Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Cholesterol Esters: Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.Cholesterol Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Cholesterol, VLDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). High circulating levels of VLDL cholesterol are found in HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE IIB. The cholesterol on the VLDL is eventually delivered by LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS to the tissues after the catabolism of VLDL to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LDL.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.TriglyceridesHypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases: Enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of alpha-carboxyl group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to yield MEVALONIC ACID.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Hydroxycholesterols: Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Esterification: The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Cholestyramine Resin: A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lovastatin: A fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Aspergillus terreus. The compound is a potent anticholesteremic agent. It inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It also stimulates the production of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver.Mevalonic AcidReceptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Cholestanol: A cholesterol derivative found in human feces, gallstones, eggs, and other biological matter.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).AzetidinesLanosterol: A triterpene that derives from the chair-boat-chair-boat folding of 2,3-oxidosqualene. It is metabolized to CHOLESTEROL and CUCURBITACINS.Androstenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Dehydrocholesterols: Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.Embolism, Cholesterol: Blocking of a blood vessel by CHOLESTEROL-rich atheromatous deposits, generally occurring in the flow from a large artery to small arterial branches. It is also called arterial-arterial embolization or atheroembolism which may be spontaneous or iatrogenic. Patients with spontaneous atheroembolism often have painful, cyanotic digits of acute onset.Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Scavenger Receptors, Class B: A family of scavenger receptors that are predominately localized to CAVEOLAE of the PLASMA MEMBRANE and bind HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Niemann-Pick Diseases: A group of autosomal recessive disorders in which harmful quantities of lipids accumulate in the viscera and the central nervous system. They can be caused by deficiencies of enzyme activities (SPHINGOMYELIN PHOSPHODIESTERASE) or defects in intracellular transport, resulting in the accumulation of SPHINGOMYELINS and CHOLESTEROL. There are various subtypes based on their clinical and genetic differences.Foam Cells: Lipid-laden macrophages originating from monocytes or from smooth muscle cells.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Cholestanetriol 26-Monooxygenase: An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 2: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates GENES involved in CHOLESTEROL synthesis and uptake.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Cholestanes: Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.StigmasterolSqualeneKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Receptors, Lipoprotein: Cell surface proteins that bind lipoproteins with high affinity. Lipoprotein receptors in the liver and peripheral tissues mediate the regulation of plasma and cellular cholesterol metabolism and concentration. The receptors generally recognize the apolipoproteins of the lipoprotein complex, and binding is often a trigger for endocytosis.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Pravastatin: An antilipemic fungal metabolite isolated from cultures of Nocardia autotrophica. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heptanoic Acids: 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Lipoproteins, HDL3: Intermediate-density subclass of the high-density lipoproteins, with particle sizes between 7 to 8 nm. As the larger lighter HDL2 lipoprotein, HDL3 lipoprotein is lipid-rich.Ketocholesterols: Cholesterol substituted in any position by a keto moiety. The 7-keto isomer inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and inhibits cholesterol uptake in the coronary arteries and aorta in vitro.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tangier Disease: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS involved in cellular cholesterol removal (reverse-cholesterol transport). It is characterized by near absence of ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins) in blood. The massive tissue deposition of cholesterol esters results in HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; large orange tonsils; and often sensory POLYNEUROPATHY. The disorder was first found among inhabitants of Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, MD.TritiumOrganosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Triparanol: Antilipemic agent with high ophthalmic toxicity. According to Merck Index, 11th ed, the compound was withdrawn from the market in 1962 because of its association with the formation of irreversible cataracts.Lecithin Acyltransferase Deficiency: An autosomal recessively inherited disorder caused by mutation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that facilitates the esterification of lipoprotein cholesterol and subsequent removal from peripheral tissues to the liver. This defect results in low HDL-cholesterol level in blood and accumulation of free cholesterol in tissue leading to a triad of CORNEAL OPACITY, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), and PROTEINURIA.trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride: An anticholesteremic agent that inhibits sterol biosynthesis in animals.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Apolipoprotein A-II: The second most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. It has a high lipid affinity and is known to displace APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I from HDL particles and generates a stable HDL complex. ApoA-II can modulate the activation of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE in the presence of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I, thus affecting HDL metabolism.Cholic Acids: The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Receptors, Scavenger: A large group of structurally diverse cell surface receptors that mediate endocytic uptake of modified LIPOPROTEINS. Scavenger receptors are expressed by MYELOID CELLS and some ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, and were originally characterized based on their ability to bind acetylated LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. They can also bind a variety of other polyanionic ligand. Certain scavenger receptors can internalize micro-organisms as well as apoptotic cells.Cholic Acid: A major primary bile acid produced in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It facilitates fat absorption and cholesterol excretion.Mice, Inbred C57BLMesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Cholestenones: CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.EstersChylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase: The first committed enzyme of the biosynthesis pathway that leads to the production of STEROLS. it catalyzes the synthesis of SQUALENE from farnesyl pyrophosphate via the intermediate PRESQUALENE PYROPHOSPHATE. This enzyme is also a critical branch point enzyme in the biosynthesis of ISOPRENOIDS that is thought to regulate the flux of isoprene intermediates through the sterol pathway.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Hypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C: An autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder that is characterized by accumulation of CHOLESTEROL and SPHINGOMYELINS in cells of the VISCERA and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Type C (or C1) and type D are allelic disorders caused by mutation of gene (NPC1) encoding a protein that mediate intracellular cholesterol transport from lysosomes. Clinical signs include hepatosplenomegaly and chronic neurological symptoms. Type D is a variant in people with a Nova Scotia ancestry.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Pyrroles: Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lymph: The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Chenodeoxycholic Acid: A bile acid, usually conjugated with either glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption and is reabsorbed by the small intestine. It is used as cholagogue, a choleretic laxative, and to prevent or dissolve gallstones.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Hyperlipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally elevated levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. They may be inherited, acquired, primary, or secondary. Hyperlipoproteinemias are classified according to the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.Cholestenes: Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caveolins: The main structural proteins of CAVEOLAE. Several distinct genes for caveolins have been identified.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Probucol: A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).Lipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.Corn Oil: Oil from ZEA MAYS or corn plant.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Hypolipoproteinemias: Conditions with abnormally low levels of LIPOPROTEINS in the blood. This may involve any of the lipoprotein subclasses, including ALPHA-LIPOPROTEINS (high-density lipoproteins); BETA-LIPOPROTEINS (low-density lipoproteins); and PREBETA-LIPOPROTEINS (very-low-density lipoproteins).Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins: Sterol regulatory element binding proteins are basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors that bind the sterol regulatory element TCACNCCAC. They are synthesized as precursors that are threaded into the MEMBRANES of the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedColestipol: Highly crosslinked and insoluble basic anion exchange resin used as anticholesteremic. It may also may reduce triglyceride levels.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Margarine: A butterlike product made of refined vegetable oils, sometimes blended with animal fats, and emulsified usually with water or milk. It is used as a butter substitute. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.FluorobenzenesFasting: Abstaining from all food.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Butter: The fatty portion of milk, separated as a soft yellowish solid when milk or cream is churned. It is processed for cooking and table use. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA. This is a key enzyme in steroid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.5.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

