Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Anisakis: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Animals, LaboratoryDNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Abnormalities, MultipleDNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Dagestan: One of the former Associated Soviet Socialist Republics, situated on the Caspian Sea in southwest Russia.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Esocidae: A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Pachytene Stage: The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromosomes, Artificial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, elements such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, that are required for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance in progeny cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Setariasis: Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Euchromatin: Chromosome regions that are loosely packaged and more accessible to RNA polymerases than HETEROCHROMATIN. These regions also stain differentially in CHROMOSOME BANDING preparations.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.

*  Chromosome 2 (human) - Wikipedia
... and Denisovans have 24 pairs of chromosomes. Humans have only 23 pairs of chromosomes. Human chromosome 2 is a result of an end ... The closest human relative, the chimpanzee, has near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two ... 1991). "Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere-telomere fusion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88 (20): 9051-5. ... Human and Ape Chromosomes; accessed 8 September 2007. Avarello; et al. (1992). "Evidence for an ancestral alphoid domain on the ...
*  Replication timing - Wikipedia
Figure 4 shows an example of such a profile across 70,000,000 base pairs of human Chromosome 2. At present, very little is ... Chromosome Res 18: 115-125. Taylor JH (1960) Asynchronous duplication of chromosomes in cultured cells of Chinese hamster. J ... whereas all the other pairs of chromosomes replicate in the same temporal pattern. It was also noticed by Mary Lyon that the ... Chromosome Res 18: 127-136. Schwaiger M, Stadler MB, Bell O, Kohler H, Oakeley EJ, et al. (2009) Chromatin state marks cell- ...
*  Refinement of the critical 2p25.3 deletion region - Danish National Research Database-Den Danske Forskningsdatabase
Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Child; Child, Preschool; Chromosome Deletion; Chromosome Mapping; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2; ... PURPOSE: Submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 2p25.3 are associated with intellectual disability and/or central obesity ... Cohort Studies; Facies; Female; Gene Duplication; Gene Expression; Genetic Association Studies; Humans; Intellectual Disability ...
*  PPT - Classification of Living Things Chapter 18 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:101674
Humans have 1 larger chromosome pair (#2) they don't have.. Human: ... Human chromosome is only human chromosome that has telomere sequences at the ends BUT ALSO IN THE MIDDLE . . . suggesting it ... the banding pattern is identical to human chromosome #2 ... All chromosomes have special sequences called TELOMERES at ... Chromosome #2 has a second inactive centromere region . . .. suggesting it was made by joining two other chromosomes together. ...
*  Vampire | Twilight Saga Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia
They are immortal beings who feed and survive on the blood of humans or animals. Vampires are one of the four known ... Vampires carry 25 pairs of chromosomes, 2 chromosomes more than humans. Carlisle reveals this in Breaking Dawn while telling ... Transformation from human to vampire is described as being "the sharpest memory they have of their human life." Once a human is ... or a human with a deep value for human life becoming a vampire with the strength to avoid human blood. ...
*  Mendelian inheritance - Wikipedia
For human gametes, with 23 pairs of chromosomes, the number of possibilities is 223 or 8,388,608 possible combinations.[8] The ... Of the 46 chromosomes in a normal diploid human cell, half are maternally derived (from the mother's egg) and half are ... zygote will normally end up with 23 chromosomes pairs, but the origin of any particular chromosome will be randomly selected ... Mendel also found that each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during gamete formation. ...
*  Midterm 2 Flashcards by MONICA RUIZ-SOSA | Brainscape
Humans typically have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) with 44 autosomes (22 pairs) and 2 sex chromosomes (1 pair). ... Base pairs:. -Guanine forms a base pair with cytosine -Adenine forms a base pair with thymine (in RNA, thymine is replaced with ... X chromosome is much larger than Y chromosome.. • In 46:XX females, one X chromosome is shut down in 10-49% of her diploid ... A chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.. • Occurs when a single chromosome ...
