Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.BangladeshIntestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cholera Morbus: An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsFluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PhilippinesVaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

*  Cholera outbreak kills 194 in Haiti - World - CBC News

Haitian officals confirm that a cholera outbreak has killed 194 people and sickened thousands more in the country's deadliest ... No cholera outbreaks had been reported in Haiti for decades before the earthquake, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease ... Cholera is a waterborne bacterial infection spread through contaminated water. It causes severe diarrhea and vomiting that can ... "This outbreak is likely to get much larger, given our experience with cholera epidemics in the past," said Dr. Jon Arbus of the ...

*  Cholera Treatment, History, Prevention & Causes

Cholera is an infectious disease that can cause severe watery diarrhea, dehydration, and death. Read about symptoms, treatment ... What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?. *What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? ... What causes cholera, and how is cholera transmitted?. *What are risk factors for cholera, and where do cholera outbreaks occur? ... How Long Is Cholera Contagious?. A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no ...

*  As Haiti Cholera Outbreak Spreads, Agencies Scramble To Treat Patients (VIDEO) | Care2 Causes

As the cholera epidemic in Haiti rages on, the local population struggles not only to gain access to clean water, but also to ... As Haiti Cholera Outbreak Spreads, Agencies Scramble to Treat Patients (VIDEO). tweet email ... As the cholera epidemic in Haiti rages on, the local population struggles not only to gain access to clean water, but also to ... Cholera has not struck Haiti for more than a hundred years. Unfamiliar with the disease, the epidemic has sparked panic amongst ...

*  Meeting Cholera's Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care

Cholera vaccines Is the Subject Area "Cholera vaccines" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... 2011) Meeting Cholera's Challenge to Haiti and the World: A Joint Statement on Cholera Prevention and Care. PLoS Negl Trop Dis ... Delivery Challenges to Cholera Care in Haiti. A triage system of independent treatment sites-cholera treatment centers (CTCs) ... Cholera Is the Subject Area "Cholera" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...

*  The Dry Season in Haiti: a Window of Opportunity to Eliminate Cholera - PLOS Currents Outbreaks

As incidence of cholera decreases during the dry season, it is all the more important to enhance the fight against cholera ... Cholera must remain a health emergency and not a development issue. Cholera will not become endemic in the country if the ... 2: Monthly cholera attack rates and number of cholera-associated deaths in patients ≥5 years of age during the dry season 2012- ... Conclusion: Cholera continues to affect Haiti as observed in early 2013; however, activities implemented to interrupt cholera ...

*  Science : Cholera's deadly hitchhiker | New Scientist

THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to ... THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium. itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to ... cholera. toxin in disease-causing strains is capable of jumping from one bacterium to. another. They also found particles ... experimental cholera vaccines based on live, weakened bacteria whose toxin genes. have been removed. The virus could ferry the ...

*  Nigeria: Seven Die of Cholera in Borno IDP Camp - MSF -

... said no fewer than seven persons died of cholera outbreak in Maiduguri in the past three weeks. ... She stated that "in the last 24 hours, we received over 50 patients at MSF Cholera Treatment Unit at Dala. ... The humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), on Sunday, said no fewer than seven persons died of cholera ... MSF Scales Up Efforts to Contain Cholera Outbreak in Maiduguri The international medical humanitarian organization Doctors ...

*  WHO | Cholera - Nigeria

... was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event currently remains localized. The first cases of ... As of 30 June 2017, a total of 1558 suspected cases of cholera have been reported including 11 deaths (case fatality rate: 0.7 ... On 7 June 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event ... Between 1 May and 30 June 2017, suspected cholera cases in Kwara State were reported from five local government areas; Asa (18 ...

*  Fowl cholera - Wikipedia

Fowl cholera is also called avian cholera, avian pasteurellosis, avian hemorrhagic septicemia. [1] ... Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Chicken Cholera was Observed by Louis pasteur by luck ... Fowl cholera in the Merck Veterinary Manual. References[edit]. *^ K.R. Rhoades and R.B. Rimler, Avian pasteurellosis, in " ... Avian Cholera in Waterfowl: The role of Lesser Snow Geese and Ross's Geese Carriers in the Playa Lakes Region. Journal of ...

*  WHO | Cholera in Uganda

Cholera in Uganda. Disease Outbreaks Reported 19 May 2003 As of 30 April 2003, the Ugandan Ministry of Public Health has ...

