Citrus sinensis: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar orange fruit which is also a source of orange oil.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Xanthomonas axonopodis: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus XANTHOMONAS, which causes citrus cankers and black rot in plants.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Angelica sinensis: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is the source of dong quai.Camellia sinensis: Camellia sinensis L. (formerly Thea sinensis) is an evergreen Asiatic shrub of the THEACEAE family. The infusion of leaves of this plant is used as Oriental TEA which contains CAFFEINE; THEOPHYLLINE; and epigallocatechin gallate.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.

*  orange Citrus sinensis, orange disks and lemon disks, Stock Photo, Picture And Rights Managed Image. Pic. BWI-BLWS099259

Download and buy this stock image: orange Citrus sinensis, orange disks and lemon disks - BWI-BLWS099259 from age fotostock's photo library of over 50+ million high resolution stock photos, stock pictures, videos and stock vectors
agefotostock.com/age/en/Stock-Images/Rights-Managed/BWI-BLWS099259

*  Sweet Orange, Navel Orange Citrus sinensis 'Everhard'

Welcome to the famous Dave's Garden website. Join our friendly community that shares tips and ideas for gardens, along with seeds and plants.
davesgarden.com/guides/pf/go/78283/

*  Morfogênese in vitro e transformação genética de laranja 'Pêra' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.], mediada por Agrobacterium

A transformação genética está se tornando, cada vez mais, uma ferramenta importante em programas de melhoramento genético de diversas espécies, sendo uma alternativa para a incorporação de gene(s) exógeno(s) no genoma da planta, modificando características de interesse. Para citros, essa ferramenta permite romper barreiras naturais dessa espécie, visto que o desenvolvimento de novas variedades pelo melhoramento convencional possui uma série de limitações impostas pela sua biologia reprodutiva. Entretanto, os protocolos de transformação genética requerem, primariamente, o estabelecimento de um eficiente sistema de morfogênese in vitro para que o sucesso do método de transformação seja alcançado. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o estabelecimento das melhores condições de cultivo in vitro para a organogênese e a posterior adequação de uma metodologia eficiente de transformação genética para a variedade de laranja-doce [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] 'Pêra'. Na ...
locus.ufv.br/handle/123456789/10500

*  Blood Orange Essential Oil Profile, Benefits and Uses | AromaWeb

Blood Orange Essential Oil Profile includes uses, constituents, aromatic description, extraction method, latin name, safety info and references.
aromaweb.com/essential-oils/blood-orange-oil.asp

*  Browse Products Containing: CITRUS SINENSIS (SWEET ORANGE) || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?brand_id=4275&ingred06=701487

*  Browse Products Containing: CITRUS SINENSIS (SWEET ORANGE) || Skin Deep® Cosmetics Database | EWG

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
ewg.org/skindeep/browse.php?comp_id=2225&ingred06=701487&showmore=products&atatime=10

*  Effect of soil amendments, climate and rootstock on tree performance and fruit quality of 'Valencia' orange used for processing

Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a public health problem especially in developing countries. The main strategy that has been used to fight against VAD was the distribution of high dose capsules of vitamin A to people at risk ...
repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/29343

*  Citrus sinensis Database: 7.001 kbp from chr1:5,628,000..5,635,000

There are no available unused public available tracks. Select "Custom Tracks" to see ones you've already added to your session. ...
citrus.hzau.edu.cn/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/orange/

*  Bioline International Official Site (site up-dated regularly)

0.05) difference was found in the pH, ascorbic acid and total soluble solids. The results presented citrus peel as substrate for pectinase production and its subsequent use in the clarification of orange juice could enhance fruit juice processing in the tropics. Key words: Orange juice, pectinase, clarification INTRODUCTION Orange (Citrus sinensis) belongs to Citrus fruits and believed to have originated from Asia (Beaven et al, 1972). Citrus fruits and juices serve as primary sources of our daily requirement of Vitamin C. In addition, supplementary nutritional value is obtained from the amino acids, inorganic salt, carbohydrates and probably other still unidentified factors found in the edible pigment (Beaven etal, 1972). Tropical fruit juices have become important in recent years due to the overall increase in "natural fruit" juice consumption as an alternative to the traditional caffeine-containing beverages such as ...
bioline.org.br/request?nf07012

