City Planning: Comprehensive planning for the physical development of the city.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.BrazilMexicoUrbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.VietnamAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Terrorism: The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.ArgentinaEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.United StatesAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.JapanHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Suburban Population: The inhabitants of peripheral or adjacent areas of a city or town.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.RestaurantsSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.IndiaWeather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).ExplosionsBaltimoreGeographic Mapping: Creating a representation of areas of the earth or other celestial bodies, for the purpose of visualizing spatial distributions of various information.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.LondonParticulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Public Facilities: An area of recreation or hygiene for use by the public.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.New JerseyNew YorkSchools: Educational institutions.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.TexasChicagoHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Respiratory Tract DiseasesUrban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vatican CityProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.IranRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.PeruEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.EuropeAedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.TurkeyHealth Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Rescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.RussiaKansasNeedle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Railroads: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Suburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)TokyoPolitics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.IraqRisk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.ChileCensuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Beauty CultureDeath Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.PhilippinesFiresAttitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.YemenEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.MissouriPhiladelphiaChild Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.PolandEnglandAutomobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Heat Exhaustion: A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.

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*  Map of Cities in , - MapQuest

When traveling through the United States, it's like the song goes: you can see mountains, prairies, and oceans, sometimes within the same day. The cultural, historical, and topographical diversity of these fifty states is what makes America, well, America. From vast forests in the Pacific Northwest to the geological marvel of the Grand Canyon in the Southwest; the anachronistic mix of world-class urban development with centuries of history in the Northeast, to the rich cultures and big waves of the Hawaiian islands, the United States is a true treasure trove for any traveler. Use our map of the United States, as well as our satellite map and printable map to help you plan your next epic adventure. Also check out each page below for highlights from every state ...
https://mapquest.com/us-282934758

*  List of cities in Bhutan - Wikipedia

Cities, towns and villages[edit]. Main articles: List of cities, towns and villages in Bhutan; List of villages in Bhutan; and ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cities_in_Bhutan&oldid=755949179" ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_in_Bhutan

*  Quebec City - Wikipedia

Partner cities[edit]. Quebec City is mainly twinned with Calgary and Bordeaux. It has other formal agreements with other cities ... Parallel to the city level of government, the city is a component of the urban agglomeration of Quebec City, which has its own ... Quebec City is served by Jean Lesage International Airport (YQB), located at the city's western edge, 11 miles from the city ... See also: History of Quebec City, Timeline of Quebec City history, and Name of Quebec City ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quebec_City,_Quebec

*  Investments in Cities and Towns

Energy projects in 94 cities and towns (91 projects total) were made possible resulting in 1.1 million square feet of local ... The Green Communities Division allocated this funding to facilitate investments in clean energy among Massachusetts' cities and ... Through EECBG, scores of Massachusetts cities and towns were able to contribute significantly toward meeting the ... Establishing an energy use baseline tool for all 351 cities and towns (MassEnergyInsight) ...
mass.gov/eea/energy-utilities-clean-tech/resources-current-conditions/reinvestment-clean-energy/energy-recovery-dollars/investments-in-cities-and-towns.html

*  City Checklist - Telegraph

A summary of City stories in the Sunday newspapers ... The world's 10 most expensive cities 2015 New data: Discover ...
telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/2850864/City-Checklist.html

*  Steel City

... type:. Movie. Current Status:. In Season. mpaa:. R. runtime:. 95 minutes. Wide Release Date:. 05/25/07. performer: ... Steel City could have used more rhythmic drive, but if Jun keeps weaving together characters this compelling, he could be a ... So is everyone in Steel City. It's a drama in which even the most minor character registers as a full, complicated presence - a ... and in Brian Jun's quietly absorbing and incisive Steel City, that quality shines through his performance as the steel-town ...
ew.com/article/2007/05/23/steel-city/

*  City Comment - Telegraph

New data: Discover the priciest cities around the globe for luxury property. ...
telegraph.co.uk/finance/comment/4492956/City-Comment.html

*  Why our cities need butterflies - CNN

... but one man is working to attract rare butterflies back to city landscapes. ... Ten years ago, Danahar created a butterfly haven in the coastal city of Brighton, south of London, using the grounds of a local ... Dark Green Fritillary - In the city of Brighton, south of London, 25 'butterfly havens' have seen many species return to a ... Since then, 25 more havens have been created throughout the city, with the help of local councils. ...
cnn.com/2017/07/26/world/going-green-butterflies-danahar/index.html

