Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Probability Learning: Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

*  There are no accidents just probability and statistics, page 1
There choice is independent of your choice. Here's mor from Conway and Kochen. Why do we call this result the Free Will theorem ... The Schrodinger equation has been shown to accurately predict movements and behavior of large crowds of humans. Not individual ... One is forced? How are they forced if they choose to sit in a chair or lay in bed all day? There CHOICE has consequences like I ... b) If their choice is independent of my choice, then how are statistics acceptable in this context? Shouldn't every example be ...
*  When the brain changes its mind: flexibility of action selection in instructed and free choices. - Wellcome Centre for...
These 'free choices' are compared with 'instructed choices,' in which a stimulus informs subjects which action to make on each ... Free-choice trials displayed a trend toward the opposite pattern. These results suggest a difference between updating of free ... In instructed trials, change cues evoked a larger P300 than no-change cues, leading to a significant interaction of choice and ... These mechanisms are usually investigated using a paradigm where different movement choices are self-generated by a participant ...
*  Plus it
Grip choice. The effects of TMS on grip choice were parameterized with three indexes (posture bias, systematic bias, and switch ... Third, by manipulating the complexity of those predictions, this study shows that the contribution of EBA to motor behavior is ... Effect of TMS on grip choice. Top, Example fits of grip choice of a single representative participant for action-type levels ... Single-trial choices (dots) were summarized in a grip choice profile with a moving average (A, dashed line) and parameterized ...
*  Get in Control! Feel Emotions, Choose Behavior eBook by Julie Prescott - 9780982513972 | Rakuten Kobo
Our behavior is chosen by how we interpret the emotion of the situation. It is this action parents worry about most -- w... ... Choose Behavior by Julie Prescott with Rakuten Kobo. ... Our behavior is chosen by how we interpret the emotion of the ... Get in Control! Feel Emotions, Choose Behavior by Julie Prescott Single Parent Wisdom: If only I knew then, what I know now #2 ... It is this action parents worry about most -- whether their own behavior or their child's. "Get in Control!" helps parents keep ...
*  Download Inspirational Motivational Help Self Psychology, motivatio...
Individual Choice Behavior: A Theoretical Analysis - R. Duncan Luce. This treatise presents a mathematical analysis of choice ... Conscious Choices, Conscious Life! Transcending Abuse & Betrayal is an inspirational book that celebrates the triumph of ... behavior. Starting with a general axiom, it then examines applications of the... ...
*  DIW Berlin: Masterclasses
Discrete choice: Basics, new developments and applications in the transport sector. 12/13.04.2012. Michel Juillard. Bank of ... Prospect Theory and Other Models of Choice under Risk and Ambiguity. 29.04.2011. Jörg Breitung. University Bonn. Topics in Time ... Measuring Expectations and Predicting Choice Behavior. 2009. Program. Date. Speaker. Institute. Topic. ...
*  Frontiers | Decision Points: The Factors Influencing the Decision to Feed in the Medicinal Leech | Neuroscience
Then we will review what is currently known about how feeding affects long-term behavioral choices of the leech. Finally, we ... We will then discuss how feeding temporarily blocks competing behaviors from being expressed while the animal continues to feed ... Then we will review what is currently known about how feeding affects long-term behavioral choices of the leech. Finally, we ... We will then discuss how feeding temporarily blocks competing behaviors from being expressed while the animal continues to feed ...
*  References :: SAS/STAT(R) 14.1 User's Guide
McFadden, D. (1974). "Conditional Logit Analysis of Qualitative Choice Behavior." In Frontiers in Econometrics, edited by P. ...
*  corcoran
Addictive Behaviors, 20, 525-532.. Corcoran, K.J. (1995). Understanding cognition, choice, and behavior. Journal of Behavior ... Throughout his career, his work has focused on choice behaviors, especially those which involve addictive behaviors. ... Corcoran, K.J. (1991). Efficacy, "skills", reinforcement, and choice behavior. American Psychologist, 46, 155-157.. Corcoran, K ... Addictive Behaviors, 22, 577-585.. Corcoran, K.J., & Michels, J.L. (1997). What will you think of me if I drink with you? ...
*  NNIW73 - Obesity Treatment and Prevention: New Directions
Inequitable access to healthy foods is one mechanism by which socioeconomic factors can influence food choice behaviors, ... The Economics of Food Choice Behavior: Why Poverty and Obesity Are Linked. ... Choose your preferred region. or click here to visit the Global NNI website ... with physical activity behavior than with weight status. In contrast, built environment characteristics related to food habits ...
*  Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press | IDEAS/RePEc
67-91 Commodity-Choice Behavior with Pigeons as Subjects. by Battalio, Raymond C, et al *92-104 Taste Change in the United ... 152-165 Does Federalism Matter? Political Choice in a Federal Republic. by Rose-Ackerman, Susan *166-191 Market Provision of ... 722-744 The Measurement of Permanent Income and Its Application to Savings Behavior. by Bhalla, Surjit S *745-770 Market ... 223-246 The Choice of Techniques and the Optimality of Market Equilibrium with Rational Expectations. by Newbery, David M G & ...
*  DTA2012 Symposium: Combining Disaggregate Route Choice Estimation with Aggregate Calibration of a Dynamic Traffic Assignment...
Prato CG (2004) Latent factors and route choice behavior. PhD thesis, Politecnico di TorioGoogle Scholar ... Yai T, Iwakura S, Morichi S (1997) Multinomial probit with structured covariance for route choice behavior. Transp Res Part B ... Train K (2003) Discrete choice methods with simulation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar ... Bierlaire M, Frejinger E (2008) Route choice modeling with network-free data. Transp Res Part C 16:187-198CrossRefGoogle ...
*  MCDA publication of year 1995