*  Statin needed? - Cholesterol - MedHelp

total cholesterol: 214 Triglyceride: 76 Hdl: 51 Ldl: 148 38 year old woman. 10-15lbs overweight. My doctor insists I take a ... total cholesterol: 214 Triglyceride: 76 Hdl: 51 Ldl: 148 38 year old woman. 10-15lbs overweight. My doctor insists I take a ... total cholesterol: 214 Triglyceride: 76 Hdl: 51 Ldl: 148 38 year old woman. 10-15lbs overweight. My doctor insists I take a ...
medhelp.org/posts/Cholesterol/Statin-needed/show/1913765

*  Indian Herbal Cure for High Cholesterol Level

... that deliver cholesterol to the body, while high-density lipoproteins (HDL or "good" cholesterol) that takes cholesterol out of ... Herbal cure for ailing cholesterol levels. Hyper cholesterol or Dyslipidaemia appears to be major contributing factor for CHD ... Forms of lipids in the blood are cholesterol, Triglycerides, and lipoproteins, which are molecules of fat and cholesterol ... HDL cholesterol 60 mg/dL counts as a "negative" risk factor; its presence removes one risk factor from the total count. Hence, ...
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*  Fasting no longer necessary before cholesterol test, experts say

Now, after studying 300,000 people, experts say it makes little difference to cholesterol levels. ... patients have to fast before a cholesterol test. ... Spotlight on: Cholesterol. * What Is Cholesterol?. Taking a ... Diet, cholesterol and lipoproteins explained in human terms. Understanding cholesterol, lipoproteins, and the role diet has to ... Find out about the role of cholesterol in our body and discover how to treat and prevent high cholesterol. ...
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*  Organic India Lipid Care - Total Cholesterol Control, Lowers LDL, Enhances HDL - 2 Bottles

Cholesterol Control. Reduces blood glucose level. Online Shop. Worldwide Shipping. ... Lowers serum lipid level, which includes Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides.. - Improves HDL cholesterol ... Reduces total cholesterol level.. - Reduces total phospholipids level.. Indications for use of Organic India Lipid Care Capsule ... Organic India Lipid Care - Total Cholesterol Control, Lowers LDL, Enhances HDL - 2 Bottles. Product Code: 1443854571 ...
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*  Natural Cholesterol Remedy - Buy 4 Resterol, Get 2 Resterol Free

Cholesterol Remedy Resterol is a natural remedy that promotes healthy cholesterol levels. Works best when used in conjuction ... Realize too that the body produces all the cholesterol it needs.. The good news? By treating both types of cholesterol you may ... Our natural cholesterol remedy (Resterol) provides you with effective, cholesterol lowering nutrients, as well as botanicals ... Although they are integral for the movement of cholesterol throughout the body, too much of small particle LDL cholesterol can ...
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*  Low-Fat Foods With No Cholesterol or Sodium | LIVESTRONG.COM

High cholesterol is usually a result of excessive saturated... ... Major Sources of Cholesterol List of Foods That Increase Your ... High cholesterol is usually a result of excessive saturated fats, which are found in meats and animal products, or trans fats, ... Most types of whole-grain bread contain less than 1 gram of fat per one-slice serving and zero cholesterol, though most do ... Pursuing a diet of low-fat foods with no cholesterol or sodium has a number of benefits, including reducing blood pressure and ...
livestrong.com/article/244395-low-fat-foods-with-no-cholesterol-or-sodium/