*  Kansas City - MapQuest

... reviews and information for Kansas City in Yuncler, . ...
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*  Cities XL Platinum on Steam

... shape a world.Cities XL Platinum lets you design, build and link up cities of all shapes and sizes around the Cities XL planet! ... Build more impressive cities than ever before! Cities XL Platinum offers a huge variety of over 1,000 buildings and ... Build cities, shape a world.. Cities XL Platinum lets you design, build and link up cities of all shapes and sizes around the ... Build cities, shape a world.Cities XL Platinum lets you design, build and link up cities of all shapes and sizes around the ...
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*  Cities for Life: Lessons from Medellín

Importantly, the city has reduced its homicide rate by 95%, strengthening one of the central pillars of a City for Life. This ... for Global Healthy Cities. Location: 316 Wurster Hall. IURD Spring 2017 Seminar In the last 20 years, the city of Medellín has ... The seminar will examine the concept of a City for Life, exploring the processes and impacts of this framework and allowing ... Previously considered one of the most violent cities in the world due to leading global homicide rates, today Medellín is ...
https://docs.google.com/a/berkeley.edu/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSfEKSH7F_yTynJCp2r4CS4BmRhUVuxLjCnrbzTEwX65chaWOA/viewform?c=0&w=1&usp=send_form

*  Mountain City, Tennessee - Wikipedia

In May 1925, Mountain City was the site of a musical gathering, the first Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, that is considered ... Mountain City is located at 36°28′6″N 81°48′14″W / 36.46833°N 81.80389°W / 36.46833; -81.80389 (36.468444, -81.803856).[13] ... Location of Mountain City in Johnson County, Tennessee.. Coordinates: 36°28′6″N 81°48′14″W / 36.46833°N 81.80389°W / ... Mountain City Elementary School, Roderick Random Butler. Retrieved: 16 June 2009.. *^ Bob L. Cox (2007), Fiddlin' Charlie ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_City,_Tennessee

University of CampinasOld Portal de Mercaderes (Mexico City): Old Portal de Mercaderes in the historic center of Mexico City was and is the west side of the main plaza (otherwise known as the "Zócalo"). This side of the plaza has been occupied by commercial structures since the Spanish Conquest of Mexico in 1521.Social determinants of obesity: While genetic influences are important to understanding obesity, they cannot explain the current dramatic increase seen within specific countries or globally. It is accepted that calorie consumption in excess of calorie expenditure leads to obesity, however what has caused shifts in these two factors on a global scale is much debated.P-AnisidineNeighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City: The Institut Pasteur in Ho Chi Minh City is a Vietnamese national institute initially created by the French in 1891 under the name Pasteur Institute - Sai Gon, in 1975 renamed the Institute of Epidemiology, and in 1991 given the current name.Air pollution: Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the natural or built environment. Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources.National Healthy Homes Hero Award: National Healthy Homes Hero Award is an award presented by a consortium of agencies at the United States' National Healthy Homes Conference. The first year this award was presented was in 2011.Fatwa on Terrorism: The Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings is a 600-page (Urdu version), 512-page (English version) Islamic decree by scholar Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri which demonstrates from the Quran and Sunnah that terrorism and suicide bombings are unjust and evil, and thus un-Islamic. It was published in London as a book.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Niigata UniversityManagement of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Suburban Baths (Pompeii): The Suburban Baths are located in Pompeii, Italy. Pompeii (located in the Italian region of Campania) was destroyed on August 24, 79 AD when Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the entire city (along with Herculaneum) and consequently preserving them.Mortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.Chapter One (restaurant): Michelin GuideTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCitizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.ArambiletBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Toronto propane explosionWilliam Donald SchaeferHomicide: Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another human being. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Riverview Health Centre: Riverview Health Centre is a community hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was founded in 1911 by the City of Winnipeg as the Winnipeg Municipal Hospital.Royal London Hospital for Integrated MedicineParticulates: Atmospheric particulate matter – also known as particulate matter (PM) or particulates – is microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.Oakleigh Recreation CentrePsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.The Flash ChroniclesOzone Action Day: An Ozone Action Day, which can be declared by a local municipality, county or state, is observed at certain times during the summer months, when weather conditions (such as heat, humidity, and air stagnation) run the risk of causing health problems.Pacific ElectricPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.New Jersey State Park Police: The New Jersey State Park Police patrol and protect the State’s 54 parks, forests and recreation areas which encompass an excess of and are visited by more than 17 million people each year, which defines their motto, "Protecting New Jersey's Treasures and the people who visit them." All State Park Police Officers are sworn State Law Enforcement Officers who are PTC certified.New York State Department of HealthSt. Vrain Valley School DistrictSeroprevalence: Seroprevalence is the number of persons in a population who test positive for a specific disease based on serology (blood serum) specimens; often presented as a percent of the total specimens tested or as a proportion per 100,000 persons tested. As positively identifying the occurrence of disease is usually based upon the presence of antibodies for that disease (especially with viral infections such as Herpes Simplex and HIV), this number is not significant if the specificity of the antibody is low.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Homeless dumping: Homeless dumping is the practice of hospital employees or emergency services releasing homeless patients on the streets instead of placing them into the custody of family, a warming center or homeless shelter or retaining them in a hospital where they may require expensive medical care. Many homeless people who have mental health problems can no longer find a place in a psychiatric hospital since the trend towards mental health deinstitutionalization from the 1960s onwards.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingPublic water systemUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at HoustonChicago Tafia: The Chicago Tafia Welsh Society (also known as the Chicago Tafia) is an expatriate Welsh group formed in Chicago, Illinois, USA, in 1999. As one of the youngest and most contemporary Welsh groups in North America, the society strives to provide a link between the present culture of Wales and the Chicago area.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Felony murder rule (Florida): In the state of Florida, the common law felony murder rule has been codified in Florida Revised Statutes § 782.04.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Indoor air pollution in developing nations: Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.List of lighthouses in Spain: This is a list of lighthouses in Spain.Surat Urban Development Authority: Surat Urban Development Authority is the urban planning agency of Surat, India. SUDA was formed in 1976, under Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development Act - 1976, which covers SMC (Surat Municipal Corporation) and 722 km area of 148 villages surrounding SMC.SyringeTourism in Vatican City: Vatican City is a popular destination for tourists, especially Christians wishing to see the Pope or practice their faith. The main tourist attractions in Vatican City include the Basilica of St.Standard evaluation frameworkHong Kong Auxiliary Police Force: The Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force (HKAPF, ) is established in 1914 as the Police Reserve unit, provides additional manpower to the Hong Kong Police Force, especially during emergencies and other incidents.Exhaust gasSouth Asia Disaster Report: South Asia Disaster Report is a 2006 report by Duryog Nivaran, edited by Amjad Bhatti and others, and subtitled Tackling the Tides and Tremors. It looks at disasters affecting the South Asian region's "countries and communities (that) are connected to each other geologically, geographically and culturally".

