Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Receptors, Purinergic P2Y1: A subclass of purinergic P2Y receptors that have a preference for ATP and ADP. The activated P2Y1 receptor signals through the G-PROTEIN-coupled activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE C and mobilization of intracellular CALCIUM.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Abnormalities, MultiplePolytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Sex Chromosome Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

*  EvC Forum: bluegenes and mindspawn: The human Y-chromosome falsification of YEC.

EvC Forum ⇒ Side Orders ⇒ The Great Debate ⇒ bluegenes and mindspawn: The human Y-chromosome falsification of YEC. ... here's a thirteen generation pedigree study which gives us some idea of the human Y-chromosome base substitution rate.. Human Y ... I will show that modern humans have far too much genetic diversity for this model to be correct. We will look at Y-chromosome ... The non-recombining area is ~95% of the total chromosome.". That would be about 300 for the entire chromosome. ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Huge study on Y-chromosome variation in Iran (Grugni et al. 2012)

Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... This is not the case for any Y-chromosome haplogroups.. I would add R1b and we basically see that the migrations, north of the ... Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians. Viola Grugni et al. ... Labels Arabs, Armenians, Assyrian, BMAC, Central Asia, Indo-European, Iranian, J1, J2, Kurds, Near East, R1a, R1b, Y chromosome ...

*  An investigation of 10 Y-STR loci and the detection of specific haplotype frequencies in Turkish population

On the combined use of slow and fast evolving polymorphic markers on the human Y chromosome. The American Journal of Human ... Evidence from Y chromosome polymorphisms. Annals of Human Genetics, 58, 251-263. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1994.tb01889.x ... Rodig, H., Grum, M. and Grimmecke, H.-D. (2007) Population study and evaluation of 20 Y-chromosome STR loci in Germans. ... Jobling, M.A., Pandya, A. and Tyler-Smith, C. (1997) The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing. International ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: World map of Y-chromosome haplogroups

Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... The invention of boats need not be much before humans reached Australia, although it is extremely likely humans used some sort ... But thiose civilizations appeared long after humans had reached Australia, and even after humans had occupied all the ... Ancient Y-chromosome studies. Ancient Scripts World Atlas of Language Structures. Ethnologue. Haplogroup predictor. PhyloTree. ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Y chromosome haplogroup I and rapid HIV progression

Human Genetics doi:10.1007/s00439-008-0620-7. Association of Y chromosome haplogroup I with HIV progression, and HAART outcome ... Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... Ancient Y-chromosome studies. Ancient Scripts World Atlas of Language Structures. Ethnologue. Haplogroup predictor. PhyloTree. ... A timeline of human prehistory. The womb of nations: how West Eurasians came to be. Model-Based Clustering of World ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Origin and dispersal of Y chromosome haplogroup C (Zhong et al. 2010)

Journal of Human Genetics doi: 10.1038/jhg.2010.40. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric ... 2001, 'Maori Origins, Y-Chromosome Haplotypes and Implications for Human History in the Pacific'). 23/54 = 42.6% C2-M38. 1/54 ... Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... Ancient Y-chromosome studies. Ancient Scripts World Atlas of Language Structures. Ethnologue. Haplogroup predictor. PhyloTree. ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: 12/2005

Both mtDNA and the Y chromosome have been used to investigate how modern humans dispersed within and out of Africa. This issue ... the primary goals for studies of genetic variation in humans are to make inferences about human evolutionary history, human ... These chromosomes all belonged to the J2-M172 clade of the Y-chromosome phylogeny, and in the latest phylogenetic revisions, ... American Journal of Human Genetics (preprint). An ancient, balanced polymorphism in a regulatory region of human MHC is ...

*  Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Deep structure in Y-chromosome phylogeny (Scozzari et al. 2012)

Molecular Dissection of the Basal Clades in the Human Y Chromosome Phylogenetic Tree Rosaria Scozzari et al. One hundred and ... It is also interesting to note that the geographical origin of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny (NW Africa) is discordant with ... It is also interesting to note that the geographical origin of the human Y-chromosome phylogeny (NW Africa) is discordant with ... Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ...