*  Cholera in Louisiana -- Update

... Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. ... Impact of epidemic cholera in a previously uninfected island population: evaluation of a new seroepidemiologic method. Am J ... Cholera--a possible endemic focus in the United States. N Engl J Med 1980;302:305-9. ... Editorial Note: Thirteen cases of domestically acquired cholera (one involving a Florida patient (1)) have been detected near ...

*  WHO | Revised cholera kits

The revised cholera kits are designed to help prepare for a potential cholera outbreak and to support the first month of the ... The revised cholera kits are designed to help prepare for a potential cholera outbreak and to support the first month of the ... Cholera kit calculation tool. *This tool provides a quick and simple way to calculate and subsequently order the new cholera ... The revised cholera kits are designed to help prepare for a potential cholera outbreak and to support the first month of the ...

*  Cholera poster

The new poster for LOVE IN THE TIME CHOLERA asks the question 'how long would you wait for love?' My answer to that is about ... The new poster for LOVE IN THE TIME CHOLERA asks the question 'how long would you wait for love?' My answer to that is about ...

*  World66 - Cholera

Cholera [edit]. Description. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 or O-group ... The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. The manufacture and sale of the ... Travelers to cholera-affected areas should be advised to avoid eating high-risk foods, especially fish and shellfish. Food that ... Two recently developed vaccines for cholera are licens ed and available in other countries (Dukoral from Biotec AB and Mutacol ...

*  WHO | Cholera in South Africa

Cholera in South Africa 23 May 2003. Disease Outbreak Reported. The Department of Health has reported a cholera outbreak in the ... This is the third province after Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal to report a cholera outbreak this year. From 1 January to 28 ... From 26 April to 18 May, the cumulative number of suspected and confirmed cholera cases is 174 with 3 deaths (case fatality ... March 2003, the cumulative number of reported cholera cases in South Africa is 2362. ...

*  Cholera in Egypt | The BMJ

Cholera in Egypt. Br Med J 1896; 2 doi: (Published 31 October 1896) Cite this as: Br ...

*  Special Report: Cholera in Haiti - Redorbit

Special Report: Cholera in Haiti. Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haiti's growing cholera ...

*  The Cambridge Cholera Fungus | The BMJ

The Cambridge Cholera Fungus. Br Med J 1887; 1 doi: (Published 08 January 1887) Cite this ...

*  Cholera Outbreak Kills 80 in Nigeria

... an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24 ... Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people ... Hundreds of people die of cholera every year during the rainy season in Nigeria. Poor people who cannot afford basic health ... Health officials in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno have confirmed the death of at least 80 people in a cholera ...

*  IAMAT | Pakistan | Cholera

Selective Vaccinations: Cholera. Cases of Cholera have not been confirmed in this country recently. However, there is risk of ... Cholera and Other Vibrios. In: McGill, A; Ryan, E; Hill, D; Solomon, T, eds. Hunter's Tropical Medicine and Emerging Infectious ... Public Health Agency of Canada: Canadian Immunization Guide, Cholera Vaccine. *World Health Organization: International Travel ... Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. It is primarily associated with contaminated ...

*  Cholera by rachel maguire on Prezi

Transcript of Cholera. Cholera. Who Cares?. Mortality Rates:. - Treated quickly: ,1%. - Untreated: 50-60%. But isn't that just ... This is the specific signaling pathway that the Cholera Toxin affects.. The Cholera Toxin wreaks havoc by transferring ADP- ... OK, so cholera toxin causes some ions to be moved around, but how can a bunch of misplaced ions possibly kill so many people?. ... Cholera affects an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 58,000-130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. In the early ...

*  Cholera Hides a Sinister Stowaway | Science News

In the Dec. 23 & Jan. 6 SN: Our top stories of 2017, grounded pterosaur hatchlings, protectors of the Dead Sea Scrolls, a counterintuitive metamaterial, neutron star sizing, arrow of time reversed, E. coli in flour and more. ...

*  Florida woman diagnosed with cholera -

A woman who recently returned to Florida from Haiti has been diagnosed with cholera, the Florida Department of Health announced ... Symptoms of cholera, an acute, bacterial illness caused by drinking tainted water or eating contaminated food, can be mild or ... Haiti's cholera outbreak has now spread across the border to the Dominican Republic, where health officials issued a maximum ... This case is not unexpected and we're likely to see more imported cases of cholera in people who travel back from Haiti to the ...