Choice/Matching preference reversals in groups: Consensus processes and justification-based reasoning. Organizational Behavior ... Mathematical models of brand choice behavior. European Journal of Operational Research, 82(1):1-17, April 1995. [bibtex-entry] ... The Choice of a Solid Waste Management System using the Electre II Decision-Aid Method. Waste Management and Research, 13:175- ... Theory of Choice. Elsevier, North-Holland, 1995. [bibtex-entry] * A. Andenmatten. Evaluation du risque de d faillance des ...
*  Plus it
2007) Neuronal mechanisms in prefrontal cortex underlying adaptive choice behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:447-460, doi:10.1196/ ... Choice Behavior Guided by Learned, But Not Innate, Taste Aversion Recruits the Orbitofrontal Cortex ... 2009) A new perspective on the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in adaptive behavior. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:885-892, doi:10.1038/ ... 2007) Neural encoding in orbitofrontal cortex related to goal-directed behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1121:193-215, doi:10.1196/ ...
*  Plus it
Choice behavior.. Animal's choice data in the first experiment (6-interval discrimination task) were averaged according to ... Choice Behavior Guided by Learned, But Not Innate, Taste Aversion Recruits the Orbitofrontal Cortex ... PC represents the animal's goal choice in the previous trial (dummy variable of −1 and 1 for the left and right goal choice, ... 2009a) Role of striatum in updating values of chosen actions. J Neurosci 29:14701-14712, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2728-09.2009, ...
*  NIMH » Positive Valence Systems: Workshop Proceedings
Progressive ratio task; Effort-related choice behavior (effort discounting); Scheduleless key press to view or avoid pictures ( ... repetitive behaviors; stereotypic behaviors; compulsive behaviors. Measures of repetitive behaviors; Aberrant behaviors ... Approach behaviors; Consummatory behaviors toward any goal object. Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment and ... There was some agreement that consummatory behavior is potentially an important element in the "behavior" column of the matrix ...
*  Search of: depressed | 'Depression' - List Results -
Activation of positive self-care and life-choice behaviors. *Change in negative thinking ... Choose a feed type:. Show studies that were first added (first posted) in the last 14 days. Show studies added or modified ( ... Infant Behavior. 300. Female. 18 Years to 45 Years (Adult). NCT03283254. 7428. PREPP. October 17, 2017. July 20, 2022. August ...
*  Magnetosensitive neurons mediate geomagnetic orientation in Caenorhabditis elegans | eLife
Dietary choice behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans * BB Shtonda. * L Avery. (2006) Journal of Experimental Biology 209:89-102. ... The burrowing behavior of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: a new assay for the study of neuromuscular disorders * C Beron ... Carbon dioxide avoidance behavior is integrated with responses to ambient oxygen and food in Caenorhabditis elegans * AJ ... Temperature, oxygen, and salt-sensing neurons in C. elegans are carbon dioxide sensors that control avoidance behavior * AJ ...
*  Reed College | Psychology | Student Theses
Unwanted options : choice behavior and autonomy. Advisor: Jennifer Henderlong Corpus. White, Lauren N.. The effects of ... Praise-Seeking Behavior Among College Students: Links to a History of Ability Praise, Academic Contingent Self-Worth, and ... Rats' choices in situations of diminishing returns : effects of motivation and switching costs. Advisor: Tim D. Hackenberg ... One for one and all for all? : the effect of group identity and communication on self-interested behavior and trust in social ...
*  Sexual isolation through imprinting | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
2005 Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation. Evolution 59, 2097-2108. (doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2005.tb00920.x). ... In each choice test or set of no-choice tests, individuals had to select between a pair of potential mates (one benthic and one ... The species of the caring father had little influence on which species males courted in choice tests (all F3,77 , 1.78, p , ... 2005 Mate choice, sexual imprinting and speciation: a test of a one-allele isolating mechanism in sympatric sticklebacks. ...
*  Krannert Directory - Purdue Krannert
Moskowitz, H., Korhonen, P., & Wallenius, J. (1990). Choice Behavior in Interactive Multiple Criteria Decision Making. Annals ...
*  Plus it
Next, we measured choice behavior when the animals selected between a gamble and a safe reward (Fig. 2a). Due to the nature of ... Explicit cue information used for choices. a, Choice task for measuring CEs and trial-by-trial choice data for probability ... If the animal chose the gamble on trial t, then the safe amount was increased by ε on trial t + 1. However, if the animal chose ... 1f, 89% and 82% of the time, monkey A and B, respectively). Their choice behavior on every trial depended on both gamble values ...
*  Civil & Environmental Engineering Dissertations Collection | Civil and Environmental Engineering | University of Massachusetts...
Travelers' Route Choice Behavior in Risky Networks, Hengliang Tian. PDF. Investigation of microalgae cultivation and anaerobic ... Adaptive Route Choice in Stochastic Time-Dependent Networks: Routing Algorithms and Choice Modeling, Jing Ding-Mastera ... Modeling driver behavior in work zones: An evaluation of traffic flow impacts in freeway work zones with full lane closures, ... Application of Driver Behavior and Comprehension to Dilemma Zone Definition and Evaluation, David S. Hurwitz ...
*  Table of Contents - January 28, 2015, 35 (4) | Journal of Neuroscience
Neural Correlates of Object-Associated Choice Behavior in the Perirhinal Cortex of Rats Jae-Rong Ahn and Inah Lee ... Neural Correlates of Expected Risks and Returns in Risky Choice across Development Anna C.K. van Duijvenvoorde, Hilde M. ...
*  The recruiter's excitement - features of thoracic vibrations during the honey bee's waggle dance related to food source...
2001). Subjective evaluation and choice behavior by nectar- and pollen-collecting bees. In Cognitive Ecology of Pollination (ed ... 1995). Thermal behavior of round and wagtail dancing honeybees. J. Comp. Physiol. B 165, 433-444. ... 1992). Tactics of dance choice in honey bees: do foragers compare dances? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 30, 59-69. ... 2001). Changes in food source profitability affect the trophallactic and dance behavior of forager honeybees (Apis mellifera L ...