*  Human Y chromosome much older than previously thought | EurekAlert! Science News

... of an extremely rare African American Y chromosome push back the time of the most recent common ancestor for the Y chromosome ... This time predates the age of the oldest known anatomically modern human fossils. ... Unlike the other human chromosomes, the majority of the Y chromosome does not exchange genetic material with other chromosomes ... Human Y chromosome much older than previously thought. University of Arizona. Journal. American Journal of Human Genetics. ...

*  Rare Human Y Chromosome Is More than 300,000 Years Old - Archaeology Magazine

... of Arizona have identified an extremely rare Y chromosome that they say is the oldest-known branch of the human Y chromosome ... before the appearance of modern humans in the fossil record. This particular Y chromosome came from an African-American man ... His Y chromosome was eventually matched with 11 men from western Cameroon. "And the sequences of those individuals are variable ... and that some of these may further increase the age of the Y chromosome tree," he added. ...

*  The Human Chromosome 14

This is the very first version of the Home page for The Human Chromosome 14 Annotation. We plan to improve and update it ... This is the entry point for the updated data for the Human Chromosome 14 Annotation, published as an Advanced Online ... The other participating groups in the Chromosome 14 Project include the Institute for Systems Biology (Seattle, Washington, USA ...

*  Cows with human chromosomes enlisted to fight hantavirus | Science | AAAS

Researchers have genetically engineered cows to produce human antibodies against the deadly hantavirus and possibly other ... Creating human antibodies in an animal model is no small feat. Scientists combined parts of human chromosome 14 and human ... Cows with human chromosomes enlisted to fight hantavirus. By David Shultz. Nov. 26, 2014 , 2:00 PM. ... The work is preliminary and needs to be tested in people, but the team calls it a "proof-of-concept" that human antibodies can ...

*  DNA-rainbow, A New Vision of Human Chromosomes - Slashdot

... assigned different colors to the DNA and rendered images showing interesting patterns and strange structures of our chromosomes ... Two scientists have rendered amazing pictures using datafiles from the human genome project. They ... DNA-rainbow, A New Vision of Human Chromosomes 161 Posted by samzenpus on Thursday February 08, 2007 @03:21AM. from the ... DNA-rainbow, A New Vision of Human Chromosomes. Archived Discussion. Load All Comments ...

*  Human Chromosomes - AMA Manual of Style

Human chromosomes are numbered from largest to smallest from 1 to 22. There are 2 additional chromosomes, X and Y. The numbered ... Formalized standard nomenclature for human chromosomes dates from 1960 and, since 1978, has been known as the International ... System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). Material in this section is based on recommendations in ISCN 2005. Earlier ... Chromosomes are dark-staining, threadlike structures in the cell nucleus composed of DNA and chromatin that carry genetic ...

*  Case Westerners Construct First Artificial Human Chromosomes | BioWorld

BioWorld Online is the news service of record for the biotechnology industry and is updated every business morning. BioWorld Online will keep you up to date on all of the industry's business, science and regulatory news -- mergers and collaborations, FDA hearings and results, breakthroughs in research and much more.

*  Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes | Diabetes

Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes. Jorge Ferrer, Jonathon Wasson, Kathleen D Schoor, Michael Mueckler, ... Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes. Jorge Ferrer, Jonathon Wasson, Kathleen D Schoor, Michael Mueckler, ... Mapping Novel Pancreatic Islet Genes to Human Chromosomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ... Sequencetagged sites developed from 19 islet cDNAs were used to map these genes to human chromosomes using a combination of ...

*  Chromosomes] Human Chromosome Two: Evidence of First-degree Consanguity in Human Evolution

Chromosomes] Human Chromosome Two: Evidence of First-degree Consanguity in Human Evolution. drjamielove At yahoo.com via ... of genes on human chromosome two as compared with the genes on other chromosomes (assuming that, after the consanguity, the ... The Robertsonsian fusion that formed human chromosome number two (from ancestral 2A and 2B, as it is preserved in the other ... No aneuploidy of human #2 (p or q or all) has ever survived. I cannot imagine a scenario in which this fusion (2a and 2b) could ...

*  The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.

Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains numerous intrachromosomal duplications, yet it has one of the ... The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5.. Schmutz J., Martin J., Terry A., Couronne O., Grimwood J., ... These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and probably have a mechanistic role in human physiological variation, ... We also completely sequenced versions of the large chromosome-5-specific internal duplications. ...