*  Articles about Orange Trees - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel

Orange Trees News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Orange Trees From The tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
articles.orlandosentinel.com/keyword/orange-trees

*  Navel Orange (Citrus' Sinensis) Seedless | GreenNBrown

Buy Navel Orange (Citrus' Sinensis) Seedless . Includes Care Tips & Information For Lighting, Watering, Pruning, Propagation. On Sale. Free Ship.
https://greennbrown.com/navel-orange-seedless-citrus-sinensis.html

*  Elucidation of carotenoid patterns in citrus products by means of comprehensive normal-phase x reversed-phase liquid...

Abstract A novel approach for carotenoid analysis has been developed. Orange essential oil and juice carotenoids were separated by means of comprehensive dual-gradient elution HPLC..
https://omicsonline.org/references/elucidation-of-carotenoid-patterns-in-citrus-products-by-means-of-comprehensive-normalphase-x-reversedphase-liquid-chromatography-19732.html

*  FAQS about Flavor Packets | Uncle Matt's Organic

Orange juice has always been one of America's favorite beverages - consumed in nearly 70% of U.S. households[i] and on the menu of nearly two-thirds of limited-service restaurants[ii]. What was once only considered a breakfast beverage is now sought throughout the day, as people seek better-for-you, portable options.. But what really goes into this tried and true favorite? In 2009, Alissa Hamilton's book "Squeezed: What you don't know about Orange Juice," attempted to bring to light some of the truths behind the popularity of orange juice and how it is produced. But, as shown on a recent episode of the Dr. Oz show, which aired on April 1st, 2014, there are still many misconceptions about what goes into America's favorite juice.. Many consumers remain unaware of the ingredients and additives that go into flavoring orange juice. In fact, flavor packs have been identified as the "dirty secret[iii]" of orange juice; they are the reason "100% pure orange juice" can taste delicious all year round. ...
unclematts.com/resources/flavor-packet-faqs/

*  Malathion Controversy - latimes

I have eradicated the Medflies from my navel orange tree in my back yard simply by using a fly swatter. A Medfly first appeared on my orange tree about three months ago. I called the Department of
articles.latimes.com/1990-01-21/opinion/op-607_1_medflies-malathion-controversy-los-angeles

*  Kasbah Ait Ben Moro Map: Explore Ouarzazate on TripAdvisor

Map of Kasbah Ait Ben Moro, Ouarzazate: Locate Ouarzazate hotels for Kasbah Ait Ben Moro based on popularity, price, or availability, and see TripAdvisor reviews, photos, and deals.
https://tripadvisor.co.uk/LocalMaps-g304018-d522298-Kasbah_Ait_Ben_Moro-Area.html

*  MerKaBa Light Farro Salad - White Sage Landing

Recipe for Merkaba Light Farro Salad:1 cup faro,1/3 cup cold-pressed olive oil, 2 tablespoons fresh orange juice, 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard, 3 tablespoons
https://whitesagelanding.net/food-recipes-with-essential-oils/merkaba-light-farro-salad/

*  52 Weeks of Bad A** Bacteria - Orangina (Lacto-Fermented Orange Juice)

Lacto-fermented orange juice is full of vitamin C, potassium, and calcium. A great way to drink juice without the sugar rush. Simple recipe.
https://deliciousobsessions.com/2012/01/52-weeks-of-bad-a-bacteria-week-2-orangina-lacto-fermented-orange-juice/

*  PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY PLANT DESIGN REPORT OF THE ORANGE JUICE PRODUCTION. Yrd.Doc. Nur Dirim - PDF

