Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.BangladeshIntestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cholera Morbus: An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsFluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PhilippinesVaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

*  Cholera Hospital Register :: Ohio Memory Collection
Cholera was a major threat in the 19th century. Due to poor sanitation and ignorance of the causes of disease, Sandusky ... This register, kept by the staff of the Sandusky City Hospital during the 1849 cholera epidemic, records patients discharged ... it is estimated that fewer than 1,000 remained in the city during the cholera. The 1882 History of Sandusky County reported ... that "medical men [were] taxed to their utmost to stem the tide of disease and death." The devastation caused by cholera and ...
*  Using Remote Sensing to Spot Cholera Outbreaks - VerySpatial
... which are the root cause of cholera. As these phytoplankton get into the water supply, cholera pathogens are released and can ... Scientists have figured out how to predict cholera outbreaks by looking at sea life. The idea pioneered at the University of ... Using Remote Sensing to Spot Cholera Outbreaks. Posted November 15, 2008. January 18, 2009. Frank ...
*  Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says | Sanitation Updates
While studies have suggested that the cholera came from a Nepalese soldier serving as a peacekeeper, Clinton pointed out… ... Haiti should focus on stemming the cholera outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 people since 2010, rather than on levying ... Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says. Posted on March 9, 2012 by dietvorst , 1 ... One response to "Haiti: lack of proper sanitation is real cause of cholera outbreak, Clinton says" * Pingback: Le manque ...
*  First cholera outbreak in Cuba in more than a century!
What Is Cholera?. Cholera is a bacterial disease that can cause diarrhea and dehydration. Cholera is most often spread through ... Cholera infection is most often asymptomatic or results in mild gastroenteritis. Severe cholera is characterized by acute, ... Food can be contaminated by water containing cholera bacteria or by being handled by a person ill with cholera. ... First cholera outbreak in Cuba in more than a century!. July 28, 2012. by drgaurav Leave a Comment ...
*  Welcome to CDC stacks | Surveillance for epidemic cholera in the Americas : an assessment. - 7191 | Guidelines and...
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex ... Because reporting of cholera cases was often delayed in some areas, the scope of the epidemic was unclear. An assessment of the ... A key conclusion is that a simple, well-communicated cholera surveillance system in place during an epidemic will facilitate ... Considerations for Oral Cholera Vaccine Use during Outbreak after Earthquake in Haiti, 2010−2011 ...
*  Cholera outbreak kills 194 in Haiti - World - CBC News
Haitian officals confirm that a cholera outbreak has killed 194 people and sickened thousands more in the country's deadliest ... No cholera outbreaks had been reported in Haiti for decades before the earthquake, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease ... Cholera is a waterborne bacterial infection spread through contaminated water. It causes severe diarrhea and vomiting that can ... "This outbreak is likely to get much larger, given our experience with cholera epidemics in the past," said Dr. Jon Arbus of the ...
*  Intestines in the Time of Cholera - Tracking Zebra
Intestines in the Time of Cholera January 9, 2014. The world has experienced 7 cholera pandemics since 1817. The first six were ... Cholera is a fascinating disease--see its biography--and this study fills in a few chapters in its life with humans. ... The New England Journal of Medicine just published the results of a successful attempt to extract the cholera microbe from that ... John Snow made his pathbreaking epidemiological discovery regarding the role of water in the spread of the cholera microbe--yet ...
*  Pursuing Justice in Haiti's Cholera Epidemic, July 16 - AMA Journal of Ethics
... failure to take responsibility for causing the Haitian cholera epidemic has led to a lawsuit, Delama Georges v United Nations. ... the bacterium that causes cholera [4]. Within a few weeks, new cases of cholera were found in other parts of the country, ... it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic ... The cholera epidemic in Haiti is still ongoing. Over the course of nearly six years of the outbreak, it has been estimated that ...
*  60pct of Cholera Cases Can Be Averted With Oral Vaccine
A new study has found that oral vaccines could prevent up to 60 percent of cholera cases in the first two years after ... Cholera. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine and is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... In these studies of vaccines made from killed, whole-cell cholera, the number of cholera cases among all participants dropped ... Simple Test for Cholera Detection. Scientists have described a key advance toward a faster, simple and better test for ...
*  Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help for Android
In this app we have compiled complete information of causes symptoms treatment of cholera, which is a disease caused by ... Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help. Free App. Rated 0.00/5 (0) - Free Android application by Kaveri Tyagi ... may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria in the body.. The basic treatment for cholera is fluid and electrolyte ... Oh snap! No comments are available for Cholera Infection Causes Symptoms Treatment & Help at the moment. Be the first to leave ...
*  Aid Groups Warn of More 'Unnecessary Deaths' in Haiti as Cholera Outbreak Threatens | Common Dreams
... aid agencies warn that Haiti may be struck by fresh cholera outbreak ... Cholera is rapidly spreading in Haiti in the wake of Hurricane Matthew and the country will be struck by another outbreak of ... The cholera outbreak adds another dimension to the disastrous effects of the hurricane, the worst natural disaster in Haiti ... Lindstrom's group has led a campaign to hold the U.N. accountable for its role in the cholera outbreak that hit nine months ...
