Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vibrio cholerae O1: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 1. All are CHOLERA-causing strains (serotypes). There are two biovars (biotypes): cholerae and eltor (El Tor).G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Haiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Vibrio cholerae O139: Strains of VIBRIO CHOLERAE containing O ANTIGENS group 139. This strain emerged in India in 1992 and caused a CHOLERA epidemic.BangladeshIntestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Gangliosides: A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cholera Morbus: An old term that is no longer used in the scientific literature. Cholera morbus refers to acute GASTROENTERITIS occurring in summer or autumn; characterized by severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Vibrio cholerae non-O1: A strain of the VIBRIO CHOLERAE bacteria belonging to serogroup non-O1, infecting humans and other PRIMATES. It is related to VIBRIO CHOLERAE O1, but causes a disease less severe than CHOLERA. Eating raw shellfish contaminated with the bacteria results in GASTROENTERITIS.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Nucleoside Diphosphate SugarsFluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)PhilippinesVaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Democratic Republic of the Congo: A republic in central Africa, east of the REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, south of the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and north of ANGOLA and ZAMBIA. The capital is Kinshasa.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Antidiarrheals: Miscellaneous agents found useful in the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. They have no effect on the agent(s) that cause diarrhea, but merely alleviate the condition.

*  Cholera | MSF USA

Cholera often breaks out when there is overcrowding and inadequate access to clean water, trash collection, and proper toilets ... Video of Displaced People in Nigeria Face Cholera Outbreaks. Diagnosing Cholera. Cholera can be diagnosed by examining stool ... What Causes Cholera?. Cholera is caused by an infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium ... Symptoms of Cholera. Typically, symptoms of cholera appear within two to three days of infection. However, it can take anywhere ...

*  World66 - Cholera

Cholera [edit]. Description. Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 or O-group ... The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. The manufacture and sale of the ... Travelers to cholera-affected areas should be advised to avoid eating high-risk foods, especially fish and shellfish. Food that ... Two recently developed vaccines for cholera are licens ed and available in other countries (Dukoral from Biotec AB and Mutacol ...

*  Cholera in Haiti - The CRUDEM Foundation, Inc

The Cholera Patient Faces Severe Challenges. In the vast majority of patients, cholera is a mild (or asymptomatic) illness. In ... The Future of Cholera in Haiti. Given Haiti's profound deficiencies in sanitation, cholera will likely become an endemic ... Clinical Presentation of Cholera. Cholera is a diarrheal disease which can rapidly dehydrate infected persons due to tremendous ... Cholera is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. This means that cholera transmission only occurs through the consumption of ...

*  Can Vaccines Break Cholera's Deadly Hold On Haiti? | KASU

The cholera outbreak in Haiti is currently the worst ongoing episode in the world. Over the past 15 months, it has sickened ... "Cholera vaccine has never been used in an acute, ongoing epidemic of cholera, and so there are some unanswered questions about ... JOHN VERTEFEUILLE: Cholera vaccine has never been used in an acute, ongoing epidemic of cholera. And so there are some ... The cholera outbreak began near a United Nations peacekeeping base housing Nepalese soldiers. The strain of cholera that raced ...

*  Controlling Endemic Cholera with Oral Vaccines

... of the population could control cholera transmission in an endemic region. ... Cholera vaccines Is the Subject Area "Cholera vaccines" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Cholera Is the Subject Area "Cholera" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...

*  Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination in Zanzibar - Tabular View -

Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination in Zanzibar. Official Title ICMJE Mass Oral Cholera Vaccination in High-risk Populations in ... A recent study comparing cholera rates in sites in Asia and Africa has shown that the burden of cholera is greatest in young ... We propose to carry out mass oral cholera vaccinations in populations at high risk for cholera in Zanzibar followed by an ... Safety of the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, killed whole-cell (rBS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in pregnancy. PLoS Negl Trop ...