PRELIMINARY FEASIBILITY PLANT DESIGN REPORT OF THE ORANGE JUICE PRODUCTION Yrd.Doc. Nur Dirim Gözde Bilen Güngör Çevik Yasemin Eke Türker Çavuş Gökhan
docplayer.biz.tr/1965096-Preliminary-feasibility-plant-design-report-of-the-orange-juice-production-yrd-doc-nur-dirim.html

*  Orange Juice & Protein Powder | LIVESTRONG.COM

Blending a scoop of protein powder with 8 ozs. of orange juice provides a nutritious meal replacement or an optimal post-exercise recovery snack. Most...
livestrong.com/article/544740-orange-juice-protein-powder/

*  Healthy Skin - AndhraNews.net

Vitamin A helps maintain a good skin. Vitamin A is abundant in liver and eggs. The human body converts beta carotene to vitamin A. It is found in dark green or orange vegetables such as spinach and carrots, orange fruits, apricots and mangoes. ...
andhranews.net/updates/Healthy_Skin

*  Childhood Cancer Heroes | Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer

Many of you think of Alex as a hero ~ the sweet and courageous lemonade girl who inspired others to help children with cancer. Although she did not get the chance to live a long life, she showed us what it means to live a full life. Her bravery, strength, and love of life continue to inspire us every day. She is indeed our hero!. ...
https://alexslemonade.org/heroes?page=1

*  Sore No More Analgesic Gels: Physical Therapy Equipment, Supplies & Products - Isokinetics Inc.

Contrary to other analgesics sold on the market today, which are formulated with waxes, oils, artificial colors, paraben and other chemicals, we carefully selected these active ingredients for the safest results in this product, Sore No More is completely alcohol free, non-greasy, non-staining, and has a light refreshing scent that comes from orange peel extract and witch hazel ...
https://isokineticsinc.com/category/sorenomore

*  Greyhound Adoption League of Texas, Inc.

Lemonade is a 3-year-old light brindle female born in April 2008. She was found as a stray near Lubbock by A Place For Us Greyhounds. They requested GALT's help with several strays sighted on the same property, inlcuding Aspen, and GALT loaned them a live trap to use. Lemonade's tattoos are very faint and difficult to read, so her history will likely remain a mystery. Her bloodwork upon arrival revealed low platelets and Ehrlichia, for which she has been successfully treated. She is ready for her forever home!. Lemonade is cat and small animal tolerant.. ...
greyhoundadoptiontx.org/hounds/lemonade.shtml

*  The Author Speaks: Gary Taubes Interview, 'Why We Get Fat and What to ...

Award-winning science writer Gary Taubes, says that carbohydrates, not fatty stuff like bacon, cream and butter, are what make us fat. Soda and muffins are on the list, but so are whole-grain bread, orange juice and that apple a day.
aarp.org/entertainment/books/info-01-2011/author_speaks_why_we_get_fat.4.html

*  Lemonade Mouth | Variety

By Anna Marie de la Fuente LA-based Mexican director Patricia Riggen, whose Eva Mendes and Matthew Modine starrer "Girl in Progress" opens Friday, is attached to helm the English-language remake of Spanish-Argentine 2005 hit… ...
variety.com/t/lemonade-mouth/

Orange Peel (horse): Orange Peel was a Thoroughbred stallion that had a significant influence on the breeding of sport horses.Citrus productionClonorchis sinensis: Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is a human liver fluke in the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. This parasite lives in the liver of humans, and is found mainly in the common bile duct and gall bladder, feeding on bile.CankerFruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Torreyanic acidSinecatechins: Sinecatechins (USAN, trade names Veregen and Polyphenon E) is a specific water extract of green tea leaves from Camellia sinensis that is the active ingredient in an ointment approved by the FDA in 2006 as a botanical drug to treat genital warts.Masters KP New Drug Reviews: Sinecatechins (Veregen) for External Genital and Perianal Warts.Fungicide use in the United States: A more accurate title for this page would be "Common plant pathogens to food crops in the United States".ClonorchiasisCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Squamosa promoter binding protein: The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like (SBP or SPL) family of transcription factors are defined by a plant-specific DNA-binding domain. The founding member of the family was identified based on its specific in vitro binding to the promoter of the snapdragon SQUAMOSA gene.Orange carotenoid N-terminal domain: In molecular biology the orange carotenoid N-terminal domain is a protein domain found predominantly at the N-terminus of the Orange carotenoid protein (OCP), and is involved in non-covalent binding of a carotenoid chromophore. It is unique for being present in soluble proteins, whereas the vast majority of domains capable of binding carotenoids are intrinsic membrane proteins.

