Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.United StatesDiet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Hospitals, Chronic Disease: Hospitals which provide care to patients with long-term illnesses.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Anthroposophy: Knowledge of the nature of man. A spiritual and mystical doctrine that grew out of theosophy and derives mainly from the philosophy of Rudolph Steiner, Austrian social philosopher (1861-1925). (Webster, 3d ed)Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Diet Therapy: By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Continuity of Patient Care: Health care provided on a continuing basis from the initial contact, following the patient through all phases of medical care.Hepcidins: Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Preventive Medicine: A medical specialty primarily concerned with prevention of disease (PRIMARY PREVENTION) and the promotion and preservation of health in the individual.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.BrazilHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Polypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.AlaskaQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Northwestern United States: The geographic area of the northwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Advanced Practice Nursing: Evidence-based nursing, midwifery and healthcare grounded in research and scholarship. Practitioners include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Inuits: Inuktitut-speakers generally associated with the northern polar region.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.SyriaEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Primary Nursing: The primary responsibility of one nurse for the planning, evaluation, and care of a patient throughout the course of illness, convalescence, and recovery.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.MexicoAlcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)ArthritisUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Biomedical Technology: The application of technology to the solution of medical problems.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Hawaii: A group of islands in Polynesia, in the north central Pacific Ocean, comprising eight major and 114 minor islands, largely volcanic and coral. Its capital is Honolulu. It was first reached by Polynesians about 500 A.D. It was discovered and named the Sandwich Islands in 1778 by Captain Cook. The islands were united under the rule of King Kamehameha 1795-1819 and requested annexation to the United States in 1893 when a provisional government was set up. Hawaii was established as a territory in 1900 and admitted as a state in 1959. The name is from the Polynesian Owhyhii, place of the gods, with reference to the two volcanoes Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, regarded as the abode of the gods. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p493 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p2330)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.GermanySocial Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Ablation Techniques: Removal of tissue by vaporization, abrasion, or destruction. Methods used include heating tissue by hot liquids or microwave thermal heating, freezing (CRYOABLATION), chemical ablation, and photoablation with LASERS.Patient Care Management: Generating, planning, organizing, and administering medical and nursing care and services for patients.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Slow Virus Diseases: Diseases of viral origin, characterized by incubation periods of months to years, insidious onset of clinical manifestations, and protracted clinical course. Though the disease process is protracted, viral multiplication may not be unusually slow. Conventional viruses produce slow virus diseases such as SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL), and AIDS. Diseases produced by unconventional agents were originally considered part of this group. They are now called PRION DISEASES.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Mental Fatigue: A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.Office Management: Planning, organizing, and administering activities in an office.Insurance Claim Review: Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.IsraelNorthern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

*  Evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in chronic disease.

... has accumulated in recent decades concerning the significance of physical activity in the treatment of a number of diseases, ... heart and pulmonary diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, ... For each disease, we review the effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis, on symptoms specific to the diagnosis, on ... Physical Therapy Treatment for Chronic Pelvic Pain. PPT Version , PDF Version. *Anne Tiedemann. Prevention of Falls in Old Age ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/evidence-for-prescribing-exercise-as-therapy-in-chronic-disease-1135236.html

*  Chronic Disease Statistics & Industry Data

Find the latest Chronic Disease statistics and market data by country & year. The best datasets from the best open data sources ... Key Chronic Disease Indicators. * Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Prevalence Percentage of individuals in a population ... Latest Chronic Disease Statistics. * Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease And Bronchiectasis Days in Denmark. 2001 to 2016 • ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease And Bronchiectasis Per 100 000 Population in Denmark. 2001 to 2016 • Per 100 000 ...
https://reportlinker.com/data/sector/7ba19d664a3a83b4

*  WHO | Engaging with the Private Sector on Chronic Disease Risks

The Global Chronic Disease Burden. Chronic diseases are now the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Noncommunicable ... Most developing countries simply do not have the resources to deal with the growing burden of chronic disease on top of their ... And Africa is the only one of our six regions where infectious diseases still dominate - for our other five regions, chronic ... Engaging with the Private Sector on Chronic Disease Risks. WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health between ...
who.int/dg/brundtland/speeches/2003/ceoroundtable/en/

*  Estimation of traditional food intake in indigenous communities in Denendeh and the Yukon.