*  Cholesterol Levels (LDL, HDL, Triglycerides,Total Cholesterol) - Industrial Sectors

HDL Cholesterol Levels by The American Heart Association, Triglycerides Levels, Absolute Numbers and Ratio, Way's to Prevent. ... Total Cholesterol Levels. The sum of different cholesterol types in your blood is referred to as total cholesterol. This ... LDL Cholesterol Levels. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), also known as bad cholesterol, keep blood cholesterol circulating in ... HDL Cholesterol Levels. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs), also known as good cholesterol, act like waste removal carriers. They ...
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*  Cholesterol Support - iHerb.com

The overall lipid profile includes LDL ('bad') cholesterol, HDL ('good') cholesterol and triglycerides. Certain natural ... Along with high blood pressure, smoking, and inactivity, high cholesterol is an important indicator of potential heart disease ... Elevated levels of cholesterol accelerate atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. ... Brands A-Z Doctor's Best Cholesterol Support Categories Health Topics Cholesterol Support ...
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*  elevated cholesterol and LDL - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for elevated cholesterol and LDL

Find elevated cholesterol and LDL information, treatments for elevated cholesterol and LDL and elevated cholesterol and LDL ... MedHelp's elevated cholesterol and LDL Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for elevated ... I'm 53yrs old and went for a fasting LDL cholesterol test. I drank coffee prior to the tes... ... Hello, I just had a blood test and these are my cholesterol results: Are they a problem?... ...
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*  Papers with the keyword hypocholesterolemia in hiv | Read by QxMD

Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels are increased by peginterferon and ribavirin ... A cholesterol-rich diet accelerates bacteriologic sterilization in pulmonary tuberculosis.. Carlos Pérez-Guzmán, Mario H Vargas ... Cholesterol as a Mediator of Alcohol-Induced Risks for Respiratory Disease Hospitalizations among People Living With HIV. ... CASE SUMMARY: A 35-year-old HIV-infected man developed a serum cholesterol of 1472 mg/dL and fasting serum triglycerides of ...
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*  Low-Sugar & Low-Cholesterol Diet | LIVESTRONG.COM

... fat and cholesterol can produce a number of problems. This is especially true if you have diabetes as you cannot properly... ... Dangers of High Cholesterol. Your body actually produces cholesterol in the liver and it serves many important purposes such as ... Daily Fat and Cholesterol Recommendations. The American Heart Association offers suggestions for fat and cholesterol intake to ... Dietary Strategies for Lowering Cholesterol. Reducing your intake of foods high in saturated fat and cholesterol forms the ...
livestrong.com/article/280505-low-sugar-low-cholesterol-diet/

*  Signs & Symptoms of High Cholesterol in Women | LIVESTRONG.COM

High cholesterol is bad for your health, can block arteries and lead to a heart attack. While some risk factors--such as eating ... no outward symptoms resulting from high cholesterol. The only way to know if you have high cholesterol is to get a cholesterol ... Monitoring your cholesterol and getting regularly checked by the doctor is extremely important. While high cholesterol can have ... While there are no obvious symptoms of high cholesterol, women in general are less at risk of suffering from high cholesterol ...
livestrong.com/article/247506-signs-symptoms-of-high-cholesterol-in-women/

*  Active Motif » LightSwitch Validated Cholesterol Biosynthesis (SREBP) Pathway Collection

The LightSwitch Validated Cholesterol Biosynthesis (SREBP) Pathway Collection is a set of promoter reporter constructs that ... showed significant activation or repression in response to induction of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. ... SREBP-related Assays (Cholesterol). luciferase reporter constructs validated for cholesterol biosynthesis. The LightSwitch™ ... Cholesterol Biosynthesis (SREBP) Pathway. The sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors ...
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*  Which affects my cholesterol more-saturated fat or dietary cholesterol? | Dr John La Puma

Saturated fat intake is the major determinant of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Avoiding food laden with ... Which affects my cholesterol more-saturated fat or dietary cholesterol?. Topics: Food FAQ's, High Cholesterol ... Next Article Does low cholesterol also mean low fat and low sodium? ...
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*  Vitamin B12 insufficiency induces cholesterol biosynthesis by limiting s-adenosylmethionine and modulating the methylation of...

... at delivery showed that low vitamin B12 status was associated with higher total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and cholesterol- ... The induction of cholesterol biosynthesis was associated with reduced s-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-to-s-adenosylhomocysteine ( ... Regulation of AdoMet-to-AdoHcy levels by vitamin B12 could be an important mechanism by which it can influence cholesterol ... Adipocytes cultured in low or no vitamin B12 conditions had increased cholesterol and homocysteine levels compared to control. ...
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*  High Cholesterol Treatment Online: 9 Statins Available & Information

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*  Plus it

Statins lower cholesterol by inhibiting the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate ... Intracellular cholesterol levels of LNCaP and PC-3 cells were measured after administration of simvastatin. Furthermore, small ... In normal cells, a decrease of intracellular cholesterol level induces an expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR ... In PC-3 cells, intracellular cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by simvastatin, but not in LNCaP cells. After ...
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*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | 9-cis β-Carotene Increased Cholesterol Efflux to HDL in Macrophages

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*  Quiz on Cholesterol | POPSUGAR Fitness