*  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha - Q9UKJ1 (PILRA HUMAN)
Chromosome Location * chr7:99971067- 99997722 (+) (NM_013439) * chr7:99971067- 99997722 (+) (NM_178272) ... Paired receptors consist of highly related activating and inhibitory receptors and are widely involved in the regulation of the ... Contains 2 copies of a cytoplasmic motif that is referred to as the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitor motif (ITIM). This ... Interacts with PTPN6/SHP-1 and PTPN11/SHP-2 upon tyrosine phosphorylation. Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein B ...
*  FABP1 - Wikipedia
The human FABP1 gene is located on the short (p) arm of chromosome 2 from base pair 88,122,982 to base pair 88,128,131. FABP1 ... FABP1 is a human gene coding for the protein product FABP1 (Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 1). It is also frequently known as liver ... Chan L, Wei CF, Li WH, Yang CY, Ratner P, Pownall H, Gotto AM, Smith LC (March 1985). "Human liver fatty acid binding protein ... On exon 3 of the human FABP1 gene an Ala to Thr substitution has been identified leading to a T94A missense mutation. Carriers ...
*  A meta-analysis of four European genome screens (GIFT Consortium) shows evidence for a novel region on chromosome 17p11.2-q22...
This meta-analysis has led to identification of a novel region on chromosome 17 linked to type 2 diabetes; this region has not ... with the strongest evidence on chromosome 17p11.2-q22 (P=0.0016), followed by 2p22.1-p13.2 (P=0.027), 1p13.1-q22 (P=0.028), ... These included the Botnia I and Botnia II scans, with respectively 58 and 353 pedigrees from Finland and Sweden, the Warren 2 ... To improve our ability to detect and prioritize chromosomal regions containing type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes, the GIFT ...
*  Recursivity: Stephen Meyer's Bogus Information Theory
Chimpanzees have 24 pairs of chromosomes (total 48), not 22 pairs. In the human genome, 1 pair of human chromosomes used to be ... Humans have 46 chromosomes but chimps have 44. This means that the human parent would contribute 23 and the monkey momma would ... p. 16: 'What humans recognize as information certainly originates from thought - from conscious or intelligent human activity ... human design work and human problem-solving in general is an evolutionary process. Nothing in the history of human technology ...
*  The Human Genome and Karyotype Flashcards by Joel Glotfelty | Brainscape
Study The Human Genome and Karyotype flashcards from Joel Glotfelty ... Characterized as having a normal number of chromosomes: 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes ... How many base pairs of DNA do humans have in each somatic cell of our bodies? ... associated with chromosomes. It is inherited solely from the mother in humans ...
*  Her-2 immunohistochemical expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas is associated with polysomy of chromosome 17, not Her-2...
Based on the prognostic role of Her-2 amplification and protein overexpression in breast cancer, various studies have been ... Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics*. Female. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In ... Previous Document: Phosphocreatine recovery overshoot after high intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle is associa.... ... Protein expression was evaluated immunochistochemically with CB11 mouse monoclonal anti-human antibody. The reaction was ...
*  Research Faculty - Last Initial D - Wake Forest School of Medicine
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Subcutaneous Fat ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Apolipoproteins; Lipoproteins, HDL; African Americans; Kidney Diseases Academic: 336-716-5778. ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Insulin Resistance; Anthracyclines; Head and Neck Neoplasms ...
*  Page 8: Religion thread : General Poker Discussion : Poker Forums at
All members of Hominidae except humans have 24 pairs of chromosomes. Humans have only 23 pairs of chromosomes. Human chromosome ... The closest human relative, the chimpanzee, has near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two ... Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere.. * The presence ... telomere-telomere fusion and marks the point at which two ancestral ape chromosomes fused to give rise to human chromosome 2.. ...
*  Academic Programs Faculty - Last Initial D - Wake Forest School of Medicine
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Insulin ... Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Apolipoproteins; African Americans; Lipoproteins, HDL; Kidney Diseases Academic: 336-716-5778. ... Insulin Resistance; Adipose Tissue; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; ...