*  Scientists unlock evolution of cholera, identify strain responsible for early pandemics | EurekAlert! Science News

... researchers at McMaster University and the University of Sydney have traced the bacterium behind a global cholera pandemic that ... Despite many known cholera burials, access to historical cholera DNA had seemed impossible since it can only be found in soft- ... The results, currently published in The New England Journal of Medicine, could lead to a better understanding of cholera and ... That strain of cholera had remained a mystery because researchers were unable to examine samples from early victims. The ...

*  ASMscience | Animal Models in Cholera

For all of the remarkable advances that have been made in cholera research at the bench, the real answers will have to be ... Ever since the discovery of the etiologic agent of cholera, there have been attempts to develop suitable animal models for ... The major animal models that have been employed in cholera research and some examples of the valuable information provided by ... Our current knowledge of cholera and the highly effective oral treatment of the disease could not have been attained without ...

*  The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Cholera in the Gilbert Islands

This outbreak raises the concern of other outbreaks of cholera occurring on remote and poorly equipped Pacific islands where ... Abstract An explosive epidemic of cholera due to Vibrio cholerae, biotype El Tor, serotype Inaba, was centered on the coral ... the environmental circumstances are conducive to cholera spread. ... Cholera in the Gilbert Islands I. Epidemiological Features * ... Social and News Media Enable Estimation of Epidemiological Patterns Early in the 2010 Haitian Cholera Outbreak Authors: Rumi ...

*  Full text of "Pathogenic Bacteria"

CHOLERA. 325 necrosis and perhaps death. Protection certainly seems to follow the operation of these vaccines. Haffkine's ... From his latest paper (Dec., 1895) the following extract will show the results: "i. In all those instances where cholera has ...

*  Technology - Development of Peptide Mimics of GM1 Ganglioside: A Prophylactic for Cholera

Also, existing cholera treatments such as vaccines are expensive and require complex logistics for distribution. ... Tech ID: 2012-004 Title: Peptide Mimics for Treatment of GM-1 Associated Diseases Including Cholera and Guillain-Barre Syndrome ... Exemplary diseases or disorders involving GM1 include, but are not limited to cholera, Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), lupus, ... and replaces expensive vaccine based treatments that are prohibitive in cost and distribution for areas endemic with cholera. ...

*  PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Peer-Reviewed Open-Access Journal

Cholera remains an important cause of diarrhea globally, and V. cholerae continues to cause major epidemics in the most ... cholerae infection among people living in the same household with a patient with severe cholera who are at high risk of ... Author SummaryVibrio cholerae is the bacterium that causes cholera, a severe form of diarrhea that leads to rapid and ... Infection in a Cohort of Household Contacts of Patients with Cholera in Bangladesh. Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Chowdhury F, Khan ...

*  Medical group blasts 'inadequate' response to Haiti cholera outbreak -

While the United Nations warned that protests were hampering efforts to save lives in the Haiti cholera outbreak, a leading non ... NEW: Ten inmates in Haiti's largest prison have died of cholera. *The U.N. warns people will die if protesters block access to ... The International Committee of the Red Cross said Friday that 30 new cases of cholera have been reported in the last three days ... Medical group blasts 'inadequate' response to Haiti cholera outbreak. From Ivan Watson, CNN. ...

*  Cholera | Need to Know | PBS

The closest most of us have come to cholera is through reading the works of Gabriel Garcia Marquez. But an outbreak Haiti has ... The closest most of us have come to cholera is through reading the works of Gabriel Garcia Marquez. But an outbreak Haiti has ... 1. Cholera is caused by ingestion of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. When a person consumes infected food or water, cholera ... In the developed world, the closest most of us have come to cholera is through reading the works of Gabriel García Márquez or ...

*  Cholera

Learn about cholera and how to prevent it. ... While cholera isn't common in the U.S., it can be a health ... Some countries have cholera vaccines that can help protect people against cholera for a short while. Because cholera isn't a ... About Cholera. Cholera is an intestinal infection caused the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This bacterium produces a potent toxin ... Anti-diarrheal medicines can actually make the symptoms of cholera worse, so if your child has cholera (or you think your child ...

*  Cholera

Learn about cholera and how to prevent it. ... While cholera isn't common in the U.S., it can be a health ...