(1/948) Variations in infant mortality rates among municipalities in the state of Ceara, Northeast Brazil: an ecological analysis.

BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities in the State of Ceara, from 14 to 193 per 1000 live births. Identification of the determinants of these differences can be of particular importance to infant health policy and programmes in Brazil where local governments play a pivotal role in providing primary health care. METHODS: Ecological study across 140 municipalities in the State of Ceara, Brazil. RESULTS: To determine the interrelationships between potential predictors of infant mortality, we classified 11 variables into proximate determinants (adequate weight gain and exclusively breastfeeding), health services variables (prenatal care up-to-date, participation in growth monitoring, immunization up-to-date, and decentralization of health services), and socioeconomic factors (female literacy rate, household income, adequate water supply, adequate sanitation, and per capita gross municipality product), and included the variables in each group simultaneously in linear regression models. In these analyses, only one of the proximate determinants (exclusively breastfeeding (inversely), R2 = 9.3) and one of the health services variables (prenatal care up-to-date (inversely), R2 = 22.8) remained significantly associated with infant mortality. In contrast, female literacy rate (inversely), household income (directly) and per capita GMP (inversely) were independently associated with the infant mortality rate (for the model including the three variables R2 = 25.2). Finally, we considered simultaneously the variables from each group, and selected a model that explained 41% of the variation in infant mortality rates between municipalities. The paradoxical direct association between household income and infant mortality was present only in models including female illiteracy rate, and suggests that among these municipalities, increases in income unaccompanied by improvements in female education may not substantially reduce infant mortality. The lack of independent associations between inadequate sanitation and infant mortality rates may be due to the uniformly poor level of this indicator across municipalities and provides no evidence against its critical role in child survival. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and increased prenatal care utilization, as well as investments in female education would have substantial positive effects in further reducing infant mortality rates in the State of Ceara.  (+info)