We know that we shouldn't be eating a diet high in cholesterol because it raises our blood cholesterol levels, which can clog ... How Much Cholesterol Is Too Much? How much cholesterol is allowed per day?. About 300 mg a day About 600 mg a day About 1,000 ... Quiz on Cholesterol. How Much Cholesterol Is Too Much? February 2, 2008 by Fitness ... We know that we shouldn't be eating a diet high in cholesterol because it raises our blood cholesterol levels, which can clog ...
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*  Cholesterol Test Results Explained | LIVESTRONG.COM

LDL Cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein or LDL cholesterol is also known as the "bad" cholesterol. LDL acts as an inter-body ... A cholesterol test will reveal your total cholesterol and the quantities of each type of cholesterol that make up the total. ... Total Cholesterol. Total cholesterol is the total measurement of all of the different types of cholesterol. This means the ... HDL Cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, cholesterol is considered "good" cholesterol. This lipoprotein transports ...
livestrong.com/article/314273-cholesterol-test-results-explained/

*  How Long Does it Take to Reduce Cholesterol Levels? | LIVESTRONG.COM

The time it takes to lower your cholesterol depends on a number of factors, all of which vary for every person. Most important ... How Long Does it Take to Reduce Cholesterol Levels? Photo Credit cholesterol screening image by Pix by Marti from ,a href='http ... The National Cholesterol Education Program. The National Cholesterol Education Program--NCEP--was created by the National Heart ... thus reducing the number of cholesterol-related illnesses and death. The NCEP determines what healthy cholesterol levels are, ...
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*  Eating a combination of cholesterol-lowering foods may reduce LDL (bad) cholesterol levels: (EUFIC)

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*  Free Talk: The Truth About Cholesterol

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*  New compound lowers cholesterol: study

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*  Fighting Cholesterol Without The Meds - Naturally Lowering The LDL And Raising The HDL | HubPages

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*  Versosdapri: How to Lower LDL Cholesterol

Avoid Cholesterol and Saturated Fats. Then, you can also lower your cholesterol by avoiding the cholesterol and saturated fats ... It is a kind of good cholesterol that can protect your body from the bad cholesterol. The second one is LDL cholesterol. LDL ... We are certainly not unfamiliar with cholesterol. There are two kinds of cholesterol. The first is HDL cholesterol. ... So, you have to avoid and lower this cholesterol. So, in this article, I will share the tips to lower this cholesterol. ...
versosdapri.blogspot.com/2015/07/how-to-lower-ldl-cholesterol.html

CholesterolCholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase: Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism .It is a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which belongs to the oxidoreductase class, and converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol, the first and rate limiting step in bile acid synthesis.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Very low-density lipoprotein: Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver. VLDL is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, low-density lipoprotein, intermediate-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein) that enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream.TriglycerideSterol carrier protein: A:437-540 A:437-540 A:628-731HMG-CoA reductase: HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent, ; NADPH-dependent, ) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor as well as oxidized species of cholesterol.Apolipoprotein O: Apolipoprotein O also known as protein FAM121B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOO gene. APOO is a member of the apolipoprotein family.Bile acid malabsorptionBile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).Plant stanols: Plant stanols are like cholesterol but for plants. They are commonly found in plant related foods.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIAtherosclerosisLipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.PhospholipidPlant stanol ester: Stanol esters are a heterogeneous group of phytosterol esters with a saturated sterol ring structure known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested. Despite a well documented cholesterol lowering effect, there are no data available indicating that functional foods supplemented with plant sterol esters reduce cardiovascular events.Inclusion compound: thumbnail|200px|Example of an inclusion complex consisting of a p-xylylenediammonium bound within a [[cucurbituril reported by Freeman in Acta. Crystallogr.Steglich esterification: The Steglich esterification is a variation of an esterfication with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide as a coupling reagent and 4-dimethylaminopyridine as a catalyst. The reaction was first described by Wolfgang Steglich in 1978.AcyltransferaseAnimal fatTransporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.Apolipoprotein L: Apolipoprotein L (Apo L) belongs to the high density lipoprotein family that plays a central role in cholesterol transport. The cholesterol content of membranes is important in cellular processes such as modulating gene transcription and signal transduction both in the adult brain and during neurodevelopment.Egg lecithinCholestyramineDesmosterolLovastatinHMG-CoAYWTD domain of low-density lipoprotein receptor: The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) regulates cholesterol homeostasis in mammalian cells. LDLR binds cholesterol-carrying LDL, associates with clathrin-coated pits, and is internalized into acidic endosomes where it separates from its ligand.Vitellogenin lipid transport domain: A:18-588Mediated transportStatinNCEH1: Neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (NCEH) also known as arylacetamide deacetylase-like 1 (AADACL1) or KIAA1363 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NCEH1 gene.Lipid microdomain: Lipid microdomains are formed when lipids undergo lateral phase separations yielding stable coexisting lamellar domains. These phase separations can be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, ionic strength or by the addition of divalent cations or proteins.XimelagatranLanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase: ==Introduction==DrospirenoneSphingomyelin: Sphingomyelin (SPH, ˌsfɪŋɡoˈmaɪəlɪn) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath that surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphocholine and ceramide, or a phosphoethanolamine head group; therefore, sphingomyelins can also be classified as sphingophospholipids.Cholesterol embolismHypolipidemic agent: Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. They are called lipid-lowering drugs.Membrane lipidsCholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone.Heptadecanoic acidFoam party: A foam party is a social event in which participants dance to music on a dance floor covered in several feet of suds or bubbles dispensed from a foam machine.List of important publications in medicine: The definitive bibliographic source of books and articles demonstrating the history of medicine and identifying the first publications in the field is "Garrison and Morton". (Morton, Leslie T.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.LiposomeMayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Cell membraneEnt-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase: Ent-cassa-12,15-diene 11-hydroxylase (, ent-cassadiene C11alpha-hydroxylase, CYP76M7) is an enzyme with system name ent-cassa-12,15-diene,NADPH:oxygen 11-oxidoreductase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionModel lipid bilayer: A model lipid bilayer is any bilayer assembled in vitro, as opposed to the bilayer of natural cell membranes or covering various sub-cellular structures like the nucleus. A model bilayer can be made with either synthetic or natural lipids.StigmasterolSqualaneBurst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Porcelain gallbladderSmith–Lemli–Opitz syndromeLomitapideBaby hamster kidney cell: Baby Hamster Kidney fibroblasts (aka BHK cells) are an adherent cell line used in molecular biology.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Tingible body macrophage: A tingible body macrophage is a type of macrophage predominantly found in germinal centers, containing many phagocytized, apoptotic cells in various states of degradation, referred to as tingible bodies (tingible meaning stainable).Horst Ibelgaufts' COPE: Cytokines & Cells Online Pathfinder Encyclopaedia > tingible body macrophages Retrieved on June 27, 2010 Tingible body macrophages contain condensed chromatin fragments.PravastatinTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying

(1/19464) Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

(2/19464) The amyloid precursor protein interacts with Go heterotrimeric protein within a cell compartment specialized in signal transduction.

The function of the beta-amyloid protein precursor (betaAPP), a transmembrane molecule involved in Alzheimer pathologies, is poorly understood. We recently reported the presence of a fraction of betaAPP in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipid-enriched microdomains (CSEM), a caveolae-like compartment specialized in signal transduction. To investigate whether betaAPP actually interferes with cell signaling, we reexamined the interaction between betaAPP and Go GTPase. In strong contrast with results obtained with reconstituted phospholipid vesicles (Okamoto et al., 1995), we find that incubating total neuronal membranes with 22C11, an antibody that recognizes an N-terminal betaAPP epitope, reduces high-affinity Go GTPase activity. This inhibition is specific of Galphao and is reproduced, in the absence of 22C11, by the addition of the betaAPP C-terminal domain but not by two distinct mutated betaAPP C-terminal domains that do not bind Galphao. This inhibition of Galphao GTPase activity by either 22C11 or wild-type betaAPP cytoplasmic domain suggests that intracellular interactions between betaAPP and Galphao could be regulated by extracellular signals. To verify whether this interaction is preserved in CSEM, we first used biochemical, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural techniques to unambiguously confirm the colocalization of Galphao and betaAPP in CSEM. We show that inhibition of basal Galphao GTPase activity also occurs within CSEM and correlates with the coimmunoprecipitation of Galphao and betaAPP. The regulation of Galphao GTPase activity by betaAPP in a compartment specialized in signaling may have important consequences for our understanding of the physiopathological functions of betaAPP.  (+info)

(3/19464) Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

(4/19464) The food matrix of spinach is a limiting factor in determining the bioavailability of beta-carotene and to a lesser extent of lutein in humans.

Carotenoid bioavailability depends, amongst other factors, on the food matrix and on the type and extent of processing. To examine the effect of variously processed spinach products and of dietary fiber on serum carotenoid concentrations, subjects received, over a 3-wk period, a control diet (n = 10) or a control diet supplemented with carotenoids or one of four spinach products (n = 12 per group): whole leaf spinach with an almost intact food matrix, minced spinach with the matrix partially disrupted, enzymatically liquefied spinach in which the matrix was further disrupted and the liquefied spinach to which dietary fiber (10 g/kg wet weight) was added. Consumption of spinach significantly increased serum concentrations of all-trans-beta-carotene, cis-beta-carotene, (and consequently total beta-carotene), lutein, alpha-carotene and retinol and decreased the serum concentration of lycopene. Serum total beta-carotene responses (changes in serum concentrations from the start to the end of the intervention period) differed significantly between the whole leaf and liquefied spinach groups and between the minced and liquefied spinach groups. The lutein response did not differ among spinach groups. Addition of dietary fiber to the liquefied spinach had no effect on serum carotenoid responses. The relative bioavailability as compared to bioavailability of the carotenoid supplement for whole leaf, minced, liquefied and liquefied spinach plus added dietary fiber for beta-carotene was 5.1, 6.4, 9.5 and 9.3%, respectively, and for lutein 45, 52, 55 and 54%, respectively. We conclude that the bioavailability of lutein from spinach was higher than that of beta-carotene and that enzymatic disruption of the matrix (cell wall structure) enhanced the bioavailability of beta-carotene from whole leaf and minced spinach, but had no effect on lutein bioavailability.  (+info)