Reward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Gambler's conceit: Gambler’s conceit is the fallacy described by behavioral economist David J. Ewing, where a gambler believes they will be able to stop a risky behavior while still engaging in it.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementBarratt WaughSenorita Stakes: The Senorita Stakes is an American flat Thoroughbred horse race for three-year-old fillies once held annually at Hollywood Park Racetrack in Inglewood, California.Carneau: The Carneau is a breed of pigeon developed over many years of selective breeding primarily as a utility breed. Carneau, along with other varieties of domesticated pigeons, are all descendants from the rock pigeon (Columba livia).Biological ornament: A biological ornament is a secondary sexual characteristic of an animal that appears to serve a decorative function rather than an ostensible, utilitarian function. Ornaments are used in displays to attract mates in a process known as sexual selection.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Dopamine receptorTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCuriosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.HyperintensityDog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Intraguild predation: Intraguild predation, or IGP, is the killing and eating of potential competitors. This interaction represents a combination of predation and competition, because both species rely on the same prey resources and also benefit from preying upon one another.Becky JamesClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Exercise addiction: An exercise addiction can have harmful consequences although it is not listed as a disorder in the latest revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). This type of addiction can be classified under a behavioral addiction in which a person’s behavior becomes obsessive, compulsive, and/or causes dysfunction in a person's life.Sickness behavior: [Ancher 001.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Ancher, Michael], "The Sick Girl", 1882, [[Statens Museum for Kunst.Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Choice Collectables 1974–1997: Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Classic Collectables 1974-1997 is a compilation album by rock music group, Dragon, released in 1998. Disc one has the same track listing as Snake Eyes on the Paradise Greatest Hits 1976–1989, which was issued in the same year.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.