*  cholera : NPR

After Bringing Cholera To Haiti, U.N. Plans To Get Rid Of It. Listen · 3:56 3:56. ... A Cholera Vaccine Halts New Cases In A Guinea Epidemic. May 28, 2014 The study is the first to test an oral vaccine in the ... After Bringing Cholera To Haiti, U.N. Plans To Get Rid Of It. January 12, 2013 On the third anniversary of Haiti's devastating ... A vaccine against cholera bacteria like these protected people in Zanzibar. CDC hide caption ...

*  CDC - Cholera (Redirect)

This page is found at ...

*  Cholera | The BMJ

Cholera. Br Med J 1961; 1 doi: (Published 10 June 1961) Cite this as: Br Med J 1961;1: ...

*  WHO | Cholera in Uganda

Cholera in Uganda. Disease Outbreaks Reported 19 May 2003 As of 30 April 2003, the Ugandan Ministry of Public Health has ...

*  cholera | Londonist

Tagged in CHOLERA. London's manholes are fascinating - here's why Cholera, trams, and even Roman London. ... Cholera Crusher: John Snow Anniversary Walks And Exhibition Not the Channel 4 newsreader. He's a 'Jon'. ...

*  cholera

Tag: ...

Cholera outbreaks and pandemics: Although much is known about the mechanisms behind the spread of cholera, this has not led to a full understanding of what makes cholera outbreaks happen some places and not others. Lack of treatment of human feces and lack of treatment of drinking water greatly facilitate its spread.AB5 toxin: The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five components make up the B subunit.Cholera vaccineEl Tor: El Tor is the name given to a particular strain of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Also known as V.GM3: GM3 (monosialodihexosylganglioside) is a type of ganglioside. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and M is for monosialic acid as it has one sialic acid only.Crime in Haiti: Crime in Haiti is investigated by the Haitian police.CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system: The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins, one a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin) and the other its specific antidote (antitoxin). These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing).Economy of ChittagongErepsin: Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids. It is produced and secreted by the intestinal glands in the ileum and the pancreas.Heat-labile enterotoxin family: In molecular biology, the heat-labile enterotoxin family includes Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and cholera toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A chain is needed for enzymatic activity.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Sanitation: Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.Cyclase-associated protein family: In molecular biology, the cyclase-associated protein family (CAP) is a family of highly conserved actin-binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, flies, plants, and mammals. CAPs are multifunctional proteins that contain several structural domains.Crosstalk (biology): Biological crosstalk refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another. This can be achieved through a number of ways with the most common form being crosstalk between proteins of signalling cascades.Congenital chloride diarrhea: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, also congenital chloridorrhea or Darrow Gamble syndrome) is a genetic disorder due to an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7. The mutation is in downregulated-in-adenoma (DRA), a gene that encodes a membrane protein of intestinal cells.AB toxin: The AB toxins are two-component protein complexes secreted by a number of pathogenic bacteria. They can be classified as Type III toxins because they interfere with internal cell function.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Vibrio campbellii: Vibrio campbellii is a Gram-negative, curved rod-shaped, marine bacterium closely related to its sister species, Vibrio harveyi. It is an emerging pathogen in aquatic organisms.GlycolipidPertussis toxinGuanylate-binding protein: In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases that is induced by interferon (IFN)-gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma (Interferon-inducible GTPase) are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens.Nasal administrationImmunizationFecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.John McLellan (songwriter): John McLellan (who lived in the early nineteenth century) was a Tyneside poet/songwriter.List of birds of Guinea-Bissau: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guinea-Bissau. The avifauna of Guinea-Bissau include a total of 470 species, of which one is rare or accidental.JejunumNew Zealand rabbitVaccinationNewington Green Unitarian ChurchPasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Dilip Mahalanabis: Dilip Mahalanabis (born November 12, 1934ColforsinBucladesinePhoenix Petroleum Philippines, Inc.: Phoenix}}Public water systemCopper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo mainly takes place in the Copper Belt of the southern Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Classical swine fever: Classical swine fever (CSF) or hog cholera (also sometimes called pig plague based on the German word Schweinepest) is a highly contagious disease of swine (Old World and New World pigs).ATC code A07: ==A07A Intestinal anti-infectives==

(1/1261) Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

(2/1261) Transmission of epidemic Vibrio cholerae O1 in rural western Kenya associated with drinking water from Lake Victoria: an environmental reservoir for cholera?

Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest reported cholera incidence and mortality rates in the world. In 1997, a cholera epidemic occurred in western Kenya. Between June 1997 and March 1998, 14,275 cholera admissions to hospitals in Nyanza Province in western Kenya were reported. There were 547 deaths (case fatality rate = 4%). Of 31 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates tested, all but one were sensitive to tetracycline. We performed a case-control study among 61 cholera patients and age-, sex-, and clinic-matched controls. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for cholera were drinking water from Lake Victoria or from a stream, sharing food with a person with watery diarrhea, and attending funeral feasts. Compared with other diarrheal pathogens, cholera was more common among persons living in a village bordering Lake Victoria. Cholera has become an important public health concern in western Kenya, and may become an endemic pathogen in the region.  (+info)

(3/1261) Effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae.

The expression of several virulence factors of Vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the ToxT molecule and the membrane proteins TcpP/H and ToxR/S, which are required for toxT transcription. To identify proteins that negatively affect toxT transcription, we screened transposon mutants of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxT::lacZ reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-D galactoside (X-gal). Two mutants had transposon insertions in a region homologous to the nqr gene cluster of Vibrio alginolyticus, encoding a sodium-translocating NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NQR). In V. alginolyticus, NQR is a respiration-linked Na+ extrusion pump generating a sodium motive force that can be used for solute import, ATP synthesis, and flagella rotation. Inhibition of NQR enzyme function in V. cholerae by the specific inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO) resulted in elevated toxT::lacZ activity. Increased toxT::lacZ expression in an nqr mutant strain compared with the parental strain was observed when the TcpP/H molecules alone were strongly expressed, suggesting that the negative effect of the NQR complex on toxT transcription is mediated through TcpP/H. However, the ability of the TcpP/H proteins to activate the toxT::lacZ reporter construct was greatly diminished in the presence of high NaCl concentrations in the growth medium. The flagellar motor of V. cholerae appears to be driven by a sodium motive force, and modulation of flagella rotation by inhibitory drugs, high media viscosity, or specific mutations resulted in increases of toxT::lacZ expression. Thus, the regulation of the main virulence factors of V. cholerae appears to be modulated by endogenous and exogenous sodium levels in a complex way.  (+info)

(4/1261) How intestinal bacteria cause disease.

An improved understanding of how intestinal bacteria cause disease has become increasingly important because of the emergence of new enteric pathogens, increasing threats of drug resistance, and a growing awareness of their importance in malnutrition and diarrhea. Reviewed here are the varied ways that intestinal bacteria cause disease, which provide fundamental lessons about microbial pathogenesis as well as cell signaling. Following colonization, enteric pathogens may adhere to or invade the epithelium or may produce secretory exotoxins or cytotoxins. In addition, by direct or indirect effects, they may trigger secondary mediator release of cytokines that attract inflammatory cells, which release further products, such as prostaglandins or platelet-activating factor, which can also trigger secretion. An improved understanding of pathogenesis not only opens new approaches to treatment and control but may also suggest improved simple means of diagnosis and even vaccine development.  (+info)

(5/1261) Expanded safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent, oral, attenuated cholera vaccine, CVD 103-HgR plus CVD 111, in United States military personnel stationed in Panama.