*  More DNA Evidence Against Human Chromosome Fusion | The Institute for Creation Research

1 This supposedly explains the difference in chromosome numbers between humans and great apes-humans have 46 chromosomes, while ... Gene content and function of the ancestral chromosome fusion site in human chromosome 2q13-2q14.1 and paralogous regions. ... "chromosome 2 fusion." This story proposes that in a common ancestor shared by humans and chimps, two small chromosomes somehow ... The chromosome 2 fusion model of human evolution-part 2: re-analysis of the genomic data. Journal of Creation. 25 (2): 111-117. ...

*  Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.

Human chromosome 2 is unique to the human lineage in being the product of a head-to-head fusion of two intermediate-sized ... Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4.. Hillier L.W., Graves T.A., Fulton R.S., Fulton L. ... Here we present approximately 237 million base pairs of sequence for chromosome 2, and 186 million base pairs for chromosome 4 ... Chromosome 4 has received attention primarily related to the search for the Huntington's disease gene, but also for genes ...

*  Watching dynamic coordination in the molecular factories that copy chromosomes | Human Frontier Science Program

Watching dynamic coordination in the molecular factories that copy chromosomes. The dynamic events that underlie chromosome ... Fundamental to this process is the duplication of chromosomes, which depends on many distinct enzymes within large protein ... What is HFSP? A short film on the mission of the Human Frontier Science Program ... chromosomal DNA is separated from bound factors and unwound to generate templates for the synthesis of daughter chromosomes. A ...

*  Localization of MODY3 to a 5-cM Region of Human Chromosome 12 | Diabetes

Mutations in an unknown locus (MODY1) on chromosome 20 and the glucokinase gene (MODY2) on chromosome 7 can cause this form of ... Localization of MODY3 to a 5-cM Region of Human Chromosome 12. ... Localization of MODY3 to a 5-cM Region of Human Chromosome 12 ... Localization of MODY3 to a 5-cM Region of Human Chromosome 12 ... Localization of MODY3 to a 5-cM Region of Human Chromosome 12 ... Recent genetic studies have identified a third locus on chromosome 12 (MODY3) that is linked to MODY in a group of French ...

*  Antibody-based Protein Profiling of the Human Chromosome 21

The Human Proteome Project has been proposed to create a knowledge-based resource based on a systematical mapping of all human ... A chromosome-wide matrix is presented with status for all chromosome 21 genes regarding subcellular localization, tissue ... chromosome by chromosome, in a gene-centric manner. With this background, we here describe the systematic analysis of ... The analysis has identified several genes on chromosome 21 with no previous evidence on the protein level, and the isoform ...

*  Commissione europea : CORDIS : Progetti e risultati : Physical mapping of the short arm of human chromosome 16

Physical mapping of the short arm of human chromosome 16. Project ID: CIPD940408. Finanziato nell'ambito di: IC-PECO/COPERNICUS ... Physical mapping of the short arm of human chromosome 16. Dal 1995-06-01 al 1997-03-31 ... a physical and transcriptional map of the short arm of human chromosome 16. The work will continue to build on the results ... By combining our efforts we expect not only to complete a physical map of the short arm of chromosome 16 but also to identify ...

*  Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission - To prepare human chromosomes for viewing Figure 32a

To prepare human chromosomes for viewing (Figure 3.2a): Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. The cells ... Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission from BIO 325 at University of Texas. ... Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission General Features of Chromosomes General info Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission ... Unformatted text preview: To prepare human chromosomes for viewing (Figure 3.2a): Somatic cells are obtained from the blood. ...

Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Chromosome regionsSmith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Genetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Immortal DNA strand hypothesis: The immortal DNA strand hypothesis was proposed in 1975 by John Cairns as a mechanism for adult stem cells to minimize mutations in their genomes.Cairns, J.Transient neonatal diabetes mellitusGenetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Ring chromosome: A ring chromosome is a chromosome whose arms have fused together to form a ring. Ring chromosomes were first discovered by Lilian Vaughan Morgan in 1926.John Payne ToddColes PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.CentromereOncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.CP 55,940Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary - About.com, a part of The New York Times Company.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Trisomy 9PCDHY: PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males which competes with FOXP2 for the title of the "language gene." PCDH11Y is the gene for making Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.Kinetochore: The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Telomere: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.Ogre (2008 film): Ogre is a 2008 American television horror film directed by Steven R. Monroe.Chromo shadow domain: In molecular biology, the chromo shadow domain is a protein domain which is distantly related to the chromodomain. It is always found in association with a chromodomain.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Satellite DNA: Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin.