(1/138) Structural basis of the rind disorder oleocellosis in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

Oleocellosis, a physiological rind disorder of citrus fruit, is an unattractive surface blemish caused by phytotoxic effects of released rind oils. The development of oleocellosis in Washington navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was examined by following a time sequence of surface symptoms and microscopic rind changes. The two natural causes of oleocellosis were simulated: mechanical damage to the fruit and transfer of rind oil between fruit. Mechanical fruit injury resulted in rupture of the epidermis above oil glands. Released surface oil appeared to infiltrate the rind via the ruptured epidermis resulting in rapid degeneration of cortical, but not epidermal, cell contents. Oil application to the rind surface produced a more severe blemish than did mechanical damage. The oil appeared to diffuse through the cuticle causing degeneration of the contents of all cell layers, including the epidermis. Loss of membrane integrity was detected within 30 min, followed by cell content degeneration and cell collapse. The resulting blemish, characterized by rind collapse and darkening, developed substantially within 3 d and was attributed to the cellular damage.  (+info)

(2/138) Characterization of Pinalate, a novel Citrus sinensis mutant with a fruit-specific alteration that results in yellow pigmentation and decreased ABA content.

The characterization of a novel mutant, named Pinalate, derived from the orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Navelate, which produces distinctive yellow fruits instead of the typical bright orange colouration, is reported. The carotenoid content and composition, and ABA content in leaf and flavedo tissue (coloured part of the skin) of fruits at different developmental and maturation stages were analysed. No important differences in leaf carotenoid pattern of both phenotypes were found. However, an unusual accumulation of linear carotenes (phytoene, phytofluene and zeta- carotene) was detected in the flavedo of Pinalate. As fruit maturation progressed, the flavedo of mutant fruit accumulated high amounts of these carotenes and the proportion of cyclic and oxygenated carotenoids was substantially lower than in the parental line. Full-coloured fruit of Pinalate contained about 44% phytoene, 21% phytofluene, 25% zeta-carotene, and 10% of xanthophylls, whereas, in Navelate, 98% of total carotenoids were xanthophylls and apocarotenoids. The ABA content in the flavedo of Pinalate mature fruit was 3-6 times lower than in the corresponding tissue of Navelate, while no differences were found in leaves. Other maturation processes were not affected in Pinalate fruit. Taken together, the results indicate that Pinalate is a fruit-specific alteration defective in zeta-carotene desaturase or in zeta-carotene desaturase-associated factors. Possible mechanisms responsible for the Pinalate phenotype are discussed. Because of the abnormal fruit-specific carotenoid complement and ABA deficiency, Pinalate may constitute an excellent system for the study of carotenogenesis in Citrus and the involvement of ABA in fruit maturation and stress responses.  (+info)

(3/138) Isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding a lipid transfer protein expressed in 'Valencia' orange during abscission.