*  Meeting Cholera's Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care
Cholera vaccines Is the Subject Area "Cholera vaccines" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... 2011) Meeting Cholera's Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ... Delivery Challenges to Cholera Care in Haiti. A triage system of independent treatment sites-cholera treatment centers (CTCs) ... Cholera Is the Subject Area "Cholera" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
*  Oxfam publishes advice on handling a cholera outbreak - but are we right? | Sanitation Updates
HSP Public Health Engineer Coordinator Oxfam's Cholera Outbreak Guidelines were developed as an internal resource, but today we ... Oxfam publishes advice on handling a cholera outbreak - but are we right?. Posted on August 14, 2012 by WASHplus , Leave a ... Oxfam's Cholera Outbreak Guidelines were developed as an internal resource, but today we are sharing them externally in order ... Bangladesh behaviour change Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation BRAC Cambodia changing behaviour China cholera Community-Led Total ...
*  The Dry Season in Haiti: a Window of Opportunity to Eliminate Cholera - PLOS Currents Outbreaks
As incidence of cholera decreases during the dry season, it is all the more important to enhance the fight against cholera ... Cholera must remain a health emergency and not a development issue. Cholera will not become endemic in the country if the ... 2: Monthly cholera attack rates and number of cholera-associated deaths in patients ≥5 years of age during the dry season 2012- ... Conclusion: Cholera continues to affect Haiti as observed in early 2013; however, activities implemented to interrupt cholera ...
*  Number of Haitian cholera cases reaches 7,000 | Make up your own Mind
Cholera epidemic in Haiti Number of Haitian cholera cases reaches 7,000 20:39 06/11/2010 © REUTERS/ St-Felix Evens Related News ... Cholera epidemic hits Haitian capital Canada to provide Haiti $1 mln to help fight cholera outbreak Donor countries pledge ... "According to the Pan American bureau of the World Health Organization, Haitian cholera has claimed 442 lives with 6,742 cholera ... Cholera is a bacterial infection that spreads through contaminated water, causing severe diarrhea and vomiting that can lead to ...
*  Cholera Vaccines Being Tried Out | Physics Forums
Vaccines against cholera have been around for over a century, oral vaccines for over two decades.. Anything that can reduce the ... Cholera is one of the biggest killers of people. One of the Horseman of the Apocalypse (pestilence). It causes extreme diarrhea ... That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid.. A good way to ... Apparantly there is a more effective (90%+ within 10 days of injection) cholera vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 2016, ...
*  Cholera - Vibrio cholerae infection | Cholera | CDC
However, globally, cholera cases have increased steadily since 2005 and the disease still occurs in many places including ... Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. ... Cholera can be life-threatening but it is easily prevented and treated. Travelers, public health and medical professionals and ... Cholera, caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae, is rare in the United States and other industrialized nations. However, ...
*  WHO | Cholera
Cholera Partners commit to reduce cholera deaths by 90% by 2030 The Global Task Force on Cholera Control (GTFCC) brings ... Revised cholera kits The composition of the cholera kits has been reviewed by WHO and its partners. The contents of all modules ... "Cholera is a disease of inequity. The poverty map of the world is the same as the cholera map," says Dominique Legros, a ... Oral cholera vaccine Since the creation of the global stockpile in 2013, more than 5 million doses of oral cholera vaccine (OCV ...
*  WHO | Cholera
Cholera. Vaccine. A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of ... In studies of travellers to countries or areas reporting cholera outbreaks, WC/rBS was found also to induce approximately 50% ... Following primary immunization, protection against cholera may be expected after about 1 week. Booster doses are recommended ... Two closely related bivalent oral cholera vaccines are available in India and Viet Nam. These killed whole-cell vaccines are ...
*  WHO | Cholera - Mozambique
From 14 August 2017 through 11 February 2018, 1799 cases and one death (case fatality rate = 0.06%) of cholera were reported ... the Ministry of Health in Mozambique notified WHO of an outbreak of cholera. ... Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Mozambique every year for the past five years. The most recent outbreak prior to the current ... In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to ...
*  WHO | Cholera - Nigeria
... was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event currently remains localized. The first cases of ... As of 30 June 2017, a total of 1558 suspected cases of cholera have been reported including 11 deaths (case fatality rate: 0.7 ... On 7 June 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event ... Between 1 May and 30 June 2017, suspected cholera cases in Kwara State were reported from five local government areas; Asa (18 ...
*  Fowl cholera - Wikipedia
Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...
*  Cholera - Wikimedia Commons
English: Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is a disease of the intestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... A public notice anno 6th august 1833 from the staff of the swedish king, who shall introduce restrictions because of cholera ... Retrieved from "" ...
*  Cholera Epidemiology
Children and the elderly are at particular risk of rapidly developing and succumbing to the dehydration caused by cholera. ... Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean ... WHO and partners respond to upsurge of cholera cases in Yemen. *Haiti to receive $40.5 million from the UN to combat cholera ... Over the last century, the number of cholera cases and deaths due to cholera have steadily declined, mainly due to improvements ...
*  WHO | Cholera in Uganda
Cholera in Uganda. Disease Outbreaks Reported 19 May 2003 As of 30 April 2003, the Ugandan Ministry of Public Health has ...