Chronic non-communicable diseases related to excessive or unbalanced dietary intakes are on the rise among some Indigenous ... OBJECTIVES: Chronic non-communicable diseases related to excessive or unbalanced dietary intakes are on the rise among some ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Estimation-traditional-food-intake-in/15776992.html

*  WHO | World Health Organization launches new initiative to address the health needs of a rapidly ageing population

Alzheimer's disease and other ageing-associated mental health conditions, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ... Older people already account for a sizeable proportion of PHC centre patients and as populations age and chronic disease rates ... Population ageing is characteristically accompanied by an increase in the burden of chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) ... the burden of chronic diseases will increase. To help tackle the public health implications of ageing, the World Health ...
who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2004/pr60/en/

*  Unspecified Non-communicable Diseases in Jamaica: Has the Time Come to Unravel this Label? | Open Access Journals

... for the first time in Jamaica unspecified chronic Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) became greater (26.3%) than the listed NCDs ... Cardiovascular disease; Cerebrovascular disease; Chronic non-communicable disease; Unspecified chronic condition; Jamaica ... Globally, cardiovascular diseases (i.e., stroke, hypertension and ischaemic heart diseases), cancers, chronic respiratory ... Globally, most of the human deaths are due to chronic noncommunicable diseases such as stroke, heart diseases, hypertension, ...
https://omicsonline.org/open-access/unspecified-noncommunicable-diseases-in-jamaica-has-the-time-come-to-unravel-this-label-2329-891X.1000138.php?aid=26749

*  Caregiver Stress: The Impact of Chronic Disease on the Family | Doctors Hospital

The Impact of Chronic Disease on the Family at Doctors Hospital of Augusta A chronic condition is a problem that lasts for a ... A chronic condition is a problem that lasts for a long time or one that will never go away, such as Parkinson's disease, AIDS, ... Living with a chronic condition-and caring for a person with a chronic condition-can lead to physical and emotional stress. The ... cancer, or Alzheimer's disease. With the growth of our aging population, many more people will be touched by chronic conditions ...
doctors-hospital.net/hl/?/74397/

*  Elizabeth Thiele | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst

Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's ... Common risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among older adults in China, Ghana, Mexico, India, Russia and South ... Models of Disease (MoD) Boot Camp Three-week course for clinical fellows starting basic/translational postdoctoral research. ... An enrichment program for PhD students on the fundamentals of human biology & disease. ...
https://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Person/63909

*  Preventing Chronic Disease | Perceived Benefits and Challenges of Coordinated Approaches to Chronic Disease Prevention in State...

The purpose of this study was to inform transitions to coordinated chronic disease prevention by learning views on perceived ... Chronic disease prevention efforts have historically been funded categorically according to disease or risk factor. Federal ... Workshop on Chronic Disease Program Integration March 29-30, 2006. Atlanta (GA): National Association of Chronic Disease ... Cardiovascular Disease. Cancer. Chronic Lung Disease. Diabetes. Cirrhosis. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Neurologic Disorders. ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2014/13_0350.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: September 2011 Cover

Available in Portable Document Format (PDF). You will need Acrobat Reader (a free application) to view and print this document. Be advised that download times for print-quality images can be significant.. Cover illustration by Kristen Immoor. ...
https://cdc.gov/PCD/issues/covers/2011_sep.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2010: 09 0180

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(4):A78. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/jul/09_0180.htm. Accessed [date]. ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/jul/09_0180.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: January 2006: 05 0136

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Indicators for chronic disease surveillance. MMWR 2004;3(No. RR-11):1-120. ... The release of Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance (22) provides a comprehensive and recommended set of measures for ... Indicators for Chronic Disease Surveillance, and community-specific selections drawn from local stakeholder priorities and ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jan/05_0136.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2006: 05 0085

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... The first two objectives are consistent with the model of chronic disease management described by Wagner et al (6), which ... within the framework of chronic disease management), then the success of programs such as A New DAWN may increase the ... we developed A New DAWN as a culturally appropriate program that incorporates salient aspects of the chronic disease model (6 ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2006/jul/05_0085.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: May 2010: 10 0035a

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/may/10_0035a.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: November 2010: 10 0104

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(6):A119. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/nov/10_0104.htm. Accessed [date]. ... Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(6). http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/nov/10_0082.htm. ... Prev Chronic Dis 2010;7(6). http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/nov/10_0088.htm. ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/nov/10_0104.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2009: 09 0013

