually enhanced, lymphocyte proliferation. The proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL)-6 were not involved, although elevated IL-1 production could relate to lymphocyte activation. Nevertheless, IL-1 was not the sole element: infected Mphi produced lympho-stimulatory activity but little IL-1. This release of immunomodulatory factors, following CSFV infection of monocytic cells, was compared with other characteristics of the disease. Therein, PGE2 and IL-1 production was noted to coincide with the onset of fever and the coagulation disorders typical of CSF. Consequently, these factors are of greater relevance to the haemorrhagic disturbances, such as petechia and infarction, rather than the leukopenia found in CSF.  (+info)

(2/149) Classical swine fever in Sardinia: epidemiology of recent outbreaks.

A variable region of the gene encoding the major glycoprotein (E2) of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) was sequenced from 12 Sardinian isolates which had been obtained from three geographically distinct regions of the Island. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses and others characterized in previous studies [1, 2] indicated that (a) the Sardinian viruses were all members of the common European subgroup 2.3 and were clearly distinct from live vaccines recently used in this area; (b) they could be resolved into four distinct groups in accordance with the region or date of isolation; (c) in at least two regions wild boar/domestic swine contact was implicated in virus spread; (d) the oldest isolate (1983) and some of the recent isolates were possibly introduced from mainland Italy. In addition, this study has wider implications for the interpretation of CSFV variation. We have been able to demonstrate that small variations within this region of the virus genome (possibly less than 2.7% or five nucleotide substitutions) can be used to separate isolates into groups that precisely fit their geographical distribution. This finding is especially important for deducing the epidemiological relationships between multiple outbreaks caused by similar viruses that occur in close proximity.  (+info)

(3/149) Pathogenesis of granulocytopenia and bone marrow atrophy during classical swine fever involves apoptosis and necrosis of uninfected cells.

Granulocytopenia, a hematological hallmark of classical swine fever, is partially responsible for the suppression of innate immune defenses during classical swine fever. The present report demonstrates that this depletion was apparent as early as 3 days postinfection (p.i.). Both mature peripheral and bone marrow neutrophils were affected, whereas immature neutrophils increased absolutely in the periphery and coincidentally immature myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow. These data suggest that a pathogenic relationship exists between these compartments. The central event was not the arrest of hematopoietic cell proliferation or of the mobilization process, but instead apoptosis and possibly also necrosis were shown to play a role. This increase in apoptotic and dead cells was detected as early as 1-3 days p.i. In contrast, viral RNA in bone marrow hematopoietic cells (BMHC) was first detected 5 days p.i., and significant amounts of infected BMHC were detected only 7 days p.i., with the major target being the myeloid compartment. The increased caspase-3 activity observed supported a role for apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, the elevated caspase-9 activity indicated the involvement of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together, the results demonstrate that granulocytopenia and bone marrow atrophy are mediated by hematopoietic cell death and that indirect virus-host-mediated mechanisms are likely to be responsible.  (+info)

(4/149) Ultrastructural glomerular changes in experimental infection with the classical swine fever virus.

Ultrastructural studies of glomerular changes were performed on 16 pigs experimentally infected with a highly virulent strain of the classical swine fever virus. Our observations revealed the thickening of glomerular basement membranes, swelling of endothelial cells and cytoplasmic vacuolization within podocytes containing abundant viral particles. An early viral infection of podocytes was suggested as the cause of selective swelling of the foot processes of these cells with the consequent obliteration of the glomerular urinary spaces. To our knowledge this is the first report of ultrastructural evidence of classical swine fever virions infecting glomerular podocytes.  (+info)

(5/149) Comparative immunohistopathology in pigs infected with highly virulent or less virulent strains of hog cholera virus.

Eight pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with a highly virulent hog cholera virus (HCV) strain ALD. The infected pigs developed severe illness and became moribund on postinoculation day (PID) 7 or PID 10. Histologic lesions were characterized by severe generalized vasculitis, necrosis of lymphocytes, and encephalitis. HCV antigen was detected in crypt tonsilar epithelial cells, macrophages, and reticular endothelial cells of lymphoid tissues. Antigen localization corresponded well with histologic lesions. Five pigs were inoculated with less virulent HCV Kanagawa/74 strain and were euthanatized on PID 30. All five infected pigs recovered from the illness but became stunted. They also had a slight follicular depletion of lymphocytes, histiocytic hyperplasia, and hematopoiesis in the spleen. Less virulent HCV antigen was observed in the tonsils, kidneys, pancreas, adrenal glands, and lungs. Although antigen localization was less associated with histologic lesions, immunoreactivity was stronger than that in the pigs infected with the ALD strain of HCV. An almost complete loss of B lymphocytes was recognized in pigs infected with the ALD strain and was correlated with follicular necrosis in lymphoid tissues. Loss of B lymphocytes was not prominent in the pigs infected with Kanagawa/74 strain. The number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher than that in the noninfected control pigs.  (+info)

(6/149) Application of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the serologic diagnosis of classical swine fever virus infection.