(5/19464) Improvement of factor VII clotting activity following long-term NCPAP treatment in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a very common disorder. Patients with OSAS are at an increased risk for cardiovascular events. It has also been reported that a 25% rise in factor VII clotting activity (FVIIc) is associated with a 55% increase in ischaemic heart disease death during the first 5 years. We examined the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) treatment on FVIIc in patients with OSAS. FVIIc was investigated prospectively in 15 patients with OSAS before (mean +/- SEM apnoea and hypopnoea index (AHI) 61.5 +/- 4.2 and after (AHI 3.0 +/- 0.9) NCPAP treatment for immediate relief, at 1 month after treatment and at over 6 months. FVIIc levels gradually decreased after NCPAP treatment. After 6 months of NCPAP treatment, FVIIc levels had decreased significantly (before 141.1 +/- 11.7% vs. after 6 months 110.7 +/- 6.2%; p < 0.01). Six of the seven patients whose FVIIc levels were over 140% before the NCPAP treatment had FVIIc levels below 130% after 6 months or 1 year of NCPAP treatment. This decrease in FVIIc after long-term NCPAP treatment could improve mortality in OSAS patients. If patients, especially obese ones, present with high FVIIc of unknown origin, it would be prudent to check for OSAS.  (+info)

(6/19464) Gallstones: an intestinal disease?

Current evidence suggests that impaired intestinal motility may facilitate gallstone formation by influencing biliary deoxycholate levels or by modulating interdigestive gall bladder motility (fig 2), although a primary intestinal defect in gallstone pathogenesis has not yet been demonstrated. In the cold war period, most interesting events, from a political point of view, occurred at the border between capitalist and communist systems, near the iron curtain. Similarly, the gall bladder and biliary tract can be viewed as the border between liver and intestinal tract, where many interesting things occur with profound impact on both systems. Combined efforts by researchers in the field of hepatology and gastrointestinal motility should brake down the Berlin wall of ignorance of one of the most common diseases in the Western world.  (+info)

(7/19464) Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies are associated with an atherogenic lipid profile.

OBJECTIVE: To determine, within a representative population group of men and women, whether alteration of the lipid profile might underlie the reported association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross sectional survey in an area with a high incidence of ischaemic heart disease. SUBJECTS: 400 randomly selected participants in the World Health Organisation MONICA project's third population survey in Northern Ireland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stored sera were examined by microimmunofluorescence for IgG antibodies to C pneumoniae at a dilution of 1 in 64. Mean total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were compared between seropositive and seronegative individuals with adjustment for age, measures of socioeconomic status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and the season during which blood had been taken. RESULTS: In seropositive men, adjusted mean serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were 0.5 mmol/l (9.2%) higher and 0.11 mmol/l (9.3%) lower, respectively, than in seronegative men. Differences in women did not achieve statistical significance, but both total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were higher (3.6% and 5.8%, respectively) in seropositive than in seronegative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: There is serological evidence that C pneumoniae infection is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in men. Altered lipid levels may underlie the association between C pneumoniae and ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

(8/19464) Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus: population based study of coronary heart disease.

OBJECTIVE: To study possible associations between coronary heart disease and serological evidence of persistent infection with Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. DESIGN: Population based, case-control study, nested within a randomised trial. SETTING: Five general practices in Bedfordshire, UK. INDIVIDUALS: 288 patients with incident or prevalent coronary heart disease and 704 age and sex matched controls. RESULTS: High concentrations of serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were present in 54% of cases v 46% of controls, with corresponding results for C pneumoniae seropositivity (33% v 33%), and cytomegalovirus seropositivity (40% v 31%). After adjustments for age, sex, smoking, indicators of socioeconomic status, and standard risk factors, the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for coronary heart disease of seropositivity to these agents were: 1.28 (0.93 to 1.75) for H pylori, 0.95 (0.66 to 1.36) for C pneumoniae, and 1.40 (0.96 to 2. 05) for cytomegalovirus. CONCLUSIONS: There is no good evidence of strong associations between coronary heart disease and serological markers of persistent infection with H pylori, C pneumoniae, or cytomegalovirus. To determine the existence of moderate associations between these agents and disease, however, larger scale studies will be needed that can keep residual confounders to a minimum.  (+info)



Statin


  • Nov. 5, 2011 -- People with asthma may find that their breathing gets worse after they start a statin drug to lower cholesterol , a small new study shows. (webmd.com)
  • Asthma experts say the finding is a surprise because some previous studies have shown that statin drugs have anti-inflammatory properties beyond their cholesterol -lowering effects that may help conditions like asthma . (webmd.com)
  • Twenty patients had just begun statin medications to lower cholesterol at the start of the study. (webmd.com)

high cholesterol levels


  • The findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, lead the way to therapy for the Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C), an inherited disorder characterised by abnormally high cholesterol levels in all body organs. (smh.com.au)
  • Evidence suggests that there is a relationship between having high cholesterol levels in the blood in mid-life, and going on to develop dementia. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • People that have high cholesterol levels in the blood often have other factors associated with dementia risk such as high blood pressure and diabetes, so separating these factors is complex. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Observational studies analysing a link between high cholesterol levels and development of dementia have mixed findings. (alzheimers.org.uk)

researchers


  • US researchers have identified in mice a compound that frees excessive cholesterol accumulated inside cells, according to a study published on Monday. (smh.com.au)
  • The researchers injected a single dose of CYCLO, a cholesterol-binding agent, into mice aged 7 days that had the NP-C mutation. (smh.com.au)
  • Researchers are also interested in cholesterol in the brain, as this substance and the way that it is processed are very important for the health of brain cells, and may be affected in dementia. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • The researchers were interested in whether there were specific SNPs that were associated with higher levels of cholesterol and other fats (lipids) in the blood, and identified several SNPs that had not been previously established to be associated with blood lipid profile. (www.nhs.uk)
  • So, researchers are not building a case right now for you to change your medications , but to talk to your doctor if you have asthma and high cholesterol . (webmd.com)
  • Other than asthma or high cholesterol, patients in the study were free of health problems, researchers say. (webmd.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Oklahoma found that supplementing diets with freeze-dried strawberry powder was associated with an 11 percent drop in bad cholesterol in obese participants within eight weeks. (foxnews.com)