Cholera outbreaks and pandemics: Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen some places and not others. Lack of treatment of human feces and lack of treatment of drinking water greatly facilitate its spread.AB5 toxin: The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit.Cholera vaccineEl Tor: El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V.GM3: GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) is a type of ganglioside. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and M is for monosialic acid as it has one sialic acid only.Crime in Haiti: Crime in Haiti is investigated by the Haitian police.CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system: The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins, one a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin) and the other its specific antidote (antitoxin). These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing).Economy of ChittagongErepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Heat-labile enterotoxin family: In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A chain is needed for enzymatic activity.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Sanitation: Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.Cyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.Crosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.AB toxin: The AB toxins are two-component protein complexes secreted by a number of pathogenic bacteria. They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.GlycolipidPertussis toxinGuanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.Nasal administrationImmunizationFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.John McLellan (songwriter): John McLellan (who lived in the early nineteenth century) was a Tyneside poet/songwriter.List of birds of Guinea-Bissau: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guinea-Bissau. The avifauna of Guinea-Bissau include a total of 470 species, of which one is rare or accidental.JejunumNew Zealand rabbitVaccinationNewington Green Unitarian ChurchPasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934ColforsinBucladesinePhoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc.: Phoenix}}Public water systemCopper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Classical swine fever: Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs).ATC code A07: ==A07A Intestinal anti-infectives==

(1/1261) Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

(2/1261) Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera?

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

(3/1261) Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

(4/1261) How intestinal bacteria cause disease.

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

(5/1261) Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

(6/1261) A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea.

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

(7/1261) Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh.

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

(8/1261) Cholera in the 1990s.

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

outbreak of cholera

  • In total, 98,596 cases of cholera and 4,369 deaths were reported, making this the largest outbreak of cholera ever recorded in Zimbabwe. (
  • 1854: An outbreak of cholera in Chicago took the lives of 5.5% of the population (about 3,500 people). (
  • A lack of clean drinking water in Iraq in 2007 led to an outbreak of cholera. (
  • The seventh cholera pandemic was the seventh major outbreak of cholera and occurred from the years 1961 to the 1970s and has continued (though much diminished) to the present. (
  • The 2010-2017 Haitian cholera outbreak was the first modern large scale outbreak of cholera, once considered a beaten back disease with a preventative vaccine, yet now resurgent, having spread across Haiti from October 2010 to May 2017, waxing and waning with eradication effort and climate variability. (
  • The sixth cholera pandemic (1899-1923) was a major outbreak of cholera beginning in India, where it killed more than 800,000 people, and spreading to the Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia. (
  • According to Leonard Rogers, following an outbreak of cholera at the Haridwar Kumbh Mela, the epidemic spread to Europe via Punjab, Afghanistan, Persia, and southern Russia. (


  • Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 or O-group 139. (
  • Cholera is most frequently transmitted by water sources contaminated with the causative bacterium Vibrio cholerae , although contaminated foods, especially raw shellfish, may also transmit the cholera-causing bacteria. (
  • A person is no longer contagious for cholera when they have no cholera symptoms and no detectable Vibrio bacteria in their stools. (
  • Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium, Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), which usually results in a painless, watery diarrhea in humans. (
  • We've seen it so far moving between two strains of Vibrio cholerae [the cholera bacterium] but there is no reason why it should not move from, say, V. cholerae to Shigella," says Mekalanos. (
  • Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae bacteria. (
  • Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others. (
  • Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • This is a timeline of cholera, a disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (
  • The 2008 cholera outbreak was caused by widespread infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae which is spread through water contaminated with the feces of infected individuals. (
  • On 21 October, the Haiti National Public Health Laboratory confirmed that the cases of severe diarrhea were due to Vibrio cholera serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa. (


  • Cholera--a possible endemic focus in the United States. (
  • An inactivated oral vaccine is available in Canada and countries where Cholera may be endemic. (
  • In addition, Vietnam incorporates oral cholera vaccination in its public health programme and over nine million doses have been administered through targeted mass vaccination or immunization of school-aged children in cholera endemic regions. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends both preventive and reactive use of the vaccine, making the following key statements: WHO recommends that current available cholera vaccines be used as complements to traditional control and preventive measures in areas where the disease is endemic and should be considered in areas at risk for outbreaks. (
  • Cholera was endemic to the lower Ganges River. (
  • In the aftermath of the earthquake, international workers from many countries arrived in Haiti to assist in the rebuilding effort, including a number of workers from countries where cholera was endemic. (

suspected cholera cases

  • 2 kits list the equipment needed for the investigation of cholera outbreaks and for the laboratory confirmation of suspected cholera cases. (