(1/870) Chromosome abnormalities in sperm from infertile men with asthenoteratozoospermia.

Research over the past few years has clearly demonstrated that infertile men have an increased frequency of chromosome abnormalities in their sperm. These studies have been further corroborated by an increased frequency of chromosome abnormalities in newborns and fetuses from pregnancies established by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Most studies have considered men with any type of infertility. However, it is possible that some types of infertility have an increased risk of sperm chromosome abnormalities, whereas others do not. We studied 10 men with a specific type of infertility, asthenozoospermia (poor motility), by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to determine whether they had an increased frequency of disomy for chromosomes 13, 21, XX, YY, and XY, as well as diploidy. The patients ranged in age from 28 to 42 yr (mean 34.1 yr); they were compared with 18 normal control donors whose ages ranged from 23 to 58 yr (mean 35.6 yr). A total of 201 416 sperm were analyzed in the men with asthenozoospermia, with a minimum of 10 000 sperm analyzed per chromosome probe per donor. There was a significant increase in the frequency of disomy in men with asthenozoospermia compared with controls for chromosomes 13 and XX. Thus, this study indicates that infertile men with poorly motile sperm but normal concentration have a significantly increased frequency of sperm chromosome abnormalities.  (+info)

(2/870) Alpha-satellite DNA and vector composition influence rates of human artificial chromosome formation.

Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) have been proposed as a new class of potential gene transfer and gene therapy vector. HACs can be formed when bacterial cloning vectors containing alpha-satellite DNA are transfected into cultured human cells. We have compared the HAC-forming potential of different sequences to identify features critical to the efficiency of the process. Chromosome 17 or 21 alpha-satellite arrays are highly competent HAC-forming substrates in this assay. In contrast, a Y-chromosome-derived alpha-satellite sequence is inefficient, suggesting that centromere specification is at least partly dependent on DNA sequence. The length of the input array is also an important determinant, as reduction of the chromosome-17-based array from 80 kb to 35 kb reduced the frequency of HAC formation. In addition to the alpha-satellite component, vector composition also influenced HAC formation rates, size, and copy number. The data presented here have a significant impact on the design of future HAC vectors that have potential to be developed for therapeutic applications and as tools for investigating human chromosome structure and function.  (+info)

(3/870) Genetic follow-up of male offspring born by ICSI, using a multiplex fluorescent PCR-based test for Yq deletions.

De-novo deletions involving AZFa, b, c and d are one of the most common chromosomal aberrations in man resulting in defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Currently, Yq deletion screening involves either single or multiplex PCR using Y-specific sequence tagged site markers and the subsequent analysis of the amplification products on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. To improve the practicality of routine and high throughput Yq testing, we have developed a more sensitive multiplex fluorescent (FL)-PCR screening system using genomic DNA extracted from cheek buccal cells as a readily available PCR template. For genetic follow-up studies of ICSI-conceived children, we also developed a DNA fingerprinting system based on the co-amplification of four highly polymorphic markers to validate family samples and detect any potential extraneous DNA contamination that could cause a misdiagnosis. Multiplex FL-PCR analysis of buccal cell DNA from two infertile men who conceived three sons by ICSI demonstrated that their Yq deletions were vertically transmitted. Fine mapping with additional Yq markers revealed identical deletion endpoints involving the loss of AZFdc sequences. This firstly indicates that the extent of the Yq deletion was unchanged on ICSI transmission and secondly supports the view that AZFdc deletions may arise by a common de-novo event. Analysis of paternal, maternal and sibling DNA fingerprints showed the co-inheritance of parental alleles by each male child and confirmed the expected relationship between each family member. The application of these new FL-PCR based screening tests in genetic follow-up studies will assist in confirming transmission of specific genetic defects to male offspring conceived by ICSI and provide a basis for genetic counselling and potential treatment options as these boys approach sexual maturity.  (+info)

(4/870) Transmission of male infertility to future generations: lessons from the Y chromosome.

