Chylous Ascites: Presence of milky lymph (CHYLE) in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, with or without infection.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Chylothorax: The presence of chyle in the thoracic cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)Peritoneovenous Shunt: An operation for the continuous emptying of ascitic fluid into the venous system. Fluid removal is based on intraperitoneal and intrathoracic superior vena cava pressure differentials and is performed via a pressure-sensitive one-way valve connected to a tube traversing the subcutaneous tissue of the chest wall to the neck where it enters the internal jugular vein and terminates in the superior vena cava. It is used in the treatment of intractable ascites.Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Pericardiectomy: Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.Lymphangiomyoma: A tumorlike condition characterized by SMOOTH MUSCLE and ENDOTHELIUM proliferation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS and LYMPH NODES in the MEDIASTINUM and retroperitoneum, also in the lung. It may be manifested by chylous PLEURAL EFFUSION and ASCITES.Lymphangiectasis, Intestinal: Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.Jejunostomy: Surgical formation of an opening through the ABDOMINAL WALL into the JEJUNUM, usually for enteral hyperalimentation.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Choledochal Cyst: A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
ChylothoraxParenteral nutrition: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals.Hennekam syndrome: Hennekam syndrome also known as Hennekam lymphangiectasia–lymphedema syndrome and intestinal lymphagiectasia–lymphedema–mental retardation syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder consisting of intestinal lymphangiectasia, facial anomalies, peripheral lymphedema, and mild to moderate levels of growth and intellectual disability.JejunostomyConstrictive pericarditisEpiploic appendagitis: Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is an uncommon, benign, non-surgical, self-limiting inflammatory process of the epiploic appendices. Other, older terms for the process include appendicitis epiploica and appendagitis, but these terms are used less now in order to avoid confusion with acute appendicitis.Drainage system (agriculture): An agricultural drainage system is a system by which the water level on or in the soil is controlled to enhance agricultural crop production.
(1/60) Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.
A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed. (+info)
(2/60) Octreotide therapy: a new horizon in treatment of iatrogenic chyloperitoneum.
Chyloperitoneum is a rare and challenging complication of abdominal surgery. We report a case of iatrogenic chyloperitoneum. Infusion of octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, together with total parenteral nutrition followed by medium chain triglyceride diet resulted in rapid resolution of chyloperitoneum. We believe this to be the first report of successful use of octreotide in iatrogenic chyloperitoneum in a child. (+info)
(3/60) Chylous ascites following abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy. Management with total parenteral hyperalimentation.
Chylous ascites may follow operative injury to retroperitoneal lymphatics. When possible, early reoperation has been advised. This report describes a patient with chylous ascites following emergency abdominal aortic aneurysmectomy. Because the patient was not a candidate for reoperation, total parenteral hyperalimentation was employed in management. This approach resulted in a successful outcome. (+info)
(4/60) Right ventricular cardiomyopathy accompanied by protein-losing enteropathy and chylous effusion.
Severe right-side heart failure developed in a 47-year-old Japanese woman who suffered from hypoalbuminemia and a massive right side chylous pleural effusion. She had been diagnosed as having protein-losing enteropathy with right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Autopsy showed congenital anomalies of the lymph ducts and abnormal deposition of fibrous and fatty tissue in the right ventricular myocardium. The clinical and pathological findings are consistent with the nonarrythmogenic form of the arrythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. (+info)
(5/60) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after thoracic duct ligation and leakage.
A case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was induced through immunosuppression following thoracic duct ligation. The patient initially presented with an esophageal adenocarcinoma, which was totally resected. She is human immunodeficiency virus-negative and not undergoing immunosuppressive treatment. (+info)
(6/60) Treatment of symptomatic primary chylous disorders.
PURPOSE: Primary chylous disorders (PCDs) are rare. Rupture of dilated lymph vessels (lymphangiectasia) may result in chylous ascites, chylothorax, or leakage of chyle through chylocutanous fistulas in the lower limbs or genitalia. Chyle may reflux through incompetent lymphatics, causing lymphedema. To assess the efficacy of surgical treatment, we reviewed our experience. METHODS: The clinical data of 35 patients with PCDs treated between January 1, 1976, and August 31, 2000, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen men and 20 women (mean age, 29 years; range, 1 day-81 years) presented with PCDs. Sixteen (46%) patients had chylous ascites, and 19 (54%) had chylothorax (20 patients), and of these, 10 (29%) had both. In 16 patients, reflux of chyle into the pelvic or lower limb lymphatics caused lymphedema (14, 88%) or lymphatic leak through cutaneous fistulae (11, 69%). Presenting symptoms included lower-limb edema (19, 54%), dyspnea (17, 49%), scrotal or labial edema (15, 43%), or abdominal distention (13, 37%). Primary lymphangiectasia presented alone in 23 patients (66%), and it was associated with clinical syndromes or additional pathologic findings in 12 (yellow nail syndrome in 4, lymphangiomyomatosis in 3, unknown in 3, Prasad syndrome (hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphadenopathy, and pulmonary insufficiency) in 1, and thoracic duct cyst in 1). Twenty-one (60%) patients underwent 26 surgical procedures. Preoperative imaging included computed tomography scan in 15 patients, magnetic resonance imaging in 3, lymphoscintigraphy in 12, and lymphangiography in 14. Fifteen patients underwent 18 procedures for chylous ascites or pelvic reflux. Ten (56%) procedures were resection of retroperitoneal/mesenteric lymphatics with or without sclerotherapy of lymphatics, 4 (22%) were lymphovenous anastomoses or grafts, 3 (17%) were peritoneovenous shunts, and 1 (6%) patient had a hysterectomy. Six patients underwent eight procedures for chylothorax, including thoracotomy with decortication and pleurodesis (4 procedures), thoracoscopic decortication (1 patient), ligation of thoracic duct (2 procedures), and resection of thoracic duct cyst (1 patient). Postoperative mean follow-up was 54 months (range, 0.3-276). Early complications included wound infections in 3 patients, elevated liver enzymes in 1, and peritoneovenous shunt occlusion with innominate vein occlusion in 1. All patients improved initially, but four (19%) had recurrence of symptoms at a mean of 25 months (range, 1-43). Three patients had postoperative lymphoscintigraphy confirming improved lymphatic transport and diminished reflux. One patient died 12 years postoperatively, from causes unrelated to PCD. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the patients with PCDs require surgical treatment, and surgery should be considered in patients with significant symptoms of PCD. Lymphangiography is recommended to determine anatomy and the site of the lymphatic leak, especially if lymphovenous grafting is planned. All patients had initial benefit postoperatively and two thirds of patients demonstrated durable clinical improvement after surgical treatment. (+info)
(7/60) Isolated foetal ascites.
The prenatal diagnosis and perinatal outcome of two patients with isolated foetal ascites compatible with chyloperitoneum is described. The foetal ascites resolved spontaneously after delivery with good perinatal outcome in both cases. A good prognosis can be anticipated in such cases. Antepartum and intrapartum interventions are seldom necessary. (+info)
(8/60) Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia associated with chylous pleural and peritoneal effusion in a cat.
A 6-year-old, castrated male shorthair was evaluated for chylous effusion in the thorax and abdomen. An underlying disease process was not determined. The cat developed hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, which was attributed to the mechanical drainage of pleural fluid and to the decreased urinary excretion of potassium. (+info)