Cholera outbreaks and pandemics: Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen some places and not others. Lack of treatment of human feces and lack of treatment of drinking water greatly facilitate its spread.AB5 toxin: The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit.Cholera vaccineEl Tor: El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V.GM3: GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) is a type of ganglioside. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and M is for monosialic acid as it has one sialic acid only.Crime in Haiti: Crime in Haiti is investigated by the Haitian police.CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system: The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins, one a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin) and the other its specific antidote (antitoxin). These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing).Economy of ChittagongErepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Heat-labile enterotoxin family: In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A chain is needed for enzymatic activity.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Sanitation: Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.Cyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.Crosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.AB toxin: The AB toxins are two-component protein complexes secreted by a number of pathogenic bacteria. They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.GlycolipidPertussis toxinGuanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.Nasal administrationImmunizationFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.John McLellan (songwriter): John McLellan (who lived in the early nineteenth century) was a Tyneside poet/songwriter.List of birds of Guinea-Bissau: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guinea-Bissau. The avifauna of Guinea-Bissau include a total of 470 species, of which one is rare or accidental.JejunumNew Zealand rabbitVaccinationNewington Green Unitarian ChurchPasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934ColforsinBucladesinePhoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc.: Phoenix}}Public water systemCopper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Classical swine fever: Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs).ATC code A07: ==A07A Intestinal anti-infectives==

(1/1261) Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

(2/1261) Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera?

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

(3/1261) Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

(4/1261) How intestinal bacteria cause disease.

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

(5/1261) Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

(6/1261) A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea.

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

(7/1261) Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh.

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

(8/1261) Cholera in the 1990s.