To provide optimum protection against classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, a single-dose, oral cholera vaccine was developed by combining two live, attenuated vaccine strains, CVD 103-HgR (classical, Inaba) and CVD 111 (El Tor, Ogawa). The vaccines were formulated in a double-chamber sachet; one chamber contained lyophilized bacteria, and the other contained buffer. A total of 170 partially-immune American soldiers stationed in Panama received one of the following five formulations: (a) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(7) CFU, (b) CVD 103-HgR at 10(8) CFU plus CVD 111 at 10(6) CFU, (c) CVD 103-HgR alone at 10(8) CFU, (d) CVD 111 alone at 10(7) CFU, or (e) inactivated Escherichia coli placebo. Among those who received CVD 111 at the high or low dose either alone or in combination with CVD 103-HgR, 8 of 103 had diarrhea, defined as three or more liquid stools. None of the 32 volunteers who received CVD 103-HgR alone or the 35 placebo recipients had diarrhea. CVD 111 was detected in the stools of 46% of the 103 volunteers who received it. About 65% of all persons who received CVD 103-HgR either alone or in combination had a fourfold rise in Inaba vibriocidal titers. The postvaccination geometric mean titers were comparable among groups, ranging from 450 to 550. Ogawa vibriocidal titers were about twice as high in persons who received CVD 111 as in those who received CVD 103-HgR alone (600 versus 300). The addition of CVD 111 improved the overall seroconversion rate and doubled the serum Ogawa vibriocidal titers, suggesting that the combination of an El Tor and a classical cholera strain is desirable. While CVD 111 was previously found to be well tolerated in semiimmune Peruvians, the adverse effects observed in this study indicate that this strain requires further attenuation before it can be safely used in nonimmune populations.  (+info)

(6/1261) A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea.

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

(7/1261) Molecular characterization of a new ribotype of Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal associated with an outbreak of cholera in Bangladesh.

Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal initially appeared in the southern coastal region of Bangladesh and spread northward, causing explosive epidemics during 1992 and 1993. The resurgence of V. cholerae O139 during 1995 after its transient displacement by a new clone of El Tor vibrios demonstrated rapid changes in the epidemiology of cholera in Bangladesh. A recent outbreak of cholera in two north-central districts of Bangladesh caused by V. cholerae O139 led us to analyze strains collected from the outbreak and compare them with V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from other regions of Bangladesh and neighboring India to investigate their origins. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in genes for conserved rRNA (ribotype) revealed that the recently isolated V. cholerae O139 strains belonged to a new ribotype which was distinct from previously described ribotypes of toxigenic V. cholerae O139. All strains carried the genes for toxin-coregulated pili (tcpA and tcpI) and accessory colonization factor (acfB), the regulatory gene toxR, and multiple copies of the lysogenic phage genome encoding cholera toxin (CTXPhi) and belonged to a previously described ctxA genotype. Comparative analysis of the rfb gene cluster by PCR revealed the absence of a large region of the O1-specific rfb operon downstream of the rfaD gene and the presence of an O139-specific genomic region in all O139 strains. Southern hybridization analysis of the O139-specific genomic region also produced identical restriction patterns in strains belonging to the new ribotype and those of previously described ribotypes. These results suggested that the new ribotype of Bengal vibrios possibly originated from an existing strain of V. cholerae O139 by genetic changes in the rRNA operons. In contrast to previously isolated O139 strains which mostly had resistance to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin encoded by a transposon (SXT element), 68.6% of the toxigenic strains analyzed in the present study, including all strains belonging to the new ribotype, were susceptible to these antibiotics. Molecular analysis of the SXT element revealed possible deletion of a 3.6-kb region of the SXT element in strains which were susceptible to the antibiotics. Thus, V. cholerae O139 strains in Bangladesh are also undergoing considerable reassortments in genetic elements encoding antimicrobial resistance.  (+info)

(8/1261) Cholera in the 1990s.