The introduction of ICSI and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) has allowed many infertile men to father children. The biggest concern about the wide use of these techniques is the health of the resulting offspring, in particular their fertility status. If the spermatogenic defect is genetic in origin, there is potential risk of transmitting this defect to future offspring. The most frequently documented genetic cause of male infertility is a Y chromosome deletion. The Y chromosome has acquired a large number of testis-specific genes during recent evolution, and deletions causing infertility take out a number of these genes. These deletions have been shown to be transmitted to 100% of male offspring. Also, absence of an aberration on the Y chromosome does not rule out a genetic cause of the infertility phenotype, as there are many other genes involved in spermatogenesis elsewhere in the genome, and current mapping techniques--especially on the Y chromosome--can miss many aberrations. More detailed studies of these spermatogenesis genes, which are now possible because of more precise sequence-based mapping, will lead to improved understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility and enable proper counselling of patients undergoing ICSI in the future.  (+info)

(5/870) Microdeletions in the Y chromosome of patients with idiopathic azoospermia.

AIM: To evaluate the occurrence and prevalence of microdeletions in the gamma chromosome of patients with azoospermia. METHODS: DNA from 29 men with idiopathic azoospermia was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with a set of gamma chromosome specific sequence-tagged sites (STSs) to determine microdeletions in the gamma chromosome. RESULTS: Deletions in the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) loci sgamma254 and sgamma255 were found in three patients with idiopathic azoospermia, resulting in an estimated frequency of deletions of 10.7% in idiopathic azoospermia men. CONCLUSION: We conclude that PCR analysis is useful for the diagnosis of microdeletions in the Y chromosome, which is important when deciding the suitability of a patient for assisted reproductive technology such as testicular sperm extracion-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI).  (+info)

(6/870) Sperm aneuploidy rates in younger and older men.

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the possible risk of chromosomal abnormalities in offspring from older fathers, we investigated the effects of age on the frequency of chromosomal aneuploidy rates of human sperm. METHODS AND RESULTS: Semen samples were collected from 15 men aged <30 years (24.8 +/- 2.4 years) and from eight men aged >60 years (65.3 +/- 3.9 years) from the general population. No significant differences in ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm morphology were found, whereas sperm motility was significantly lower in older men (P = 0.002). For the hormone values, only FSH was significantly elevated in the older men (P = 0.004). Multicolour fluorescence in-situ hybridization was used to determine the aneuploidy frequencies of two autosomes (9 and 18); and of both sex chromosomes using directly labelled satellite DNA probes on decondensed sperm nuclei. A minimum of 8000 sperm per donor and >330 000 sperm in total were evaluated. The disomy rates per analysed chromosomes were 0.1-2.3% in younger men and 0.1-1.8% in older men. The aneuploidy rate determined for both sex chromosomes and for the autosomes 9 and 18 were not significantly different between the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that men of advanced age still wanting to become fathers do not have a significantly higher risk of procreating offspring with chromosomal abnormalities compared with younger men.  (+info)

(7/870) Achievement of pregnancy in globozoospermia with Y chromosome microdeletion after ICSI.

Pregnancy achieved with sperm from a patient with globozoospermia is rare, even after ICSI, since the activation of the oocyte may not occur in this disorder. Therefore, activation of the oocytes by piezoelectricity or calcium ionophores has been suggested, although spontaneous activation of the oocyte after ICSI has been reported in some cases. We report a successful pregnancy in a couple in which the male partner had globozoospermia with microdeletions in the Y chromosome with no further assisted activation after ICSI. During the diagnostic study of the husband, increased numerical chromosome abnormalities after fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microdeletions in AZFa; sY86 and AZFb; sY 131 were detected. Out of the 13 oocytes injected, four fertilized and a twin pregnancy was obtained after replacement of four embryos. Healthy twin girls were delivered after a term pregnancy. Some patients with globozoospermia may also have Y chromosome microdeletions, which subsequently may be inherited by the male offspring in cases of achievement of pregnancy.  (+info)

(8/870) Y-chromosome microdeletions and cytogenetic findings in unselected ICSI candidates at a Danish fertility clinic.