Naturally


  • We make cholesterol naturally, and it can also be found in certain foods. (alzheimers.org.uk)

lowers


  • A study published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics reports that green tea lowers LDL cholesterol by 5-6 points, in people with high cholesterol. (foxnews.com)

reduction in cholesterol


  • Although green tea capsules show a reduction in cholesterol as well, the drop is highest when drinking brewed tea. (foxnews.com)
  • Nathan Wong, head of the heart disease prevention program at University of California, Irvine, cautioned that the reduction in cholesterol was actually pretty small. (redorbit.com)

higher cholesterol


  • A review that looked at 25 of these studies suggests that higher cholesterol in mid-life is associated with an increased risk of developing the condition. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Even if people with certain genetic variations do have a tendency to have higher cholesterol, the treatment they are given is unlikely to change. (www.nhs.uk)

levels


  • After 49 days, the mice that had received a CYCLO injection continued to demonstrate substantially lower tissue cholesterol levels than mice who did not receive the treatment. (smh.com.au)
  • Can we maintain low cholesterol levels? (smh.com.au)
  • Cholesterol levels can be measured by a doctor. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • An observational study is one that looks at large numbers of people over time and tries to find patterns and relationships between different factors (in this case, cholesterol levels and dementia). (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Changes with cholesterol processing in the brain may not be related to the levels of cholesterol in the blood. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Read more about reducing your cholesterol levels . (www.nhs.uk)
  • Blood lipid (fat) levels, including cholesterol, are known to be associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease and strokes. (www.nhs.uk)
  • While cholesterol levels are influenced to a large extent by environmental factors such as diet, genetics are also thought to affect them. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Blood samples were collected for measurement of lipid levels in the individual studies, and they also looked at whether the people were taking cholesterol-lowering medications. (www.nhs.uk)
  • A study of 93 women in England showed that consuming chocolate with enhanced levels of flavonoids showed significant reductions in cholesterol. (foxnews.com)
  • We know that we shouldn't be eating a diet high in cholesterol because it raises our blood cholesterol levels, which can clog our arteries and cause heart problems. (popsugar.com)
  • Zheng's team found those who drank green tea ended up with total cholesterol levels that were 7.2 mg/dL lower than in the comparison group. (redorbit.com)
  • High levels of LDL cholesterol can double your risk of having a heart attack. (healthline.com)
  • What are desirable cholesterol levels? (healthline.com)
  • If your LDL cholesterol levels remain high after you improve your diet and exercise habits, you still have work to do to reduce your risk of heart disease. (healthline.com)
  • Let's look at how these two options compare in lowering cholesterol levels. (healthline.com)
  • Statins work by lowering levels of LDL cholesterol in your body. (healthline.com)
  • While plant sterols help lower LDL cholesterol, they don't appear to affect your levels of HDL cholesterol or triglycerides. (healthline.com)
  • The study found that these people were able to lower their LDL cholesterol levels by 14 percent in one year. (healthline.com)
  • Both statins and plant sterols help lower LDL cholesterol levels. (healthline.com)
  • And besides lowering cholesterol levels, they can help reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke. (healthline.com)

fats


  • For example, one of the common genes that increase the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease - APOE4 - plays a role in the processing and use of cholesterol and other fats. (alzheimers.org.uk)

cardiovascular


  • They may be given treatment to lower their cholesterol if it is raised and if they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. (www.nhs.uk)

Supplements


  • Medication and supplements you take can raise your cholesterol. (lifescript.com)

lower


  • Registered Dietitian Patricia Bannan, author of "Eat Right When Time is Tight," provides some natural foods to lower your cholesterol and protect your heart. (foxnews.com)
  • Lean beef may actually help lower your cholesterol. (foxnews.com)
  • The findings, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, are similar to those of past research that found lean red meat as part of a heart healthy diet can lower bad (LDL) cholesterol as much as 10 percent. (foxnews.com)
  • Not only have they been shown to lower bad cholesterol, but they're small enough to incorporate into dishes for even the pickiest of eaters. (foxnews.com)
  • A diet rich with whole grains can help lower your cholesterol level. (lifescript.com)
  • Evidence from a new study suggests drinking green tea cuts "bad" cholesterol, a finding that may help explain why the beverage has been linked to a lower risk of heart disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. (redorbit.com)
  • Adopting healthy lifestyle habits and eating foods that increase HDL cholesterol and lower LDL cholesterol are good for your overall health. (healthline.com)
  • An easier way to get enough plant sterols to lower your cholesterol level is through eating fortified foods. (healthline.com)