  • Mekalanos and Waldor believe that the CTX virus must have infiltrated a once-harmless strain of V. cholerae to create the strain responsible for the first great cholera pandemic of 1817. (
  • The first cholera pandemic, though previously restricted, began in Bengal, and then spread across India by 1820. (
  • During this pandemic, the scientific community varied in its beliefs about the causes of cholera. (
  • The third cholera pandemic mainly affected Russia, with over one million deaths. (
  • Research has traced the origin of the strain to the seventh cholera pandemic. (
  • The first cholera pandemic (1817-24), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near Calcutta and spread throughout Southeast Asia to the Middle East, eastern Africa and the Mediterranean coast. (
  • The first cholera pandemic started similarly, as an outbreak that was suspected to have begun in 1817 in the town of Jessore. (
  • The first known pandemic of cholera originated in the Ganges River delta in India. (

outbreaks of cholera

  • Outbreaks of cholera in 2015-2016 include South Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, and Kenya, with over 216 deaths and most recently, 121 people diagnosed with cholera in Iraq, their first outbreak since 2012 and in Cuba, the first outbreak in over 130 years. (
  • Guinea and other West African countries regularly face outbreaks of cholera, a deadly illness caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the cholera bacteria. (
  • In the USA Outbreaks of cholera took place in 1834, 1849, and 1861. (
  • Japan suffered at least seven major outbreaks of cholera between 1858 and 1902. (
  • Earlier outbreaks of cholera had occurred near Purnia in Bihar, but scholars think these were independent events. (


  • Two recently developed vaccines for cholera are licens ed and available in other countries (Dukoral from Biotec AB and Mutacol from Berna). (
  • some protection can be obtained from oral vaccines while avoiding areas where cholera commonly occurs or has had a recent outbreak. (
  • But, he warns, it doesn't bode well for experimental cholera vaccines based on live, weakened bacteria whose toxin genes have been removed. (
  • Vaccines have certainly a role to play in cholera control, but it's not a panacea. (
  • Now the recommendation is to use cholera vaccines to eliminate cholera in Zanzibar by having three vaccination rounds over a period of 10 years, along with improved water and sanitation. (
  • Cholera vaccines that are given by mouth provide reasonable protection for about six months. (
  • Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of cholera vaccines in combination with other measures among those at high risk. (
  • The first vaccines used against cholera were developed in the late 1800s. (
  • Oral cholera vaccines are increasingly used as an additional tool to control cholera outbreaks in combination with the traditional interventions to improve safe water supply, sanitation, handwashing and other means to improve hygiene. (
  • Since licensure of Dukoral and Shanchol, over a million doses of these vaccines have been deployed in various mass oral cholera campaigns around the world. (

World Health Organ

  • On 7 June 2017, World Health Organization (WHO) was notified of a cholera outbreak in Kwara State, Nigeria, where the event currently remains localized. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has maps of current and past areas with cholera outbreaks (see WHO reference). (
  • Note that the World Health Organization announced in 1991 that Cholera vaccination certificates are no longer required for entry by any country or territory. (
  • Claire-Lise Chaignat is a cholera expert at the World Health Organization in Geneva. (


  • On 15 June 2017, clinicians from the three most affected local government areas were trained on cholera case management, and infection prevention and control (IPC). (
  • Although a person may be no longer contagious for cholera, the infection does not provide enough immunity to prevent the person from coming down with cholera again if reexposed to the bacteria. (
  • CTX is responsible for the massive, watery diarrhea characteristic of cholera infection. (
  • The cholera vaccine is largely used by backpackers and persons visiting locations where there is a high risk of cholera infection. (

areas with cholera outbreaks

  • Travellers living and working in areas with cholera outbreaks, including refugee camps, are at increased risk - particularly those a weakened immune system, persons who have had surgery for duodenal or gastric ulcers or taking antacid therapy, and cannabis users (smoking marijuana reduces stomach acid secretion). (