Two strains of Vibrio cholerae are currently significant in cholera: a remnant from the sixth pandemic (1899-1923) still present in South Asia and the seventh pandemic strain which emerged in 1961. The 1990s were marked by spread of the seventh pandemic to South America in 1991 and appearance of an O139 form of the seventh pandemic strain in 1992 (or possibly 1991), which in 1993 predominated in some areas but then declined. Molecular analysis showed that the sixth and the seventh pandemic clones are related, but have a different TCP pathogenicity island and possibly different CTX phages, suggesting independent derivation from related environmental strains. Upsurges of the seventh pandemic were accompanied by increased genetic variation enabling the relationships between strains to be studied, but the basis for variation in pathogenicity is not known. There is clearly a risk of new forms arising and a strategy for speedy development of vaccines needs to be established.  (+info)

mass oral cholera vaccinations

  • Since then, mass oral cholera vaccinations have been conducted in Beira, Mozambique (5), in Darfour, Sudan, and in Aceh, Indonesia which demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of vaccination under actual public health conditions. (

oral cholera vaccine

  • The only oral cholera vaccine available in the market consists of killed whole-cell V. cholerae O1 with purified recombinant B-subunit of cholera toxin (WC/rBS) administered with a buffer solution as two doses, at least a week apart. (


  • This vaccine, and its predecessor (BS-WC) that contained chemically extracted rather than recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, have been shown to be safe and protective in several trials conducted in cholera-endemic settings in Asia and South America (6-9) and in a sub-Saharan African setting with a high prevalence of HIV (5). (
  • cholera toxin. (
  • Some non-01 serogroup strains produce toxin and have caused sporadic cases of cholera and small outbreaks of diarrheal disease without causing widespread epidemics ( 1 ). (
  • In order to colonize a host, V. cholerae must express the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and diarrheal symptoms are primarily produced by the virulence factor cholera toxin (CT). (

seventh cholera

  • The seventh cholera pandemic began in Indonesia in 1961 and spread quickly to other Asian countries. (
  • Vibrio cholerae serogroup 01 consists of the classic and El Tor biotypes, the latter of which is responsible for the seventh cholera pandemic, which is now in progress. (


  • In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the potential use of oral cholera vaccines in endemic and epidemic situations, but it was deemed necessary to gain more experience through demonstration projects (4). (
  • it is necessary to know which aquatic ecosystems can harbor it and thus contribute to the endemic presence of cholera in Latin America. (
  • Some experts have suggested that the endemic and seasonal nature of cholera in Bangladesh depends on the presence of the pathogenic agent in a viable but nonculturable state in aquatic ecological niches that serve as reservoirs for the agent between epidemic periods ( 13, 16 19 ). (
  • There is concern that cholera is becoming endemic in Latin America ( 20 ). (
  • According to the Pan American Health Organization, a seasonal type of cholera has emerged in Ecuador, Peru, and various Central American countries, which suggests that the infection is already endemic ( 21 ). (


  • Cholera is an epidemic diarrheal disease caused by the Gramnegative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (


  • After the first case of cholera was confirmed in the country in January 1978, regular outbreaks have been reported (3). (
  • Vibrio cholerae ( V. cholerae ), the causative agent of cholera, has been responsible for various outbreaks worldwide and may be associated with animal faeces. (


  • In 1970, the etiologic agent, Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, invaded sub-Saharan Africa, whose residents had not experienced cholera for more than 100 years. (
  • V. cholerae 01 in a viable but nonculturable state has produced clinical symptoms of cholera in volunteers, which confirms that it maintains its pathogenicity in aquatic environments despite the inability of the cells to be cultured ( 16 ). (


  • Stringent Response Regulation of Virulence Factors in Vibrio Cholera" by David Raskin, Arunima Mishra et al. (


  • Between 1995 and 2005, 66% of cholera outbreak reports to ProMed came from sub-Saharan Africa (2). (


  • The purpose of this study is to conduct cholera vaccinations in high-risk populations in Zanzibar in order to estimate herd protection conferred by the vaccine,estimate effectiveness of the vaccine, and describe the interaction of vaccination and improved water supply on the burden of cholera and diarrhoeal diseases. (


  • In 2006, Africa reported 234,349 cholera cases to the WHO, accounting for 99% of the officially-notified global cholera (1). (


  • Cholera control in Zanzibar has focused mainly on case management, water chlorination campaigns, and dissemination of hygiene messages. (


  • The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) is eager to identify new and effective tools, such as oral cholera vaccination, that could be implemented in Zanzibar. (