(2/948) Geographical patterns of excess mortality in Spain explained by two indices of deprivation.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the geographical patterns and the magnitude of the association between deprivation and mortality in Spain. To estimate the excess of mortality in more deprived areas of the country by region. DESIGN: Cross sectional ecological study using 1991 census variables and mortality data for 1987-1992. SETTING: 2220 small areas in Spain. MAIN RESULTS: A geographical gradient from north east to south west was shown by both mortality and deprivation levels in Spain. Two dimensions of deprivation (that is, Index 1 and Index 2) obtained by exploratory factor analysis using four census indicators were found to predict mortality: mortality over 65 years of age was more associated with Index 1, while mortality under 65 years of age was more associated with Index 2. Excess mortality in the most deprived areas accounted for about 35,000 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Two indices of deprivation strongly predict mortality in two age groups. Excess number of deaths in the most deprived geographical areas account for 10% of total number of deaths annually. In Spain there is great potential for reducing mortality if the excess risk in more deprived areas fell to the level of the most affluent areas.  (+info)

(3/948) Isolation, cultivation, and characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi from rodents and ticks in the Charleston area of South Carolina.

Twenty-eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from the Charleston, S.C., area are described. This represents the first report and characterization of the Lyme disease spirochete from that state. The isolates were obtained from December 1994 through December 1995 from the tick Ixodes scapularis, collected from vegetation, and from the rodents Peromyscus gossypinus (cotton mouse), Neotoma floridana (eastern wood rat), and Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat). All isolates were screened immunologically by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies to B. burgdorferi-specific outer surface protein A (OspA) (antibodies H5332 and H3TS) and B. burgdorferi-specific OspB (antibodies H6831 and H614), a Borrelia (genus)-specific antiflagellin antibody (H9724), Borrelia hermsii-specific antibodies (H9826 and H4825), and two polyclonal antibodies (one to Borrelia species and another to B. burgdorferi). Six of the isolates were analyzed by exposing Western blots to monoclonal antibodies H5332, H3TS, H6831, and H9724. All isolates were also analyzed by PCR with five pairs of primers known to amplify selected DNA target sequences specifically reported to be present in the reference strain, B. burgdorferi B-31. The protein profiles of six of the isolates (two from ticks, one from a cotton mouse, two from wood rats, and one from a cotton rat) also were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We conclude that the 28 Charleston isolates are B. burgdorferi sensu stricto based on their similarities to the B. burgdorferi B-31 reference strain.  (+info)

(4/948) Analysis of falling mortality rates in Edinburgh and Glasgow.

BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to describe and interpret trends in mortality in Glasgow and Edinburgh METHODS: A comparison was made between observed all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for 1989-1993 for men and women aged 35-74 and rates predicted on the basis of modelled mortality data for residents of Glasgow and Edinburgh aged 25-74 in quinquennia based on Census years 1961, 1971 and 1981. RESULTS: All-cause mortality rates fell between 1979-1983 and 1989-1993 by a larger amount in Edinburgh than in Glasgow (24.5 versus 14.5 per cent in men; 20.4 versus 10.5 per cent in women). Differences in life expectancy between the cities at age 35 increased by 44 per cent to 4.7 years in men and by 19 per cent to 2.5 years in women. Mortality rates improved in all age and sex groups but trends were least favourable in Edinburgh men and women aged 35-44. Mortality rates in both cities fell by a larger amount than predicted, by 10 per cent in men and 6 per cent in women. CONCLUSIONS: The widening of differences in life expectancy between Glasgow and Edinburgh is mainly due to a historical trend of longevity increasing more quickly in Edinburgh. Although precise explanations are not possible, it seems likely that this difference between the cities is explained in large measure by their consistently and markedly contrasting socio-economic profiles. Comparison of the cities conceals, however, a trend of falling mortality rates in both populations, comprising most of the observed reduction in mortality rates in Glasgow, which appears to result in part from factors operating in the short term. Interpretation of trends in cause-specific mortality rates needs to take account of the possibility of long-term and short-term trends in all-cause mortality in different social groups.  (+info)

(5/948) An international comparison of cancer survival: relatively poor areas of Toronto, Ontario and three US metropolitan areas.