  • THE toxin that makes cholera lethal belongs not to the cholera bacterium itself, but to a threadlike virus which hijacks it to hitch a ride into cells. (
  • Their suspicions were roused when they found that the sequence of genes which encodes the cholera toxin in disease-causing strains is capable of jumping from one bacterium to another. (
  • Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Late Prof. Sambhu Nath De at Kolkata (India) The cholera toxin is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A, enzymatic), and five copies of the B subunit (part B, receptor binding), denoted as AB5. (
  • Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the surface of target cells. (
  • Once bound, the entire toxin complex is endocytosed by the cell and the cholera toxin A1 (CTA1) chain is released by the reduction of a disulfide bridge. (
  • The gene encoding the cholera toxin is introduced into V. cholerae by horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Treatment of cultured rodent neural stem cells with cholera toxin induces changes in the localization of the transcription factor Hes3 and increases their numbers. (
  • WC-rBS (marketed as "Dukoral") is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. (


  • On August 29, 1909 The New York Times reported further cholera riots in Russia Asiatic cholera reached Britain in 1831, with the main epidemic occurring during 1832. (
  • In the summer of 1832, a series of cholera riots occurred in various towns and cities throughout Britain, frequently directed against the authorities, doctors, or both. (
  • The Liverpool Cholera Riots of 1832 demonstrate the complex social responses to epidemic disease, as well as the fragile interface between the public and the medical profession. (
  • The cholera of 1832 was called the fulfillment of the second visitation : accordingly, many of the older inhabitants talk of one still being in reserve. (
  • Wantage - 19 victims of the 1832 cholera outbreak were buried behind Wantage church. (
  • Norkolk Park - "a neat and appropriate monument has been erected in norfolk-road, opposite the shrewsbury hospitals, in memory of those who died in sheffield from the ravages of the cholera in 1832, and who were buried on this spot. (
  • Gallow Hill (NH 8025 9017) - a little to the north of the small wooded eminence of Gallow Hill in the parish of Dornoch was located a small enclosure which was used as a burying ground in the year 1832 for the burial of persons dying of cholera. (


  • Once the bacteria gets introduced into a population of susceptible birds, an outbreak of acute avian cholera follows. (
  • Symptoms of cholera, an acute, bacterial illness caused by drinking tainted water or eating contaminated food, can be mild or even nonexistent. (


  • Cholera is a disease caused by bacteria that produce a watery diarrhea that can rapidly lead to dehydration . (
  • Cholera, an infectious disease that affects people through drinking water contaminated with cholera bacteria, can kill people within 24 hours by inducing vomiting and diarrhea. (
  • Cholera bacteria conserve energy and stored nutrients while passing through the highly acidic environment of the stomach which, thanks to Cholera's sensitivity to acid, is successful in killing a majority of bacteria, but children, older adults, and people who take antacids have lower levels of stomach acid, so they lack this first line of defense. (

Asiatic Cholera

  • Joseph C. Hutchison, M.D., treated victims of Asiatic cholera at the Brooklyn, New York Cholera Hospital in 1854. (
  • An early 19th century incidence of asiatic cholera in Europe was recorded in Russia and other continental countries in the spring of 1831. (

case of cholera

  • Five of these sites are in towns without a clinically identified case of cholera. (
  • A case of cholera developed today in the steerage of the Hamburg-American liner Moltke, which has been detained at quarantine as a possible cholera carrier since Monday last. (

epidemic cholera

  • Impact of epidemic cholera in a previously uninfected island population: evaluation of a new seroepidemiologic method. (
  • A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera: As Observed in the Duane-Street Cholera Hospital, New York, During Its Prevalence There in 1834. (
  • By the first 10 weeks of the epidemic, cholera spread to all of Haiti's 10 departments or provinces. (


  • Cholera Riots refers to civil disturbances associated with an outbreak or epidemic of cholera. (
  • The Cholera Riots (Холерные бунты in Russian) were the riots of the urban population, peasants and soldiers in Russia in 1830-1831 during the cholera outbreak. (
  • The riots were caused by the anti-cholera measures, undertaken by the tsarist government, such as quarantine, armed cordons and migratory restrictions. (
  • The Cholera Riots were aggressively suppressed by the tsarist government. (
  • In the same year, riots were reported in Exeter as people objected to the burial of cholera-infected bodies in local graveyards. (
  • Russia, cholera riots of 1830 -1831" (PDF). (