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

  • 1832
  • On August 29, 1909 The New York Times reported further cholera riots in Russia Asiatic cholera reached Britain in 1831, with the main epidemic occurring during 1832. (
  • In the summer of 1832, a series of cholera riots occurred in various towns and cities throughout Britain, frequently directed against the authorities, doctors, or both. (
  • The Liverpool Cholera Riots of 1832 demonstrate the complex social responses to epidemic disease, as well as the fragile interface between the public and the medical profession. (
  • The cholera of 1832 was called the fulfillment of the second visitation : accordingly, many of the older inhabitants talk of one still being in reserve. (
  • Wantage - 19 victims of the 1832 cholera outbreak were buried behind Wantage church. (
  • Norkolk Park - "a neat and appropriate monument has been erected in norfolk-road, opposite the shrewsbury hospitals, in memory of those who died in sheffield from the ravages of the cholera in 1832, and who were buried on this spot. (
  • Gallow Hill (NH 8025 9017) - a little to the north of the small wooded eminence of Gallow Hill in the parish of Dornoch was located a small enclosure which was used as a burying ground in the year 1832 for the burial of persons dying of cholera. (
  • toxin
  • A vaccine consisting of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 in combination with a recombinant B-subunit of cholera toxin (WC/rBS) has been marketed since the early 1990s. (
  • Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. (
  • Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. (
  • The gene encoding the cholera toxin is introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (
  • WC-rBS (marketed as "Dukoral") is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. (
  • 1849
  • The total number of cholera cases was well below the nearly 5,000 reported in 1849. (
  • Cholera hit Ireland in 1849 and killed many of the Irish Famine survivors, already weakened by starvation and fever. (
  • That year, cholera was transmitted along the California, Mormon and Oregon Trails as 6,000 to 12,000 are believed to have died on their way to the California Gold Rush, Utah and Oregon in the cholera years of 1849-1855. (
  • cases
  • Priorities at this stage are to strengthen the surveillance system, and harmonizing cholera data collection and line listing of the cases, as well as putting in place a mechanism for active case finding at the community level. (
  • In addition, the cholera case definition should be strictly applied to all suspected cases to decrease underreporting and to improve case detection in this outbreak. (
  • In England for example, no cases of cholera have originated in the country since 1893 and those that have been reported have been caught abroad. (
  • Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. (
  • Editorial Note: Thirteen cases of domestically acquired cholera (one involving a Florida patient (1)) have been detected near the U.S. Gulf coast so far during 1986. (
  • 2 kits list the equipment needed for the investigation of cholera outbreaks and for the laboratory confirmation of suspected cholera cases. (
  • For information on cases of non-toxigenic cholera, see Vibriosis . (
  • Médecins sans Frontières (MSF-Spain) took charge of cholera treatment centres by building local capacity, and improving early detection and treatment of cases through systematic patient home visits. (
  • Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in the developing world it is more often water. (
  • The Physician of Cholera Hospital published daily reports of the number of cholera cases received at the Franklin Street facility. (
  • In late August 1854 New York City Commissioners of Health decided to stop reporting news of cholera infections, so greatly had the frequency of new cases declined in New York City. (
  • dysentery
  • That will reduce the incidence of many viral and bacterial infections, including dysentery, cholera and typhoid. (
  • It was a standard army issue and widely believed to protect the wearer from cholera, dysentery and other ills thought to be brought about by chilling of the abdomen. (
  • 19th century
  • Long term risks It is considered that the cholera risk posed through disturbance of cholera pits from the 19th century is non-existent as transmission is through contaminated water or food. (
  • diarrhea
  • Because seafood from the Gulf Coast is shipped to many states, even physicians located far from the Gulf should consider the possibility of cholera when a patient has severe, watery diarrhea. (
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (
  • An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. (
  • People infected with cholera often have diarrhea, and disease transmission may occur if this highly liquid stool, colloquially referred to as "rice-water", contaminates water used by others. (
  • CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (
  • acute
  • Once the bacteria gets introduced into a population of susceptible birds, an outbreak of acute avian cholera follows. (
  • Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine that is a particular problem in developing countries where access to clean drinking water and hygiene measures are poor. (
  • spread
  • Anything that can reduce the spread of a cholera outbreak is important. (
  • Cholera is inherently linked to water supply and is spread when people consume contaminated food or water. (
  • WHO does not recommend any restrictions to travel or trade to or from affected areas as a means to control the spread of cholera. (
  • According to Médecins Sans Frontières, the spread of cholera from urban to rural areas from December 2008 onwards was due to infected city-dwellers visiting their families' rural homes for Christmas and the burial of infected city-dwellers in rural areas. (
  • Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others. (