*  Biology - Cell Division/Mitosis by james donahue on Prezi
Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. How many chromatids are present during:. G1?. G2?. Interphase. Chromosomes Condense. ... Human - 46. Tobacco - 48. Donkey - 62. Horse - 64. Mule - 63. Eukaryotes have many, linear chromosomes. ... Chromosomes are at metaphase plate.. Spindle attaches to 'kinetochore' of chromosomes at centromere. Chromatids split apart at ... They form in attached, identical pairs.. Chromatid: 1 member of the pair. Centromere: region where they are joined. Chromatids ...
*  Copy of AP Bio- Information 4: Mitosis by Lea Richardson on Prezi
Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes. How many chromatids are present during:. G1?. G2?. Interphase. Chromosomes Condense. ... Chromosomes are at metaphase plate.. Spindle attaches to 'kinetochore' of chromosomes at centromere. Chromatids split apart at ... They form in attached, identical pairs.. Chromatid: 1 member of the pair. Centromere: region where they are joined. Chromatids ... Prokaryotes only have one, circular chromosome.. Eukaryotes have many, linear chromosomes. Most eukaryotic cells have 2 copies ...
*  Cellular Biology Test 2
How many pairs of chromosomes does a human being have?. A. 23. B. 26. C. 46. D. 32. 3. In normal sexual reproduction, two ... A. 1/2. B. 1/3. C. 1/4. D. 1/16. 10. One celled animals are of which phyla?. A. Metazoa. B. Porifera. C. Protozoa. D. Mollusca ... Cellular Biology - Test 2. 1. When carbon dioxide enters a plant cell, it must first interact with the:. A. cell membrane. B. ... 2 Year Colleges. 4 Year Degrees. Trade Schools. Admissions. Online Classes. Certificates. ...
*  Human - Wikipedia
Among the 23 pairs of chromosomes there are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Like other mammals, humans ... Humans have the largest number of eccrine sweat glands among species. The dental formula of humans is: Humans ... Collins, Desmond (1976). The Human Revolution: From Ape to Artist. p. 208. Therman, Eeva (1980). Human Chromosomes: Structure, ... Human body Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology. The human ...
*  Genome project - Wikipedia
... a genome project will aim to map the sequence of that chromosome. For the human species, whose genome includes 22 pairs of ... see Human genome project Humans, Homo sapiens; see The Human Genome Project-Write Palaeo-Eskimo, an ancient-human Neanderthal ... For humans, this will allow us to better understand aspects of human genetic diversity. Many organisms have genome projects ... "Potential Benefits of Human Genome Project Research". Department of Energy, Human Genome Project Information. 2009-10-09. ...
*  FAM49A - Wikipedia
Fam49A is located on human chromosome 2, at 2p24.3. It has 1512 base pairs in the reference sequence mRNA transcript. The ... 2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... Family with sequence similarity 49, member A, also known as FAM49A, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FAM49A gene ... 2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
*  TBR1 - Wikipedia
The human TBR1 gene is located on the q arm of the positive strand of chromosome 2. It is 8,954 base pairs in length. TBR1 is ... "Identification of a novel gene on chromosome 7q11.2 interrupted by a translocation breakpoint in a pair of autistic twins". ... Orthologs of the human TBR1 gene have been identified in chimpanzee, dog, cow, rat, mouse, and zebrafish. In mice, TBR1 has ... It was discovered that Tbr-1 is expressed by postmitotic cortical neurons in mice and in humans. One target gene of TBR1 in the ...
*  M33 (gene) - Wikipedia
... is located on Chromosome 17, from base pair 79,777,188 to base pair 79,787,650(Build GRCh38.p2 )(Map). This protein contains ... from base pair 119,022,962 to base pair 119,031,270 (Build GRCm38/mm10)(Map). Human homolog of M33, Chromobox homolog 2 (CBX2 ... In human ortholog CBX2, synonyms CDCA6, M33, SRXY5 from orthology source HGNC. M33 was isolated by means of the structural ... In humans, the mutations in this gene are also associated with gonadal dysgenesis. Compound heterozygous mutations in M33 were ...
*  Chromosome 20 (human) - Wikipedia
Chromosome 20 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans. Chromosome 20 spans around 63 million base pairs (the building ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 20. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 20. For complete ... "Chromosome 20". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2017-05-06. "Chromosome 20". Human Genome Project Information Archive 1990- ... G-banding ideograms of human chromosome 20 "Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for ...