  • The public perception was that cholera victims were being removed to the hospital to be killed by doctors in order to use them for anatomical dissection. (
  • They believed that the disease was transmitted when people breathed the air which cholera victims exhaled. (
  • Often the bodies of cholera victims were wrapped in cotton or linen and doused in coal-tar or pitch before placing into a coffin. (
  • Cholera claimed 200,000 victims in Mexico. (
  • On 1 December 2016, the UN's Secretary-General publicly apologized for the spread of cholera, and announced the UN's New Approach to Cholera in Haiti to end the cholera epidemic in Haiti and provide restitution to victims of cholera. (
  • 1911. In New York, up to July 22, there were eleven deaths from cholera, one of the victims being an employee at the hospital on Swinburne Island, who had been discharged. (


  • Cholera affects an estimated 3-5 million people worldwide and causes 58,000-130,000 deaths a year as of 2010. (
  • Troops were regularly placed to prevent entry or exit during cholera outbreaks and normal burial in Beith was impossible and impractical, given the number of deaths. (
  • Cholera deaths in the Russian Empire during a similar time period exceeded 2 million. (
  • As of 12 December 2012, hospitalizations (2,300 per week) and deaths (40 per week) had roughly tripled since Hurricane Sandy struck the island in what was expected to be a quiet cholera season. (
  • Cholera caused more deaths than all deaths related to the hurricane. (
  • In late June 2012, Cuba confirmed three deaths and 53 cases of cholera in Manzanillo, in 2013 with 51 cases in Havana. (


  • Robert Bazell (NBC Nightly News) reports on the fight to hold back Haiti's growing cholera epidemic as torrential rainfall is expected in a place where millions are without shelter. (
  • Haiti's cholera outbreak has now spread across the border to the Dominican Republic, where health officials issued a maximum health alert. (
  • By the end of October cholera had been confirmed in four of Haiti's ten departments: Artibonite, Centre, Nord and Ouest, including the capital Port-au-Prince, and the capital's Cité Soleil district. (

makes cholera

  • Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen in some places and not others. (

prevent cholera

  • Vaccination should not disrupt the provision of other high priority health interventions to control or prevent cholera outbreaks. (


  • The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. (
  • Local authorities, however, may continue to require documentation of vaccination against cholera. (
  • She said vaccination is becoming increasingly prominent in cholera prevention, pointing to a project in Zanzibar, in eastern Africa, where broad vaccination campaigns are planned. (
  • Reactive vaccination might be considered in view of limiting the extent of large prolonged outbreaks, provided the local infrastructure allows it, and an in-depth analysis of past cholera data and identification of a defined target area have been performed. (

Causal Agent

  • Their use continued well after the causal agent of cholera was established. (


  • 1991. Epizootiology of Avian Cholera in Wildfowl. (


  • By 1923, cholera had receded from most of the world, although many cases were still present in India. (
  • Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview" (PDF). (
  • The Conditions Influencing the Incidence and Spread of Cholera in India. (


  • The study of cholera in England by John Snow between 1849 and 1854 led to significant advances in the field of epidemiology. (
  • The total number of cholera cases was well below the nearly 5,000 reported in 1849. (
  • Cholera hit Ireland in 1849 and killed many of the Irish Famine survivors, already weakened by starvation and fever. (
  • That year, cholera was transmitted along the California, Mormon and Oregon Trails as 6,000 to 12,000 are believed to have died on their way to the California Gold Rush, Utah and Oregon in the cholera years of 1849-1855. (


  • Because seafood from the Gulf Coast is shipped to many states, even physicians located far from the Gulf should consider the possibility of cholera when a patient has severe, watery diarrhea. (
  • Cholera symptoms and signs include a rapid onset of copious, smelly diarrhea that resembles rice water and may lead to signs of dehydration (for example, vomiting , wrinkled skin, low blood pressure , dry mouth , rapid heart rate). (
  • The primary symptoms of cholera are profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid. (
  • An untreated person with cholera may produce 10 to 20 litres (3 to 5 US gal) of diarrhea a day. (
  • People infected with cholera often have diarrhea, and disease transmission may occur if this highly liquid stool, colloquially referred to as "rice-water", contaminates water used by others. (


  • However, since it does not provide 100 percent immunity from the disease, food hygiene precautions should also be taken into consideration when visiting an area where there is a high risk of becoming infected with cholera. (
  • as such the population of Haiti had little to no immunity to cholera. (