Medication


  • Medication To Increase Good Cholesterol? (go.com)

treatments


  • One Canadian study concluded that plant sterols are the most effective natural treatments for high cholesterol. (healthline.com)

blood


  • Study: Cholesterol drug Crestor also cuts blood. (topix.com)
  • Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is found in our blood and cells, and can be transported in the bloodstream. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • A new type of broccoli is able to reduce blood cholesterol, according to scientists at The Institute for Food Research. (foxnews.com)
  • But companies have been working on this for years already, getting people to know their numbers like blood pressure and weight and cholesterol. (reuters.com)
  • After all, odds are a fit, non-smoking employee with a cholesterol level of 160 is going to rack up fewer healthcare costs in years to come than someone who is overweight with a blood cholesterol count of 300 milligrams per deciliter and smokes a couple of packs a day. (reuters.com)

arteries


  • Statins also help your body reabsorb any cholesterol that's built up in your arteries. (healthline.com)

total


  • Total cholesterol isn't an issue, it's HDL over total cholesterol. (getbig.com)

liver


  • NP-C patients suffer from a genetic mutation causing excessive amounts of cholesterol accumulating in lysosomes - vesicles in cells - which leads to liver disease, dementia and neurodegeration. (smh.com.au)
  • What one wants is cholesterol being transported back on HDL to the liver to be destroyed. (getbig.com)
  • They do this by reducing the amount of LDL cholesterol that your liver makes. (healthline.com)

MANAGE


  • Our FREE interactive cholesterol guide will help you understand and manage your cholesterol, so you can take action and live healthy! (heart.org)

People


  • People with a close relative with a history of high cholesterol have an increased risk of developing the condition themselves. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Green tea "should not be recommended in place of well-proven cholesterol-lowering medicines for people with high cholesterol," Wong told Reuters Health. (redorbit.com)
  • That equates to 32 million people, or nearly 45 percent of Americans, who have high cholesterol. (healthline.com)
  • As for how effective plant sterols are, one study examined people with high cholesterol who used margarine that contains plant sterols instead of regular margarine. (healthline.com)

health


  • Hit a weight or cholesterol target, get a contribution to your health savings account. (reuters.com)

Diet


  • Fight cholesterol with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. (lifescript.com)
  • However, smaller doses of green tea "could be a useful component of a heart-healthy diet," Wong said, adding it may have benefits that go beyond its effect on cholesterol. (redorbit.com)

study


  • What we've shown is that very quickly after administration of this compound, the huge pool of cholesterol that has just been accumulating in the cells is suddenly released and metabolised normally," said John Dietschy, senior author of the study. (smh.com.au)

small


  • How much cholesterol is in a McDonald's Big Mac and small order of fries? (popsugar.com)

level


  • We do not yet understand what is happening at the molecular level, but it is clear that this compound somehow overcomes the genetic defect that causes individuals to accumulate cholesterol," he said. (smh.com.au)
  • So eating these foods may not make a big impact on your cholesterol level. (healthline.com)

genetic


  • The key idea is that we appear to have overcome the transport defect in the lysosome that is brought about by the genetic defect or mutation," said Dietschy, who has studied cholesterol metabolism for almost 50 years. (smh.com.au)

treatment guidelines


  • High cholesterol treatment guidelines push stat. (topix.com)
  • The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology released new treatment guidelines for cholesterol. (cnn.com)

GOOD


  • There was no difference in good cholesterol (HDL). (redorbit.com)
  • HDL cholesterol is considered "good" cholesterol because it helps the body get rid of LDL cholesterol, which is known as "bad" cholesterol. (healthline.com)

drug


  • Potential Cholesterol-Lowering Drug Molecule Ha. (topix.com)
  • Should You Take a Cholesterol-Lowering Drug? (topix.com)
  • Statins are the gold standard for drug treatment, and sterols are thought to be one of the best natural options to combat high cholesterol. (healthline.com)

natural


  • Flax seeds are a great, natural way to address high cholesterol. (foxnews.com)

Ways


  • Studies investigating the relationship between cholesterol and dementia look at many different ways that they might be linked. (alzheimers.org.uk)

Take


  • The role that cholesterol in the brain plays in the development of dementia is also being investigated, and there are lots of avenues for this research to take. (alzheimers.org.uk)

known


  • The cholesterol-lowering effects of green tea may stem from chemicals in it known as catechins, which decrease the absorption of cholesterol in the gut, according to Zheng. (redorbit.com)

benefits


  • To reap the cholesterol-lowering benefits, you need to consume at least 2 grams of plant sterols per day. (healthline.com)

healthy


  • Shortly after receiving the injection, the mice that received CYCLO began to process cholesterol just like the healthy mice. (smh.com.au)

percent


  • Their bad cholesterol (LDL) dropped 2.2 mg/dL -- a decrease of nearly 2 percent. (redorbit.com)

case


  • But this may not be the case with high cholesterol. (www.nhs.uk)

start


  • what age should a guy start worrying about cholesterol? (getbig.com)

reduce


  • However, it is proven that sterols can help reduce LDL cholesterol. (healthline.com)

body


  • Plant sterols are compounds that help block your body from absorbing cholesterol. (healthline.com)

drugs


  • Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Market Forecast 2015. (topix.com)

main


  • There are two main types of cholesterol: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). (healthline.com)