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... chronic diseases. Global Health 2006;2:4.. *Pekka P, Pirjo P, Ulla U. Influencing public nutrition for non-communicable disease ... Haemer et al (19) in this issue of Preventing Chronic Disease, explore in greater detail the biological risk regulators of ... Training should include not only the knowledge base of obesity and chronic disease prevention in general but also methodologic ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/jul/09_0013.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2009: 09 0011

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... If epigenetic modifications that increase risk for obesity and chronic diseases occur widely in humans, the implications for ... may provide insight into epigenetic mechanisms of obesity and chronic disease (58). ... Barker DJ, Eriksson JG, Fors n T, Osmond C. Fetal origins of adult disease: strength of effects and biological basis. Int J ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009/jul/09_0011.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2008: 07 0101

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... One of the outcomes of stress caused by cultural or environmental changes is a drastically increased risk of chronic diseases ... More research is needed to better define the relationship between chronic disease and caregiver burden in American Samoa. ... I put 2 Snickers in my pocket! I joke to myself by saying, 'This is what my disease likes.' If not, I go with a package of ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jul/07_0101.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: April 2004: 03 0032

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Conference on Chronic Disease Prevention and Control in St. Louis, Mo, February 17-19, 2003, and the Centers for Disease ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) defines skin cancer as a disease in which abnormal cells divide uncontrollably in the outer ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2004/apr/03_0032.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2008: 07 0265

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Suggested citation for this article: Biruk C. Global perspectives on health promotion effectiveness [book review]. Prev Chronic ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jul/07_0265.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: October 2008: 08 0060

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Corresponding Author: Jill A. McDonald, PhD, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease ... covered a range of reproductive and chronic disease indicators, including data on prepregnancy, prenatal, and birth experiences ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. QuickStats: percentage of all live births by cesarean delivery - National Vital ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/oct/08_0060.htm

*  Preventing Chronic Disease: July 2007: 07 0121

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. United States ... Because of an editing error, the references in the article From Heart Health Promotion to Chronic Disease Prevention: ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for ...
https://cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2007/jul/07_0121.htm

*  Advances in managing chronic disease | The BMJ

Just as chronic disease control has developed into a distinct discipline in public health, so chronic disease management is ... Chronic diseases have been around as long as humans. But now, in most industrialised nations and in many developing countries, ... Advances in managing chronic disease Research, performance measurement, and quality improvement are key ... The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a leading American philanthropic institution, has already designated chronic disease care ...
bmj.com/content/320/7234/525

*  WHO | STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance

STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Vanuatu has conducted a national STEPS survey in 2011. ...
who.int/chp/steps/vanuatu/en/

*  Midlife Fitness Keeps Chronic Disease at Bay

... they decreased their chances of developing chronic diseases-congestive heart failure, Alzheimer disease, and colon cancer- ... Midlife Fitness Keeps Chronic Disease at Bay. Being physically during midlife not only helps extend lifespan, but it also ... However, it previously had been unknown just how much fitness might affect the burden of chronic disease in the most senior ... with more-fit individuals living their final 5 years of life with fewer chronic diseases. The effects were the same in both men ...
apta.org/PTinMotion/NewsNow/2012/8/28/MidlifeFitnessStudy/?blogmonth=7&blogday=31&blogyear=2013&blogid=10737418615

Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Disease management (health): Disease management is defined as "a system of coordinated healthcare interventions and communications for populations with conditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant."Care Continuum Alliance.Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Halfdan T. MahlerHeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:High-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.Telecare: Telecare is the term for offering remote care of elderly and physically less able people, providing the care and reassurance needed to allow them to remain living in their own homes. The use of sensors may be part of a package which can provide support for people with illnesses such as dementia, or people at risk of falling.Fort Grey TB HospitalVegetable juiceComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Global Health Delivery ProjectAmerican Eurythmy School: The American Eurythmy School is a four-year eurythmy training in Weed, California, near Mount Shasta.Rundbrief def Sektion für redende und musizierende Künste (Newsletter of the Section for Speech and Music), Goetheanum, Dornach, no.Fruit snack: A fruit snack is a processed food eaten as a snack in the United States. Fruit snacks are very similar to gummi candies.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Multiple disabilitiesPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Australian National BL classAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.AnemiaOnline patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.HypertensionChronic disease in Northern OntarioList of U.S. states by life expectancy: This article presents a list of United States states sorted by their life expectancy at birth and by race/ethnicity in every state where the population of that racial or ethnic group is sufficiently large for robust estimates. The data is taken from the Measure of America's third national human development report, The Measure of America 2013–2014 width="25%" align="center" |ESCAIDESwiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Open Fuel Standard Coalition: The Open Fuel Standard Coalition is a bipartisan group in the United States actively working for passage of H.R.Eco-Runner Team Delft: Eco-Runner Team DelftOutline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Transitional care: Transitional care refers to the coordination and continuity of health care during a movement from one healthcare setting to either another or to home, called care transition, between health care practitioners and settings as their condition and care needs change during the course of a chronic or acute illness. Older adults who suffer from a variety of health conditions often need health care services in different settings to meet their many needs.Instruments used in preventive medicine: Instruments used specially in preventive medicine are as follows:Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.Effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: In some individuals, the effect of oxygen on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is to cause increased carbon dioxide retention, which may cause drowsiness, headaches, and in severe cases lack of respiration, which may lead to death. People with lung ailments or with central respiratory depression, who receive supplemental oxygen, require careful monitoring.Geomelophagia: Geomelophagia is an unusual pica (medical eating disorder) See in iron-deficiency anemia] and is characterized by abnormal ingestion of raw [[potatoes. See Google books link.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Standard evaluation frameworkRelative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Vibe Australia: Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. Located in Darlinghurst, Sydney, New South Wales, they work with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people throughout Australia.University of CampinasBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Polypharmacy: thumbMortality rate: Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time. Mortality rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 1,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 9.List of nature centers in Alaska: This is a list of nature centers and environmental education centers in the state of Alaska.Phyllodoce empetriformis: Phyllodoce empetriformis, the pink mountain-heather or pink mountain-heath, is found in mountainous regions of western North America in the Northwestern United States and Western Canada. Its southern range includes the Klamath Range in northern California and Oregon.Inflammation: Inflammation (Latin, [is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogen]s, damaged cells, or irritants.Morbidity and mortality conference: Morbidity and mortality}}Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).

(1/24046) Rational sequence of tests for pancreatic function.

Of 144 patients with suspected pancreatic disease in whom a 75Se-selenomethionine scan was performed, endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) was successful in 108 (75%). The final diagnosis is known in 100 patients and has been compared with scan and ERP findings. A normal scan reliably indicated a normal pancreas, but the scan was falsely abnormal in 30%. ERP distinguished between carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis in 84% of cases but was falsely normal in five patients with pancreatic disease. In extrahepatic biliary disease both tests tended to give falsely abnormal results. A sequence of tests to provide a rapid and reliable assessment of pancreatic function should be a radio-isotope scan, followed by ERP if the results of the scan are abnormal, and a Lundh test if the scan is abnormal but the findings on ERP are normal.  (+info)

(2/24046) Enhanced Th1 activity and development of chronic enterocolitis in mice devoid of Stat3 in macrophages and neutrophils.

We have generated mice with a cell type-specific disruption of the Stat3 gene in macrophages and neutrophils. The mutant mice are highly susceptible to endotoxin shock with increased production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-1, IFN gamma, and IL-6. Endotoxin-induced production of inflammatory cytokines is augmented because the suppressive effects of IL-10 on inflammatory cytokine production from macrophages and neutrophils are completely abolished. The mice show a polarized immune response toward the Th1 type and develop chronic enterocolitis with age. Taken together, Stat3 plays a critical role in deactivation of macrophages and neutrophils mainly exerted by IL-10.  (+info)

(3/24046) Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of aggressive correction when patients do not experience an optimal functional result, or have a progressive worsening of their status. CONCLUSIONS: Although occasionally a major undertaking, reconstruction of ileoanal pouches with progressive dysfunction due to large size or a long efferent limb has resulted in marked improvement in intestinal function in >93% of patients and has reduced the need for late pouch removal.  (+info)

(4/24046) Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection.  (+info)