(1/4015) Relationships between various attitudes towards self-determination in health care with special reference to an advance directive.

OBJECTIVES: The subject of patient self-determination in health care has gained broad interest because of the increasing number of incompetent patients. In an attempt to solve the problems related to doctors' decision making in such circumstances, advance directives have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between public attitudes towards patient autonomy and advance directives. SUBJECTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A stratified random sample of 600 adults in northern Sweden was surveyed by a questionnaire with a response rate of 78.2%. The subjects were asked about their wish for control of their health care, their concerns about health care, their treatment preferences in a life-threatening situation (both reversible and irreversible), and their attitudes towards the application of advance directives. RESULTS: Numerous relationships between various aspects of self-determination in health care (desire for control, fears of over-treatment, and choice of treatment level) in general and advance directives, in particular, were found. Those who wanted to have a say in their health care (about 94%) also mainly supported the use of an advance directive. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that almost 30% of the respondents were undecided concerning their personal use of advance directives points to a lack of knowledge and to the necessity of education of the public on these issues.  (+info)

(2/4015) Women patients' preferences for female or male GPs.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate general preferences to see a male or female GP either some or all of the time, and specific preferences to see a female primary health care (PHC) worker for individual health issues; to compare these preferences with reported consultation behaviour; and to explore women's evaluations of the quality of PHC services in relation to their preferences and consultation behaviour. METHOD: Results are reported on 881 women aged 16-65 years who had consulted their GP in the previous 6 months. Logistical regression analysis was undertaken to evaluate whether a general preference to see another woman is more important than specific women's health issues in determining why some women regularly choose to consult a female GP. RESULTS: General preference was 2.6 times more important than specific health issues in predicting choice of a female GP in a mixed-sex practice. Nearly a half (49.1 %) of women attending male-only practices stated that they wanted to see a female GP in at least some circumstances, compared with 63.8% of women in mixed-sex practices. In total, 65.5% of the sample stated that there was at least one specific health issue for which they would only want to be seen by a woman PHC worker. The most positive evaluations of the quality of GP services were made by women normally seeing a male GP in mixed-sex practices and the least positive evaluations were given by women in male-only GP practices CONCLUSIONS: In order to meet women's expressed preferences, every GP practice should have at least one female GP available at least some of the time and every GP practice should employ a female PHC worker.  (+info)

(3/4015) Why are workers uninsured? Employer-sponsored health insurance in 1997.

This study examines the number of workers in firms offering employee health plans, the number of workers eligible for such plans, and participation in employer-sponsored insurance. Data from the February 1997 Contingent Worker Supplement to the Current Population Survey indicate that 10.1 million workers are employed by firms offering insurance but are not eligible. Not all of these workers are eligible for coverage, most often because of hours of work. Our results indicate that 11.4 million workers rejected coverage when it was offered. Of those, 2.5 million workers were uninsured. Workers cited high cost of insurance most often as the primary factor for refusing coverage.  (+info)

(4/4015) Selection for oesophagectomy and postoperative outcome in a defined population.

OBJECTIVE: To measure the extent of use of, and perioperative mortality from, oesophagectomy for carcinoma of the oesophagus, and to examine the association between oesophagectomy and long term survival. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of cases of oesophageal carcinoma notified to the Thames Cancer Registry. SETTING: South East Thames and South West Thames health regions. PATIENTS: 3273 patients first registered with carcinoma of the oesophagus during 1985-9, 789 of whom were excluded because of incomplete data, leaving 2484 (75.9%) for further analysis. MAIN MEASURES: Treatment of oesophagectomy, mortality within 30 days of oesophagectomy, and duration of survival from date of diagnosis to death, according to patient and tumour characteristics. RESULTS: Oesophagectomy was performed in 571(23.0%) patients. Its use decreased with increasing age (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.935(0.925 to 0.944) per year) and was less common for tumours of the middle or upper third of the oesophagus than the lower third (0.56(0.42 to 0.75)). The proportion of patients undergoing oesophagectomy varied threefold among the 28 districts of residence. The perioperative mortality rate was 15.1(86/571) (12% to 18%); it increased with age (odds ratio 1.05(1.02 to 1.08) per year) and for tumours of the middle or upper third of the oesophagus compared with the lower third (2.52(1.31 to 4.84)). Long term survival was slightly higher for patients undergoing oesophagectomy (0.5% v 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high perioperative mortality rate patients selected for oesophagectomy showed better long term survival than those who were not, suggesting that clinical judgements used in selection were independent markers of a better prognosis. The nature of this selection needs to be more completely characterised to permit a valid evaluation of outcome of oesophagectomy.  (+info)