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA), based on a truncated E2 recombinant protein of the Alfort/187 strain of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and a specific monoclonal antibody M1669, was evaluated using 2,000 sera from clinically healthy pigs in Canada (a CSFV-free country) and sera from experimentally infected pigs. The relative specificity and sensitivity of the C-ELISA were 100% and 86%, respectively, at a cutoff of 25% inhibition using negative and positive pig sera, as defined by the neutralizing peroxidase-linked assay (NPLA). A kappa value of 0.91 was obtained, indicating an excellent level of agreement between the NPLA and the C-ELISA. When sera from 120 infected pigs were used in the test at > or = 21 days postinfection, the sensitivity of the C-ELISA and the kappa value increased to 97% and 0.98, respectively. This C-ELISA will be useful when a large number of samples must be tested, as could occur during a disease outbreak or for surveillance or prevalence studies.  (+info)

(7/149) Characterization of classical swine fever virus associated with defective interfering particles containing a cytopathogenic subgenomic RNA isolated from wild boar.

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strain WB82, isolated from a wild boar in 1982, induced a distinct cytopathic effect (CPE) in primary swine testicle cell culture and in most of the porcine cell lines. This strain of CSFV was found to be composed of two biotypes. cytopathogenic (cp) CSFV, as a minor population, and noncytopathogenic (noncp) CSFV, as a major population. The noncp CSFV (designated strain WB82/E+) was obtained by biological cloning, and it showed the exaltation of Newcastle disease virus phenomenon. In Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR assay, CSFV RNA with a subgenomic (sg) length was detected in addition to full-length viral RNA only in the cells in which a CPE had been revealed. These RNAs represent the genomes of typical defective interfering (DI) particles because of the strict dependence on a complementing helper virus and interference with replication of the helper virus. The sg RNA, which exhibits the genomes of the DI particles, lacked the nucleotides of the viral genomic region from Npro to NS2 (4764 bases). When extracted sg RNA was transfected to the cells infected with the WB82/E+ strain, a distinct CPE was observed. Interestingly, the CPE was observed in cells infected with other heterologous noncp CSFV ALD and GPE- strains by sg RNA transfection. The results suggested that these noncp CSFVs act as helper viruses for the replication of sg RNA (DI particles). It was also shown that the cytopathogenicity of strain WB82 is caused by apoptosis.  (+info)

(8/149) Lipopolysaccharide and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate both impair monocyte differentiation, relating cellular function to virus susceptibility.

Both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) impeded monocyte to macrophage differentiation with respect to typical phenotypic modulation and certain phagocyte-related processes. The down-regulation of the porcine monocyte marker SWC1, and up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker were retarded, but not inhibited, as was the differentiation-associated down-regulation of p53 and myeloperoxidase. Despite this clear impairment of macrophage differentiation, not all cellular functions were equally susceptible. Both agents inhibited phagocytosis, but not low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated endocytosis. Only LPS inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase up-regulation. In contrast, increase of vacuolar acidification rates was more susceptible to PMA. The activity of certain endosomal/lysosomal enzymes - esterase, nucleotidase, peroxidase and cathepsins - was generally enhanced by both LPS and PMA. This contrasted with autophagosomal activity, detected through the induction of an antiviral state. Disruption of autophagosomes and lysosomes (methionine-O-methyl ester), but not lysosomes alone (glycyl-L-phenylalanine) reversed LPS-induced inhibition of virus replication, without influencing the PMA-induced antiviral effect. Thus, PMA is similar to LPS in inhibiting monocyte to macrophage differentiation, when primary blood monocytes are employed, but not all pathways are equally susceptible. The analyses demonstrate that the pathways modulated during monocyte differentiation function somewhat independently. Moreover, certain functions of monocytic cells are more important with respect to the outcome of virus infection, with autophagosomal activities in particular favouring cell survival.  (+info)



CSFV


  • To evaluate the diagnostic potential of meat juice for early detection of Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), meat juice and serum samples from pigs experimentally infected with different strains of CSFV were compared for virus load. (dtu.dk)
  • We have reported that chimeric virus 319.1 virus containing the E2 glycoprotein gene from Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) vaccine strain CS with the genetic background of virulent CSFV strain Brescia (BIC virus) was attenuated in pigs. (usda.gov)
  • Chimera 357 virus, containing CS E2 residues 691 to 881 of CSFV polyprotein was virulent, while chimera 358 virus, containing CS E2 residues 882 to 1064, differing in thirteen amino acids from BIC virus, was attenuated in swine. (usda.gov)
  • In order to further research the relationship between classical swine fever virus' (CSFV) NS3 protein and the cytopathic effect (CPE) in cells infected with the CSFV, and to reveal the effect of protein NS3 on the host cells, the NS3 of CSFV Shimen strain amplified by RT-PCR was subcloned into the pEGFP-C1, named pEGFP-C1-NS3. (mysciencework.com)

pigs


  • The European Commission has taken a decision to ban exports of live pigs and porcine semen, ova and embryos from Catalonia (Spain), in response to a new outbreak of classical swine fever (CSF). (europa.eu)

vaccine


  • Classical swine fever (CSF) virus is a highly contagious but vaccine-preventable disease of swine. (edu.au)

virus


  • Importantly, 43 virus/358 virus protected swine from challenge with virulent BIC virus at 3 and 28 days post-infection. (usda.gov)
  • Cytopathic effect of classical swine fever virus NS3 protein o. (mysciencework.com)

potential


  • Further, the report delves deep into the value chain of the Classical Swine Fever Vaccines market so as to emerge with information specific areas that hold high revenue-generating potential. (longshortreport.com)