(5/24046) In vitro induction of activation-induced cell death in lymphocytes from chronic periodontal lesions by exogenous Fas ligand.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which gradually destroys the supporting tissues of the teeth, leading to tooth loss in adults. The lesions are characterized by a persistence of inflammatory cells in gingival and periodontal connective tissues. To understand what mechanisms are involved in the establishment of chronic lesions, we hypothesized that infiltrating lymphocytes might be resistant to apoptosis. However, both Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL were weakly detected in lymphocytes from the lesions, compared with those from peripheral blood, suggesting that these cells are susceptible to apoptosis. Nevertheless, very few apoptotic cells were observed in tissue sections from the lesions. Lymphocytes from the lesions expressed mRNA encoding Fas, whereas Fas-ligand mRNA was very weakly expressed in lymphocytes from the lesions and in periodontal tissues. Since the results indicated that lymphocytes in the lesions might be susceptible to Fas-mediated apoptosis but lack the death signal, we next investigated if these lymphocytes actually undergo apoptosis by the addition of anti-Fas antibodies in vitro. Fas-positive lymphocytes from the lesions underwent apoptosis by these antibodies, but Fas-negative lymphocytes and Fas-positive peripheral lymphocytes did not undergo apoptosis by these antibodies. These results indicate that lymphocytes in the lesions are susceptible to activation-induced cell death and are induced to die by apoptosis after the addition of exogenous Fas ligand.  (+info)

(6/24046) The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection.

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

(7/24046) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and quality of life.

The quality of life (QOL) of 79 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 37 non-diabetic controls was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The NHP consists of six domains assessing energy, sleep, pain, physical mobility, emotional reactions and social isolation. Symptomatic diabetic neuropathy was present in 41 of the patients. The neuropathy patients had significantly higher scores (impaired QOL) in 5/6 NHP domains than either the other diabetic patients (p < 0.01) or the non-diabetic (p < 0.001) controls. These were: emotional reaction, energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep. The diabetic patients without neuropathy also had significantly impaired QOL for 4/6 NHP domains compared with the non-diabetic control group (p < 0.05) (energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep). This quantification of the detrimental effect on QOL of diabetes, and in particular of chronic symptomatic peripheral diabetic neuropathy, emphasizes the need for further research into effective management of these patients.  (+info)

(8/24046) Reliability of information on physical activity and other chronic disease risk factors among US women aged 40 years or older.

Data on chronic disease risk behaviors and related variables, including barriers to and attitudes toward physical activity, are lacking for women of some racial/ethnic groups. A test-retest study was conducted from July 1996 through June 1997 among US women (n = 199) aged 40 years or more who were white, black, American Indian/Alaska Native, or Hispanic. The sample was selected and interviews were conducted using a modified version of the methods of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. For behavioral risk factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and low fruit and vegetable consumption, group prevalences were generally similar between interviews 1 and 2. However, kappa values for selected physical activity variables ranged from 0.26 to 0.51 and tended to be lower for black women. Discordance was low for variables on cigarette smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (kappa = 0.64-0.92). Discordance was high (kappa = 0.33) for low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Additional variables for barriers to and access to exercise ranged widely across racial/ethnic groups and in terms of measures of agreement. These methods illustrate an efficient way to sample and assess the reliability of data collected from women of racial/ethnic minority groups.  (+info)



diabetes


  • 16.7% have diabetes and chronic respiratory disease, and 33.2% have arthritis. (omicsonline.org)

participants


  • For individuals in the HARP program, two peer educators with SMI and one or more chronic medical condition will lead a six-session, six-week manualized intervention, which helps participants become more effective managers of their chronic illnesses. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Participants learn or enhance their problem-solving and decision-making skills which enable them to confront the ever-changing challenges of living with a chronic disease. (niagaracounty.com)

illness


  • The purpose of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is to obtain information about the amount and distribution of illness, its effects in terms of disability and chronic impairments, and the kinds of health services people receive. (umich.edu)
  • With funding from an R34 intervention development grant from NIMH, the study team has developed and piloted a modified version of the most widely tested and used peer-led self management program, the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), for persons with serious mental illness. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Follow-up interviews and chart reviews at 3 months, 6 months and one year will assess changes in clinical outcomes, improvement in generic and disease-specific measures of illness self-management, and quality of care. (clinicaltrials.gov)

condition


  • A total of 400 individuals with serious mental illnesses and one or more chronic medical condition will be recruited from three diverse community mental health clinics in the Atlanta metro region and randomized to the HARP program or usual care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is a six-session health education program for people with any type of ongoing health condition and compliments the healthcare that an individual may already be receiving. (niagaracounty.com)

health


  • Conclusion: This study provides the framework for a better understanding of those with unspecified chronic conditions and offers policy makers and others pertinent health information and insights that can be used to conceptualize new treatment options. (omicsonline.org)
  • In general populations, peer-led disease self-management interventions have been demonstrated to be feasible, effective, scalable, and to lead to sustainable improvements in self-management and health outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)