  • Cholera, believed spread from Irish immigrant ship(s) from England, spread throughout the Mississippi river system, killing over 4,500 in St. Louis and over 3,000 in New Orleans. (
  • In 1852, cholera spread east to Indonesia, and later was carried to China and Japan in 1854. (
  • This presented an opportunity for cholera to spread to Haiti. (
  • severe
  • Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (
  • The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and other factors associated with cholera, including a rice-water stool. (
  • sufferers
  • The source of the contamination is typically other cholera sufferers when their untreated diarrheal discharge is allowed to get into waterways, groundwater or drinking water supplies. (
  • A few weeks afterward a second hospital for cholera sufferers was opened at a schoolhouse on Mott Street (Manhattan). (
  • 1854
  • Cholera Hospital was established on June 24, 1854, at Franklin Street in New York City. (
  • The institution was built to treat cholera patients who were denied admittance to City Hospital in Manhattan during an onset of the disease in the summer of 1854. (
  • burial
  • In addition, corpses of deceased cholera patients should be handled with extreme caution and correctly disinfected before proceeding with the burial ceremony to avoid further contamination. (
  • A cholera pit was a burial place used in a time of emergency when the disease was prevalent. (
  • 1834
  • In 1834 cholera broke out in Beith and although 'clothes were burned, bedding fumigated, stairs and closes whitewashed, a nurse who was a veteran of the Dalry outbreak was engaged and a ban placed on entertainments at funerals. (
  • corpses
  • The local authorities had instituted regulations for the disposal of cholera-infected corpses and their clothes and bedding. (
  • Hygiene
  • In addition, efforts are being made to strengthen community mobilization, health and hygiene education, and to de-stigmatize cholera among potentially-affected populations. (
  • However, since it does not provide 100 percent immunity from the disease, food hygiene precautions should also be taken into consideration when visiting an area where there is a high risk of becoming infected with cholera. (
  • hospital
  • A book published by a New York physician in 1835 shows that a hospital called the Duane-Street Cholera Hospital existed in New York as early as 1835, but the relationship between the Duane-Street hospital and the Cholera Hospital at Franklin Street is unclear. (
  • 265 people succumbed at Cholera Hospital (Franklin Street) and 57 died at the Mott Street hospital. (
  • They recommended the ill be quarantined at Cholera Hospital. (
  • It was falsely reported that Cholera Hospital received patients suffering from smallpox, typhus, and other contagious diseases. (
  • clinically
  • They are reported to be safe and efficacious, providing 66-67% protection for at least 2 years against clinically significant cholera in countries or areas reporting outbreaks. (
  • onset
  • This would expedite the care of infected persons who could be treated immediately following the onset of cholera symptoms. (
  • With this, the onset of the rainy season led to cholera-contaminated faeces being washed into water sources, in particular public drains, as well as providing readily available but contaminated water. (
  • preparedness
  • For several years, agencies supporting preparedness and response to cholera outbreaks have supplied medicines and medical devices through the Interagency Diarrhoeal Disease Kits (IDDK). (
  • The tool is best suited to estimate needs relating to cholera preparedness. (
  • disease
  • Travelers , public health and medical professional s and outbreak responders should be aware of areas with high rates of cholera, know how the disease spreads, and what to do to prevent it. (
  • With the commitment of cholera-affected countries, technical partners, and donors, as many as 20 countries could eliminate the disease transmission by 2030. (
  • Cholera is a disease of inequity. (
  • During an epidemic of the disease cholera in 1836, people in the region improvised a dish involving pastry and whatever food they had at hand, as normal trade was disrupted. (
  • The United States believed that cholera was brought by recent immigrants, specifically the Irish, and epidemiologists understand they were carrying disease from British ports. (
  • mainly
  • Cholera is mainly transmitted through contaminated water and food and is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. (
  • In order to celebrate this manifestly unscientific knowledge, the Finnish Unscientific Society (Epätieteellinen seura), a whimsical society with members mainly from the University of Helsinki, organizes an event where a chosen Jaakko throws a cold stone into the Cholera basin. (
  • Saint Michael's churchyard - in one corner are the cholera pits where more than 40,000 people are said to be interred, mainly representing the common dead, the destitute, the workhouse inmates. (
  • travelers
  • Travelers to cholera-affected areas should be advised to avoid eating high-risk foods, especially fish and shellfish. (
  • populations
  • However, the case-fatality rate reaches 9% in remote areas, indicating that rural populations affected by cholera do not have access to treatment rapidly enough to save lives. (
  • Cholera has been found in two animal populations: shellfish and plankton. (
  • contaminated food
  • Thoroughly cooking potentially contaminated food and then carefully handling and storing cooked food will prevent foodborne cholera. (
  • quarantine
  • The plan has been adopted of taking cultures from the intestinal tracts of all persons held under observation at Quarantine, and in this way it was discovered that five of the 500 passengers of the Moltke and Perugia, although in excellent health at the time, were harboring cholera microbes. (