The genetics and expression of a lipid transfer protein (LTP) gene was examined during abscission of mature fruit of 'Valencia' orange. A cDNA encoding an LTP, CsLTP, was isolated from a cDNA subtraction library constructed from mature fruit abscission zones 48 h after application of a mature fruit-specific abscission agent, 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-pyrazole (CMN-pyrazole). A full-length cDNA clone of 652 nucleotides was isolated using 5' and 3' RACE followed by cDNA library screening and PCR amplification. The cDNA clone encoded a protein of 155 amino acid residues with a molecular mass and isoelectric point of 9.18 kDa and 9.12, respectively. A partial genomic clone of 505 nucleotides containing one intron of 101 base pairs was amplified from leaf genomic DNA. Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that at least two closely related CsLTP genes are present in 'Valencia' orange. Temporal expression patterns in mature fruit abscission zones were examined by northern hybridization. Increased expression of CsLTP mRNA was detected in RNA of mature fruit abscission zones 6, 24, 48, and 72 h after application of a non-specific abscission agent, ethephon. Low expression of CsLTP transcripts was observed after treatment of CMN-pyrazole until 24 h after application. After this time, expression markedly increased. The results suggest that CsLTP has a role in the abscission process, possibly by assisting transport of cutin monomers to the fracture plane of the abscission zone or through its anti-microbial activity by reducing the potential of microbial attack.  (+info)

(4/138) Effect of orange juice intake on vitamin C concentrations and biomarkers of antioxidant status in humans.

BACKGROUND: Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with improved health and a decreased prevalence of chronic degenerative processes. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to assess the bioavailability of vitamin C from orange juice and its influence on plasma vitamin C and 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (8-epi-PGF(2 alpha)) concentrations in a healthy human population. DESIGN: Six men and 6 women consumed 500 mL commercial fresh-squeezed orange juice/d for 14 d, corresponding to an intake of 250 mg ascorbic acid/d. On the first day of the study, the subjects drank the juice in one dose (dose-response study), and on days 2-14 they consumed 250 mL in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected every hour for 6 h on the first day and again on days 7 and 14. RESULTS: Baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly higher (P = 0.03) among the women than among the men (56.4 +/- 4.4 compared with 44.3 +/- 3.5 micromol/L). In the dose-response study, the maximum increase in plasma vitamin C occurred 3 h postdose in both the men and the women. Vitamin C concentrations remained significantly higher on days 7 and 14 than at baseline. Baseline concentrations of 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) were significantly higher (P = 0.03) among the men than among the women (249.6 +/- 25.4 compared with 177.7 +/- 6.2 pg/mL) but decreased significantly (P = 0.04) by day 14 of the intervention. A significant inverse correlation was observed between vitamin C and 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) (r = -0.791, P = 0.0022). Among smokers, baseline vitamin C was lower and 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) higher than among nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking orange juice (500 mL/d) increases plasma concentrations of vitamin C and reduces concentrations of 8-epi-PGF(2 alpha) in humans. These effects were significantly more pronounced in smokers.  (+info)

(5/138) Analysis of gene expression in two growth states of Xylella fastidiosa and its relationship with pathogenicity.

Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen responsible for diseases of economically important crops. Although there is considerable disagreement about its mechanism of pathogenicity, blockage of the vessels is one of the most accepted hypotheses. Loss of virulence by this bacterium was observed after serial passages in axenic culture. To confirm the loss of pathogenicity of X. fastidiosa, the causing agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), freshly-isolated bacteria (first passage [FP] condition) as well as bacteria obtained after 46 passages in axenic culture (several passage [SP] condition) were inoculated into sweet orange and periwinkle plants. Using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we verified that the colonization of FP cells was more efficient for both hosts. The sequence of the complete X. fastidiosa genome allowed the construction of a DNA microarray that was used to investigate the total changes in gene expression associated with the FP condition. Most genes found to be induced in the FP condition were associated with adhesion and probably with adaptation to the host environment. This report represents the first study of the transcriptome of this pathogen, which has recently gained more importance, since the genome of several strains has been either partially or entirely sequenced.  (+info)

(6/138) Accumulation of carotenoids and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during maturation in citrus fruit.