Premature chromosome condensation: Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) occurs in eukaryotic organisms when mitotic cells fuse with interphase cells. Chromatin, a substance that contains genetic material such as DNA, is normally found in a loose bundle inside a cell's nucleus.Chromosome regionsSmith–Fineman–Myers syndrome: Smith–Fineman–Myers syndrome (SFMS1), also called X-linked mental retardation-hypotonic facies syndrome 1 (MRXHF1), Carpenter–Waziri syndrome, Chudley–Lowry syndrome, SFMS, Holmes–Gang syndrome and Juberg–Marsidi syndrome (JMS), is a rare X-linked recessive congenital disorder that causes birth defects. This syndrome was named after 3 men, Richard D.Genetic imbalance: Genetic imbalance is to describe situation when the genome of a cell or organism has more copies of some genes than other genes due to chromosomal rearrangements or aneuploidy.Circular bacterial chromosome: A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular.Abhay and Rani BangTransient neonatal diabetes mellitusTPCN2: Two pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TPCN2 gene. TPC2 is an ion channel, however, in contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments (S1 to S6), TPCN1 only contains two domain (each containing segments S1 to S6).TCP (antiseptic)Antelope: An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a wastebasket taxon (miscellaneous group) within the family Bovidae, encompassing those Old World species that are not cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, or goats.Genetic linkage: Genetic linkage is the tendency of alleles that are located close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genes whose loci are nearer to each other are less likely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be genetically linked.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Ring chromosome: A ring chromosome is a chromosome whose arms have fused together to form a ring. Ring chromosomes were first discovered by Lilian Vaughan Morgan in 1926.John Payne ToddCentromereOncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.CP 55,940Metaphase: Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase. These chromosomes, carrying genetic information, align in the equator of the cell before being separated into each of the two daughter cells.Bookmarking: Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.Recombination (cosmology): In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.Note that the term recombination is a misnomer, considering that it represents the first time that electrically neutral hydrogen formed.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Microsatellite: A microsatellite is a tract of repetitive DNA in which certain DNA motifs (ranging in length from 2–5 base pairs) are repeated, typically 5-50 times. Microsatellites occur at thousands of locations in the human genome and they are notable for their high mutation rate and high diversity in the population.Pedigree chart: A pedigree chart is a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next,pedigree chart Genealogy Glossary -, a part of The New York Times Company.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Infinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Trisomy 9Kinetochore: The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.Telomere: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) 'end' and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) 'part.Ogre (2008 film): Ogre is a 2008 American television horror film directed by Steven R. Monroe.Thermal cyclerChromo shadow domain: In molecular biology, the chromo shadow domain is a protein domain which is distantly related to the chromodomain. It is always found in association with a chromodomain.Direct repeat: Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence.Spindle apparatus: In cell biology, the spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division. It is also referred to as the mitotic spindle during mitosis, a process that produces genetically identical daughter cells, or the meiotic spindle during meiosis, a process that produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.Molecular evolution: Molecular evolution is a change in the sequence composition of cellular molecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins across generations. The field of molecular evolution uses principles of evolutionary biology and population genetics to explain patterns in these changes.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.