19th century

  • Long term risks It is considered that the cholera risk posed through disturbance of cholera pits from the 19th century is non-existent as transmission is through contaminated water or food. (


  • Only about one in 10 people infected with cholera develop the typical signs and symptoms. (
  • This would expedite the care of infected persons who could be treated immediately following the onset of cholera symptoms. (
  • Hutchison administered a simple treatment to alleviate cholera symptoms. (


  • In March of 2015, another outbreak of avian cholera killed roughly 2,000 snow geese in northern Idaho while flying their spring migration to Canada. (


  • The source of the contamination is typically other cholera sufferers when their untreated diarrheal discharge is allowed to get into waterways, groundwater or drinking water supplies. (
  • A few weeks afterward a second hospital for cholera sufferers was opened at a schoolhouse on Mott Street (Manhattan). (


  • This case is not unexpected and we're likely to see more imported cases of cholera in people who travel back from Haiti to the United States,' said Tom Skinner, spokesman for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. (
  • In the past five years, 44 cases of cholera have been reported in the United States, according to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Verhoustraeten said the agency will not base future cholera prevention efforts on the vaccine. (
  • Prevention methods against cholera include improved sanitation and access to clean water. (


  • Since mid-August 1986, 12 cases of cholera have been identified among residents of Louisiana. (
  • Editorial Note: Thirteen cases of domestically acquired cholera (one involving a Florida patient (1)) have been detected near the U.S. Gulf coast so far during 1986. (
  • From 1 January to 28 March 2003, the cumulative number of reported cholera cases in South Africa is 2362. (
  • Cases of Cholera have not been confirmed in this country recently. (
  • Most cholera cases in developed countries are a result of transmission by food, while in the developing world it is more often water. (
  • The Physician of Cholera Hospital published daily reports of the number of cholera cases received at the Franklin Street facility. (
  • In late August 1854 New York City Commissioners of Health decided to stop reporting news of cholera infections, so greatly had the frequency of new cases declined in New York City. (
  • Cholera cases from this outbreak were also reported in neighboring countries South Africa, Malawi, Botswana, Mozambique, and Zambia. (


  • Cholera Hospital was established on June 24, 1854, at Franklin Street in New York City. (
  • The institution was built to treat cholera patients who were denied admittance to City Hospital in Manhattan during an onset of the disease in the summer of 1854. (
  • In 1852, cholera spread east to Indonesia, and later was carried to China and Japan in 1854. (


  • A cholera pit was a burial place used in a time of emergency when the disease was prevalent. (
  • According to Médecins Sans Frontières, the spread of cholera from urban to rural areas from December 2008 onwards was due to infected city-dwellers visiting their families' rural homes for Christmas and the burial of infected city-dwellers in rural areas. (


  • Internally displaced children suffering from cholera sleep inside a ward at Banadir hospital in Somalia's capital Mogadishu, August 2011. (
  • A book published by a New York physician in 1835 shows that a hospital called the Duane-Street Cholera Hospital existed in New York as early as 1835, but the relationship between the Duane-Street hospital and the Cholera Hospital at Franklin Street is unclear. (
  • 265 people succumbed at Cholera Hospital (Franklin Street) and 57 died at the Mott Street hospital. (
  • They recommended the ill be quarantined at Cholera Hospital. (
  • It was falsely reported that Cholera Hospital received patients suffering from smallpox, typhus, and other contagious diseases. (


  • Severe cholera, without treatment, kills about half of affected individuals. (
  • The combined effects result in rapid fluid loss from the intestine, up to 2 liters per hour, leading to severe dehydration and other factors associated with cholera, including a rice-water stool. (

rainy season

  • Hundreds of people die of cholera every year during the rainy season in Nigeria. (
  • With this, the onset of the rainy season led to cholera-contaminated faeces being washed into water sources, in particular public drains, as well as providing readily available but contaminated water. (


  • In 1834 cholera broke out in Beith and although 'clothes were burned, bedding fumigated, stairs and closes whitewashed, a nurse who was a veteran of the Dalry outbreak was engaged and a ban placed on entertainments at funerals. (


  • and in 1823 cholera reached Astrakhan, Zanzibar, and Mauritius. (


  • Poor sanitation conditions observed in the affected communities is one of the predisposing factors for this cholera outbreak. (
  • Thanks to water treatment and sanitation practices, Cholera is no longer a major health threat in developed countries, but it has been known to spread through seafood, and it is still very much an issue in other countries. (
  • Our medical system, as well as our water and sanitation programs, are such that we are not going to see cholera spreading in the United States the way it is in Haiti. (