BACKGROUND: This study of cancer survival compared adults in Toronto, Ontario and three US metropolitan areas: Seattle, Washington; San Francisco, California; and Hartford, Connecticut. It examined whether socioeconomic status has a differential effect on cancer survival in Canada and the United States. METHODS: The Ontario Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End RESULTS: (SEER) programme provided a total of 23,437 and 37,329 population-based primary malignant cancer cases for the Toronto and US samples, respectively (1986-1988, followed until 1994). Census-based measures of socioeconomic status were used to ecologically control absolute income status. RESULTS: Among residents of low-income areas, persons in Toronto experienced a 5 year survival advantage for 13 of 15 cancer sites [minimally one gender significant at 95 per cent confidence interval (CI)]. An aggregate 35 per cent survival advantage among the Canadian cohort was demonstrated (survival rate ratio (SRR) = 1.35, 95 per cent CI= 1.30-1.40), and this effect was even larger among younger patients not yet eligible for Medicare coverage in the United States (SRR = 1.46, 95 per cent CI = 1.40-1.52). CONCLUSION: Systematically replicating a previous Toronto-Detroit comparison, this study's observed consistent pattern of Canadian survival advantage across various cancer sites suggests that their more equitable access to preventive and therapeutic health care services may be responsible for the difference.  (+info)

(6/948) An explanation of the persistent doctor-mortality association.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to explain the persistent but puzzling positive correlation of physicians per capita and mortality rates, when income is controlled, which has been reported many times since it was first observed in 1978. The explanation that is proposed and tested is that expanding urban-industrial regions attract an oversupply of doctors. Also, but independently, rural people migrate to urban-industrial areas where they suffer from the stress of adapting to urban-industrial life. Consequently, their death rates rise. SOURCE MATERIAL: Using data from the 47 Japanese prefectures, the 3000+ counties of the USA and a set of 29 mostly European countries, the explanation was examined by adding the appropriate test variable to a basic equation linking physicians per capita to mortality, net of income. RESULTS: The test variables dissolved or reduced the original correlation in two of the three samples, but the signs did not change from positive to negative, as would be expected on the basis of conventional biomedical theory. The available test variable (refugees) did not reduce the correlation for the 29 countries but a particular subset of countries was identified that did. CONCLUSION: The conceptual and empirical analysis exposed the positive correlation as spurious, but the availability of medical specialists had little impact on mortality rates in competition with the social and economic variables that were used as controls.  (+info)

(7/948) Microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the adult population of 4 municipalities in eastern Finland.

To determine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the adult population of a defined area, specific antibody responses in paired serum samples, levels of circulating pneumococcal immune complexes in serum samples, and pneumococcal antigen in urine were measured. Samples (304 paired serum samples and 300 acute urine samples) were obtained from 345 patients > or =15 years old with community-acquired, radiologically confirmed pneumonia, which comprised all cases in the population of 4 municipalities in eastern Finland during 1 year. Specific infecting organisms were identified in 183 patients (including 49 with mixed infection), as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae, 125 patients; Haemophilus influenzae, 12; Moraxella catarrhalis, 8; chlamydiae, 37 (of which, Chlamydia pneumoniae, 30); Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 30; and virus species, 27. The proportion of patients with pneumococcal infections increased and of those with Mycoplasma infections decreased with age, but for each age group, the etiologic profile was similar among inpatients and among outpatients. S. pneumoniae was the most important etiologic agent. The annual incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia per 1000 inhabitants aged > or =60 years was 8.0.  (+info)

(8/948) Fine particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration patterns in Roxbury, Massachusetts: a community-based GIS analysis.

Given an elevated prevalence of respiratory disease and density of pollution sources, residents of Roxbury, Massachusetts, have been interested in better understanding their exposures to air pollution. To determine whether local transportation sources contribute significantly to exposures, we conducted a community-based pilot investigation to measure concentrations of fine particulate matter (particulate matter < 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roxbury in the summer of 1999. Community members carried portable monitors on the streets in a 1-mile radius around a large bus terminal to create a geographic information system (GIS) map of concentrations and gathered data on site characteristics that could predict ambient concentrations. Both PM(2.5) and PAH concentrations were greater during morning rush hours and on weekdays. In linear mixed-effects regressions controlling for temporal autocorrelation, PAH concentrations were significantly higher with closer proximity to the bus terminal (p < 0.05), and both pollutants were elevated, but not statistically significantly so, on bus routes. Regressions on a subset of measurements for which detailed site characteristics were gathered showed higher concentrations of both pollutants on roads reported to have heavy bus traffic. Although a more comprehensive monitoring protocol would be needed to develop robust predictive functions for air pollution, our study demonstrates that pollution patterns in an urban area can be characterized with limited monitoring equipment and that university-community partnerships can yield relevant exposure information.  (+info)



Minh City


  • In Vietnam, Visitors can take Route 1 from the capital city of Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), traveling along the coast and exploring smaller, scenic villages along the way. (baltimoresun.com)