(1/980) Tissue specific expression and chromosomal mapping of a human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1, 4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase.

A human cDNA for UDP- N -acetylglucosamine:alpha1,3-d-mannoside beta1,4- N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT-IV) was isolated from a liver cDNA library using a probe based on a partial cDNA sequence of the bovine GnT-IV. The cDNA encoded a complete sequence of a type II membrane protein of 535 amino acids which is 96% identical to the bovine GnT-IV. Transient expression of the human cDNA in COS7 cells increased total cellular GnT-IV activity 25-fold, demonstrating that this cDNA encodes a functional human GnT-IV. Northern blot analysis of normal tissues indicated that at least five different sizes of mRNA (9.7, 7.6, 5.1, 3.8, and 2.4 kb) forGnT-IV are expressed in vivo. Furthermore, these mRNAs are expressed at different levels between tissues. Large amounts of mRNA were detected in tissues harboring T lineage cells. Also, the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line MOLT-4 revealed abundant mRNA. Lastly, the gene was mapped at the locus on human chromosome 2, band q12 by fluorescent in situ hybridization.  (+info)

(2/980) A common MSH2 mutation in English and North American HNPCC families: origin, phenotypic expression, and sex specific differences in colorectal cancer.

The frequency, origin, and phenotypic expression of a germline MSH2 gene mutation previously identified in seven kindreds with hereditary non-polyposis cancer syndrome (HNPCC) was investigated. The mutation (A-->T at nt943+3) disrupts the 3' splice site of exon 5 leading to the deletion of this exon from MSH2 mRNA and represents the only frequent MSH2 mutation so far reported. Although this mutation was initially detected in four of 33 colorectal cancer families analysed from eastern England, more extensive analysis has reduced the frequency to four of 52 (8%) English HNPCC kindreds analysed. In contrast, the MSH2 mutation was identified in 10 of 20 (50%) separately identified colorectal families from Newfoundland. To investigate the origin of this mutation in colorectal cancer families from England (n=4), Newfoundland (n=10), and the United States (n=3), haplotype analysis using microsatellite markers linked to MSH2 was performed. Within the English and US families there was little evidence for a recent common origin of the MSH2 splice site mutation in most families. In contrast, a common haplotype was identified at the two flanking markers (CA5 and D2S288) in eight of the Newfoundland families. These findings suggested a founder effect within Newfoundland similar to that reported by others for two MLH1 mutations in Finnish HNPCC families. We calculated age related risks of all, colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancers in nt943+3 A-->T MSH2 mutation carriers (n=76) for all patients and for men and women separately. For both sexes combined, the penetrances at age 60 years for all cancers and for colorectal cancer were 0.86 and 0.57, respectively. The risk of colorectal cancer was significantly higher (p<0.01) in males than females (0.63 v 0.30 and 0.84 v 0.44 at ages 50 and 60 years, respectively). For females there was a high risk of endometrial cancer (0.5 at age 60 years) and premenopausal ovarian cancer (0.2 at 50 years). These intersex differences in colorectal cancer risks have implications for screening programmes and for attempts to identify colorectal cancer susceptibility modifiers.  (+info)

(3/980) Familial dilated cardiomyopathy locus maps to chromosome 2q31.

BACKGROUND: Inherited gene defects are an important cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. Although the chromosome locations of some defects and 1 disease gene (actin) have been identified, the genetic etiologies of most cases of familial dilated cardiomyopathy remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We clinically evaluated 3 generations of a kindred with autosomal dominant transmission of dilated cardiomyopathy. Nine surviving and affected individuals had early-onset disease (ventricular chamber dilation during the teenage years and congestive heart failure during the third decade of life). The disease was nonpenetrant in 2 obligate carriers. To identify the causal gene defect, linkage studies were performed. A new dilated cardiomyopathy locus was identified on chromosome 2 between loci GCG and D2S72 (maximum logarithm of odds [LOD] score=4.86 at theta=0). Because the massive gene encoding titin, a cytoskeletal muscle protein, resides in this disease interval, sequences encoding 900 amino acid residues of the cardiac-specific (N2-B) domain were analyzed. Five sequence variants were identified, but none segregated with disease in this family. CONCLUSIONS: A dilated cardiomyopathy locus (designated CMD1G) is located on chromosome 2q31 and causes early-onset congestive heart failure. Although titin remains an intriguing candidate gene for this disorder, a disease-causing mutation is not present in its cardiac-specific N2-B domain.  (+info)

(4/980) Mutations in the nebulin gene associated with autosomal recessive nemaline myopathy.

The congenital nemaline myopathies are rare hereditary muscle disorders characterized by the presence in the muscle fibers of nemaline bodies consisting of proteins derived from the Z disc and thin filament. In a single large Australian family with an autosomal dominant form of nemaline myopathy, the disease is caused by a mutation in the alpha-tropomyosin gene TPM3. The typical form of nemaline myopathy is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, the locus of which we previously assigned to chromosome 2q21.2-q22. We show here that mutations in the nebulin gene located within this region are associated with the disease. The nebulin protein is a giant protein found in the thin filaments of striated muscle. A variety of nebulin isoforms are thought to contribute to the molecular diversity of Z discs. We have studied the 3' end of the 20. 8-kb cDNA encoding the Z disc part of the 800-kDa protein and describe six disease-associated mutations in patients from five families of different ethnic origins. In two families with consanguineous parents, the patients were homozygous for point mutations. In one family with nonconsanguineous parents, the affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for two different mutations, and in two further families with one detected mutation each, haplotypes are compatible with compound heterozygosity. Immunofluorescence studies with antibodies specific to the C-terminal region of nebulin indicate that the mutations may cause protein truncation possibly associated with loss of fiber-type diversity, which may be relevant to disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

(5/980) Cloning, expression, and genetic mapping of Sema W, a member of the semaphorin family.