  • How Long Is Cholera Contagious? (
  • MSF points out that the cholera vaccine cannot be used alone, but rather is just one tool against this highly contagious yet preventable disease. (
  • Dr. Valey and Dr. Gull, who treated New York City cholera patients at this time, reported that cholera was only contagious when persons came in contact with those who are sick already. (



  • Rapid treatment with fluid and electrolytes result in better outcomes while people with other health problems beside cholera or those who are not rapidly replenished with fluid treatments tend to have a poorer prognosis. (
  • Health officials in the northeastern Nigerian state of Borno have confirmed the death of at least 80 people in a cholera outbreak. (
  • DAKAR, Senegal - The medical aid group, Doctors Without Borders, has vaccinated more than 100,000 people against cholera in Guinea. (
  • The group says this is the first intervention of its kind in Africa, where people were vaccinated during a major cholera outbreak. (
  • MSF intervened with the vaccine following an outbreak in the region - the first time people in Africa are receiving protection during a cholera epidemic. (
  • During an epidemic of the disease cholera in 1836, people in the region improvised a dish involving pastry and whatever food they had at hand, as normal trade was disrupted. (
  • None of the people who attended the gathering wanted to stop attending to the needs of cholera patients. (
  • Saint Michael's churchyard - in one corner are the cholera pits where more than 40,000 people are said to be interred, mainly representing the common dead, the destitute, the workhouse inmates. (
  • The cholera outbreak extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea in Europe, before receding. (
  • Over 15,000 people died of cholera in Mecca in 1846. (
  • Between 100,000 and 200,000 people died of cholera in Tokyo in an outbreak in 1858-60. (
  • The last cholera outbreak in the United States was in 1910-1911 when the steamship Moltke brought infected people to New York City from Naples. (


  • (CNN) -- A woman who recently returned to Florida from Haiti has been diagnosed with cholera, the Florida Department of Health announced Wednesday. (
  • We have laboratory confirmation that it is the type of cholera spreading in Haiti,' said Florida Department of Health spokesman Rob Hayes. (
  • In terms of total infections, the outbreak since been surpassed by the war-fueled 2016-17 Yemen cholera outbreak, although the Haiti outbreak is still the most deadly modern outbreak. (
  • This presented an opportunity for cholera to spread to Haiti. (


  • In 1817, cholera began spreading outside the Ganges delta. (



  • Travelers to cholera-affected areas should be advised to avoid eating high-risk foods, especially fish and shellfish. (


  • Cholera afflicted Mexico's populations in 1833 and 1850, prompting officials to quarantine some populations and fumigate buildings, particularly in major urban centers, but nonetheless the epidemics were disastrous. (


  • For several years, agencies supporting preparedness and response to cholera outbreaks have supplied medicines and medical devices through the Interagency Diarrhoeal Disease Kits (IDDK). (
  • The tool is best suited to estimate needs relating to cholera preparedness. (


  • Cholera, believed spread from Irish immigrant ship(s) from England, spread throughout the Mississippi river system, killing over 4,500 in St. Louis and over 3,000 in New Orleans. (


  • Cholera outbreaks and pandemics Hays, J. N. (2005-01-01). (
  • Cholera outbreaks and pandemics Hays, JN (2005). (


  • The widespread cholera rioting in Liverpool was thus as much related to local anatomical issues as it was to the national epidemic. (


  • The main treatment for cholera is fluid and electrolyte replacement, both oral and IV. (




  • Birds with chronic avian cholera, more common in domestic fowl, exhibit prolonged illness with more localized infections. (


  • In order to improve laboratory investigations, cholera rapid diagnostic tests are being distributed to selected facilities and health care staff trained on their use. (


  • The United States believed that cholera was brought by recent immigrants, specifically the Irish, and epidemiologists understand they were carrying disease from British ports. (


  • Cholera has been found in two animal populations: shellfish and plankton. (


  • The plan has been adopted of taking cultures from the intestinal tracts of all persons held under observation at Quarantine, and in this way it was discovered that five of the 500 passengers of the Moltke and Perugia, although in excellent health at the time, were harboring cholera microbes. (


  • Testing to see which antibiotic the cholera is susceptible to can help guide the choice. (