The relationship between carotenoid accumulation and the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes during fruit maturation was investigated in three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck), and Lisbon lemon (Citrus limon Burm.f.). We cloned the cDNAs for phytoene synthase (CitPSY), phytoene desaturase (CitPDS), zeta-carotene (car) desaturase (CitZDS), carotenoid isomerase (CitCRTISO), lycopene beta-cyclase (CitLCYb), beta-ring hydroxylase (CitHYb), zeaxanthin (zea) epoxidase (CitZEP), and lycopene epsilon-cyclase (CitLCYe) from Satsuma mandarin, which shared high identities in nucleotide sequences with Valencia orange, Lisbon lemon, and other plant species. With the transition of peel color from green to orange, the change from beta,epsilon-carotenoid (alpha-car and lutein) accumulation to beta,beta-carotenoid (beta-car, beta-cryptoxanthin, zea, and violaxanthin) accumulation was observed in the flavedos of Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange, accompanying the disappearance of CitLCYe transcripts and the increase in CitLCYb transcripts. Even in green fruit, high levels of beta,epsilon-carotenoids and CitLCYe transcripts were not observed in the juice sacs. As fruit maturation progressed in Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange, a simultaneous increase in the expression of genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, CitLCYb, CitHYb, and CitZEP) led to massive beta,beta-xanthophyll (beta-cryptoxanthin, zea, and violaxanthin) accumulation in both the flavedo and juice sacs. The gene expression of CitCRTISO was kept low or decreased in the flavedo during massive beta,beta-xanthophyll accumulation. In the flavedo of Lisbon lemon and Satsuma mandarin, massive accumulation of phytoene was observed with a decrease in the transcript level for CitPDS. Thus, the carotenoid accumulation during citrus fruit maturation was highly regulated by the coordination of the expression among carotenoid biosynthetic genes. In this paper, the mechanism leading to diversity in beta,beta-xanthophyll compositions between Satsuma mandarin and Valencia orange was also discussed on the basis of the substrate specificity of beta-ring hydroxylase and the balance of expression between upstream synthesis genes (CitPSY, CitPDS, CitZDS, and CitLCYb) and downstream synthesis genes (CitHYb and CitZEP).  (+info)

(7/138) Browning and decomposed products of model orange juice.

A model solution of orange juice containing sugars, ascorbic acid, and citric acid was prepared and its browning during storage was examined. The solution gradually turned brown. Ascorbic acid (AsA) most contributed to the browning. Citric acid and such amino acids as Arg and Pro promoted the browning. DTPA, a strong chelator, inhibited the browning. 3-Hydroxy-2-pyrone (3OH2P), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), furfural, 5-hydroxymaltol, and 2-furoic acid were identified as decomposed products in the stored solution. When 3OH2P was stored, the solution turned slightly brown. Furfural solution added with amino acids turned yellow. 3OH2P showed a positive relation with the browning of retail orange juice during storage.  (+info)

(8/138) Eggplant (Solanum melongena) extract does not alter serum lipid levels.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of eggplant extract on serum lipid levels with that of lovastatin. METHODS: The study included 21 individuals of both sexes, with total cholesterol (TC) levels > 200 mg/dL, no diabetes, no contraindication for the use of statins, and no use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, divided into the following 3 groups: 1) the eggplant group (B), in which the patients drank 1 glass of eggplant extract with orange juice before breakfast each morning; 2) the statin group (E), in which the patients received 20 mg of lovastatin in the evening after dinner; 3) control group (C), in which the patients received no treatment. Total cholesterol and fractions (HDL, LDL), and triglycerides were measured 3 times at 3-week intervals. RESULTS: The baseline lipid levels were similar in the 3 groups. After 6 weeks, a significant reduction in TC levels (from 245.29 +/- 41.69 to 205.71 +/- 46.45; P=0.02) and in LDL-cholesterol levels (from 170.83 +/- 41.76 to 121.29 +/- 44.90; P=0.008) was observed in group E. In group B, total cholesterol (from 230.60 +/- 19.30 to 240.20 +/- 16.22; P=0.27) and LDL-cholesterol (from 139.60 +/- 21.49 to 154.40 +/- 9.66; P=0.06) showed no statistically significant variation, as in group C. No significant variation was observed in the HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the 3 groups throughout the study. CONCLUSION: The eggplant extract with orange juice is not to be considered an alternative to statins in reducing serum levels of cholesterol.  (+info)



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