The semaphorins comprise a large family of membrane-bound and secreted proteins, some of which have been shown to function in axon guidance. We have cloned a transmembrane semaphorin, Sema W, that belongs to the class IV subgroup of the semaphorin family. The mouse and rat forms of Sema W show 97% amino acid sequence identity with each other, and each shows about 91% identity with the human form. The gene for Sema W is divided into 15 exons, up to 4 of which are absent in the human cDNAs that we sequenced. Unlike many other semaphorins, Sema W is expressed at low levels in the developing embryo but was found to be expressed at high levels in the adult central nervous system and lung. Functional studies with purified membrane fractions from COS7 cells transfected with a Sema W expression plasmid showed that Sema W has growth-cone collapse activity against retinal ganglion-cell axons, indicating that vertebrate transmembrane semaphorins, like secreted semaphorins, can collapse growth cones. Genetic mapping of human SEMAW with human/hamster radiation hybrids localized the gene to chromosome 2p13. Genetic mapping of mouse Semaw with mouse/hamster radiation hybrids localized the gene to chromosome 6, and physical mapping placed the gene on bacteria artificial chromosomes carrying microsatellite markers D6Mit70 and D6Mit189. This localization places Semaw within the locus for motor neuron degeneration 2, making it an attractive candidate gene for this disease.  (+info)

(6/980) Autosomal dominant myopathy with proximal weakness and early respiratory muscle involvement maps to chromosome 2q.

Two Swedish families with autosomal dominant myopathy, who also had proximal weakness, early respiratory failure, and characteristic cytoplasmic bodies in the affected muscle biopsies, were screened for linkage by means of the human genome screening set (Cooperative Human Linkage Center Human Screening Set/Weber version 6). Most chromosome regions were completely excluded by linkage analysis (LOD score <-2). Linkage to the chromosomal region 2q24-q31 was established. A maximum combined two-point LOD score of 4.87 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained with marker D2S1245. Haplotype analysis indicated that the gene responsible for the disease is likely to be located in the 17-cM region between markers D2S2384 and D2S364. The affected individuals from these two families share an identical haplotype, which suggests a common origin.  (+info)

(7/980) A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 with a new locus for variant activity of liver aldehyde oxidase.

A genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 9 consisting of five loci including a new biochemical marker representing a genetic variation of the activity of the liver aldehyde oxidase, (Aox) was constructed. Linkage analysis of the five loci among 92 backcross progeny of (WKS/Iar x IS/Iar)F1 x WKS/Iar revealed significant linkages between these loci. Minimizing crossover frequency resulted in the best gene order: Aox-D9Mit4-Gls-Cryg-Tp53l1. The homologues of the Cryg, Gls, and Aox genes have been mapped on mouse chromosome 1 and human chromosome 2q. The present findings provide further evidence for the conservation of synteny among these regions of rat, mouse, and human chromosomes.  (+info)

(8/980) Mismatch repair and differential sensitivity of mouse and human cells to methylating agents.

The long-patch mismatch repair pathway contributes to the cytotoxic effect of methylating agents and loss of this pathway confers tolerance to DNA methylation damage. Two methylation-tolerant mouse cell lines were identified and were shown to be defective in the MSH2 protein by in vitro mismatch repair assay. A normal copy of the human MSH2 gene, introduced by transfer of human chromosome 2, reversed the methylation tolerance. These mismatch repair defective mouse cells together with a fibroblast cell line derived from an MSH2-/- mouse, were all as resistant to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea as repair-defective human cells. Although long-patch mismatch repair-defective human cells were 50- to 100-fold more resistant to methylating agents than repair-proficient cells, loss of the same pathway from mouse cells conferred only a 3-fold increase. This discrepancy was accounted for by the intrinsic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea resistance of normal or transformed mouse cells compared with human cells. The >20-fold differential resistance between mouse and human cells could not be explained by the levels of either DNA methylation damage or the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The resistance of mouse cells to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea was selective and no cross-resistance to unrelated DNA damaging agents was observed. Pathways of apoptosis were apparently intact and functional after exposure to either N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or ultraviolet light. Extracts of mouse cells were found to perform 2-fold less long-patch mismatch repair. The reduced level of mismatch repair may contribute to their lack of sensitivity to DNA methylation damage.  (+info)