PURPOSE: To determine the frequency and type of microdeletions on the Y chromosome, and to evaluate cytogenetic findings in unselected ICSI candidates at a Danish Fertility Clinic. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples, which were collected prospectively from 400 ICSI candidates attending the Fertility Clinic at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-five sequence tagged sites (STSs) spanning the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions of the Y chromosome were amplified in 5 multiplex sets to investigate Y microdeletions. Semen analysis, karyotype analysis, and histological evaluation of testicular biopsies were also performed. RESULTS: Y microdeletions were detected in 3 (0.75%) of 400 unselected ICSI candidates. The frequency of Y microdeletions was found higher in azoospermic men (2%) than in oligozoospermic men (0.6%). Two patients having oligozoospermia had Y microdeletions in the AZFc region only, whereas the patient having azoospermia had Y microdeletions spanning the AZFb and AZFc regions. No microdeletion was detected in the AZFa region. Chromosomal anomalies were found in 6.1% of azoospermic men and in 2.7% of oligozoospermic men. A high frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities was found in normozoospermic men with fertilization failure (7.4%). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of Y microdeletions both in the unselected ICSI candidates and subgroups classified as azoospermic and oligozoospermic seems rather low compared to results of previous studies, which have been quite varying. It is possible that in addition to patient selection criteria, ethnical and geographical differences may contribute to these variations. Cytogenetic evaluation of normozoospermic men with fertilization failure seems indicated because of a high frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities.  (+info)



segregation

  • Defects in chromosome segregation play a critical role in producing genomic instability and aneuploidy, which are associated with congenital diseases and carcinogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Here we investigate whether human primary fibroblasts exhibit similar errors in chromosome segregation and if at least part of lagging chromosomes may arise in cells entering anaphase in the presence of mono-oriented chromosomes. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, our results demonstrate that the mitotic checkpoint efficiently prevents the possible aneuploid burden due to mono-oriented chromosomes and that merotelic kinetochore orientation is a major limitation for accurate chromosome segregation and a potentially important mechanism of aneuploidy in human cells. (biologists.org)
  • It is generally accepted that most aneuploid fetal conditions, such as trisomy 21 Down syndrome, are due to maternal chromosome segregation errors. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It is also clear that superimposed on the maternal meiotic chromosome segregation errors, there are a large number of mitotic errors taking place post-zygotically during the first few cell divisions in the embryo. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • In this chapter, we summarise current knowledge of errors in chromosome segregation during oogenesis and early embryogenesis, with special reference to the clinical implications for successful assisted reproduction. (warwick.ac.uk)

aneuploidy in human

  • 16. Dyban A, Freidine M, Severova E, Cieslak J, Ivakhnenko V, Verlinsky Y. Detection of aneuploidy in human oocytes and corresponding first polar bodies by fluorescent in situ hybridization. (warwick.ac.uk)

abnormalities

  • An increasing number of studies have shown that abnormalities such as aneuploidy and whole-chromosome loss of heterozygosity are commonly present in tumor cells. (biologists.org)

recombination

  • If one of the sex chromosomes carries a sex-determining region with at least two loci that should be linked together, selection favours the process of preventing sex chromosomes from recombination [ 1 , 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In turn, the lack of recombination leads to degeneration of the chromosome that is present only in one sex. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recombination, which is the process of swapping bits of genetic material between a pair of chromosomes during the formation of eggs or sperm, is essential to maintaining genetic identity between X and Y. Without it, the two chromosomes would diverge into completely distinct forms. (abc.net.au)
  • Page and Lahn say differentiation between the two chromosomes could have occurred only after recombination between the X-Y genes was suppressed. (abc.net.au)
  • The crucial events, including meiotic chromosome pairing and recombination, take place from around 11 weeks until birth. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • 4. Tease C, Hartshorne G, Hultén M. Altered patterns of meiotic recombination in human fetal oocytes with asynapsis and/or synaptonemal complex fragmentation at pachytene. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Patterns of meiotic recombination in human fetal oocytes. (warwick.ac.uk)