  • Homo
  • Homo sapiens remained restricted to Africa and the Middle East until about 60,000 - 70,000 years ago, when a relatively small group of humans departed from eastern Africa across the mouth of the Red Sea and migrated into Asia and Europe. (
  • Modern humans (Homo sapiens, ssp. (
  • Early hominins-particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes-are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. (
  • In common usage, the word "human" generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo-anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. (
  • The previously clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, and Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. (
  • There is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. (
  • Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, and that sapiens is the singular form (while there is no such word as sapien). (
  • The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates. (
  • In Homo sapiens, the CCDC142 gene encodes for two alternatively spliced isoforms of the mRNA, called isoform 1 and isoform 2. (
  • species
  • Vampires are one of the four known supernatural species in the Twilight series, with the others being vampire-human hybrids , true werewolves (also called Children of the Moon), and shapeshifters . (
  • The spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. (
  • Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts. (
  • The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English). (
  • Biologists classify humans, along with only a few other species, as great apes (species in the family Hominidae). (
  • The immunological response of a species to its own antigens (e.g. human to human) was set to be 1. (
  • It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. (
  • Orthologs were found in species as distantly related to Humans as the Choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis using BLAST and the ALIGN tool through the San Diego Super Computer Biology Workbench. (
  • chimps
  • The genetic difference between humans and chimps is less than 2%, or twenty times larger than the variation among modern humans. (
  • The mitochondrial most recent common ancestor of modern humans lived roughly 200,000 years ago[citation needed], latest common ancestors of humans and chimps between four and seven million years ago. (
  • As mentioned above, gene duplications are a major source of differences between human and chimp genetic material, with about 2.7 percent of the genome now representing differences having been produced by gene duplications or deletions during approximately 6 million years since humans and chimps diverged from their common evolutionary ancestor. (
  • receptor
  • PILRA is thought to act as a cellular signaling inhibitory receptor by recruiting cytoplasmic phosphatases like PTPN6 /SHP-1 and PTPN11 /SHP-2 via their SH2 domains that block signal transduction through dephosphorylation of signaling molecules. (
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the LHCG receptor of the ovary and promotes the maintenance of the corpus luteum during the beginning of pregnancy. (
  • Contain
  • These regions contain at least one marker allele that seems unique to the human lineage while the entire chromosomal region shows lower than normal genetic variation. (
  • Another such region on chromosome 4 may contain elements regulating the expression of a nearby protocadherin gene that may be important for brain development and function. (
  • PRP36 is predicted to contain 24 phosphorylation sties in humans, including 14 serine, 9 threonine, and 1 tyrosine site. (
  • Genetics
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (
  • When Mendel's theories were integrated with the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory of inheritance by Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1915, they became the core of classical genetics . (
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan and his assistants later integrated Mendel's theoretical model with the chromosome theory of inheritance, in which the chromosomes of cells were thought to hold the actual hereditary material, and created what is now known as classical genetics , a highly successful foundation which eventually cemented Mendel's place in history. (
  • Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from another human genome, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. (
  • modern humans
  • The origin and migration of modern humans can be documented with reasonable certainty with archeological, linguistic, & molecular genetic analysis. (
  • In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans. (
  • FOXP2
  • One such region on chromosome 7 contains the FOXP2 gene (mentioned above) and this region also includes the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which is important for ion transport in tissues such as the salt-secreting epithelium of sweat glands. (
  • temporal
  • In 1960, J. H. Taylor showed that the active and inactive X chromosomes replicate in a different pattern, with the active X replicating earlier than the inactive X, whereas all the other pairs of chromosomes replicate in the same temporal pattern. (
  • generally
  • Figure 2 shows a cartoon of how this is generally envisioned to occur, while Figure 3 shows an animation of when different segments replicate in one type of human cell. (
  • Isoforms
  • The main difference between the isoforms that isoform 2 has a shorter exon 9 and 3' UTR. (
  • apes
  • The divergence time of humans from other apes is of great interest. (
  • However the distance to six different Old World monkeys was on average 2.46, indicating that the African apes are more closely related to humans than to monkeys. (
  • Approximately
  • Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, increasing numbers of human societies began to practice sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus allowing for the growth of civilization. (
  • genomes
  • An example of such assembler Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package developed by BGI for de novo assembly of human-sized genomes, alignment, SNP detection, resequencing, indel finding, and structural variation analysis. (
  • mice
  • In mice, the official symbol of M33 gene styled Cbx2 and the official name chromobox 2 are maintained by the MGI. (