evolutionary

  • We found no support for the view that W chromosomes gradually become smaller over evolutionary time. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Parallel to what is observed in Y, the W chromosome in birds and snakes also seems to have degenerated over evolutionary time scales. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Researchers at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute have found that the X and Y chromosomes evolved from a standard identical pair around 300 million years ago - shortly after the divergence of the evolutionary lines leading to mammals and birds. (abc.net.au)
  • 19 genes shared between the X and Y served as the "fossils" that helped Lahn and Page to reconstruct the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes. (abc.net.au)

differentiation

  • Number of germ cells and somatic cells in human fetal ovaries during the first weeks after sex differentiation. (warwick.ac.uk)

mitotic

  • By using in situ hybridization with alphoid probes to chromosome 7 and 11 we showed that loss of a single sister is much more frequent than loss of both sisters from the same chromosome in anatelophases from human primary fibroblasts released from a nocodazole-induced mitotic arrest, as predicted from merotelic orientation of single kinetochores. (biologists.org)
  • Kinetochores of lagging chromosomes in anaphase human cells were found to be devoid of the mitotic checkpoint phosphoepitopes recognized by the 3F3/2 antibody, suggesting that they attached kinetochore microtubules prior to anaphase onset. (biologists.org)
  • Mitotic chromosome malsegregation produces aneuploidy and genome instability. (biologists.org)
  • Hence, the activation of the mitotic checkpoint prevents the unbalanced distribution of chromosomes during mitosis and the production of aneuploid cells. (biologists.org)

investigate

  • Further studies are now needed to investigate how chromosome morphology relates to its gene content, and whether the changes in size were driven by selection. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

birds

  • Recent discoveries of near-identical palindromes and neo-sex chromosomes in birds may also contribute to the observed variation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

distinct

  • Meiotic chromosome development during oogenesis is subdivided into three distinct phases. (warwick.ac.uk)

gene

  • First the researchers compared the locations of the 19 fossil gene pairs on the human X and Y chromosomes. (abc.net.au)

found

  • The X chromosome was found to have four groups of genes physically arranged as four consecutive blocks, like the layers of rock in geological strata. (abc.net.au)

least

  • The first events that created the sex chromosomes had been thought to have occurred at least 170 million years ago," says researcher Dr David Page. (abc.net.au)

appear

  • Most likely this suppression was the result of a series of chromosomal inversions on the Y chromosome, which would also explain why the genes appear to be in order on the X but scrambled on the Y," Page explains. (abc.net.au)
  • Live cell imaging of H2B histone-GFP-transfected cells showed that cells with mono-oriented chromosomes never enter anaphase and that lagging chromosomes appear during anaphase after chromosome alignment occurs during metaphase. (biologists.org)

events

  • By fossil digging on the sex chromosomes, we were able to reconstruct the four events that drove sex chromosomes into their distinctive X and Y forms, and to date when these events occurred during evolution," says Lahn. (abc.net.au)
  • The reconstruction of the defining events of human sex-chromosome evolution is analogous to the reconstruction of the evolution of species, except that we are looking at changes of a pair of chromosomes over geologic time rather than changes of whole organisms," says Lahn. (abc.net.au)
  • Extreme heterogeneity in the molecular events leading to the establishment of chiasmata during meiosis in human oocytes. (warwick.ac.uk)

time

  • On the contrary, the length of the W chromosome can fluctuate over short time scales, probably involving both shortening and elongation of non-coding regions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Page and colleague Dr Bruce Lahn reconstructed the stages of sex chromosome evolution, and the time course over which these chromosomes were built. (abc.net.au)

thought

  • The evolution of sex chromosome dimorphism (SCD) is generally thought to follow a repeatable pattern. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

presence

  • The presence of these X-Y genes reinforces the idea that the Y chromosome developed from an X-like ancestor. (abc.net.au)

changes

  • Here, we analysed karyotypes of 200 bird species to test whether the supposed directional changes occur in bird sex chromosomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

Science

  • Research published in this week's Science reveals that the Y chromosome developed from an X-like ancestor around 300 million years ago. (abc.net.au)

length

  • Each piece of the chromosomes that inverted added to the length of DNA that could no longer align and recombine. (abc.net.au)