(5/4015) Choice and accountability in health promotion: the role of health economics.

Choices need to be made between competing uses of health care resources. There is debate about how these choices should be made, who should make them and the criteria upon which they should be made. Evaluation of health care is an important part of this debate. It has been suggested that the contribution of health economics to the evaluation of health promotion is limited, both because the methods and principles underlying economic evaluation are unsuited to health promotion, and because the political and cultural processes governing the health care system are more appropriate mechanisms for allocating health care resources than systematic economic analysis of the costs and benefits of different health care choices. This view misrepresents and misunderstands the contribution of health economics to the evaluation of health promotion. It overstates the undoubted methodological difficulties of evaluating health promotion. It also argues, mistakenly, that economists see economic evaluation as a substitute for the political and cultural processes governing health care, rather than an input to them. This paper argues for an economics input on grounds of efficiency, accountability and ethics, and challenges the critics of the economic approach to judge alternative mechanisms for allocating resources by the same criteria.  (+info)

(6/4015) Medicare HMOs: who joins and who leaves?

Medicare risk health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are an increasingly common alternative to fee-for-service Medicare. To date, there has been no examination of whether the HMO program is preferentially used by blacks or by persons living in lower-income areas or whether race and income are associated with reversing Medicare HMO selection. This question is important because evidence suggests that these beneficiaries receive poorer care under the fee-for-service-system than do whites and persons from wealthier areas. Medicare enrollment data from South Florida were examined for 1990 to 1993. Four overlapping groups of enrollees were examined: all age-eligible (age 65 and over) beneficiaries in 1990; all age-eligible beneficiaries in 1993; all age-eligible beneficiaries residing in South Florida during the period 1990 to 1993; and all beneficiaries who became age-eligible for Medicare benefits between 1990 and 1993. The associations between race or income and choice of Medicare option were examined by logistic regression. The association between the demographic characteristics and time staying with a particular option was examined with Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazards modeling. Enrollment in Medicare risk HMOs steadily increased over the 4-year study period. In the overall Medicare population, the following statistically significant patterns of enrollment in Medicare HMOs were seen: enrollment of blacks was two times higher than that of non-blacks; enrollment decreased with age; and enrollment decreased as income level increased. For the newly eligible population, initial selection of Medicare option was strongly linked to income; race effects were weak but statistically significant. The data for disenrollment from an HMO revealed a similar demographic pattern. At 6 months, higher percentages of blacks, older beneficiaries (older than 85), and individuals from the lowest income area (less than $15,000 per year) had disenrolled. A small percentage of beneficiaries moved between HMOs and FFS plans multiple times. These data on Medicare HMO populations in South Florida, an area with a high concentration of elderly individuals and with one of the highest HMO enrollment rates in the country, indicate that enrollment into and disenrollment from Medicare risk HMOs are associated with certain demographic characteristics, specifically, black race or residence in a low-income area.  (+info)

(7/4015) Determinants of patient choice of medical provider: a case study in rural China.

This study examines the factors that influence patient choice of medical provider in the three-tier health care system in rural China: village health posts, township health centres, and county (and higher level) hospitals. The model is estimated using a multinomial logit approach applied to a sample of 1877 cases of outpatient treatment from a household survey in Shunyi county of Beijing in 1993. This represents the first effort to identify and quantify the impact of individual factors on patient choice of provider in China. The results show that relative to self-pay patients, Government and Labour Health Insurance beneficiaries are more likely to use county hospitals, while patients covered by the rural Cooperative Medical System (CMS) are more likely to use village-level facilities. In addition, high-income patients are more likely to visit county hospitals than low-income patients. The results also reveal that disease patterns have a significant impact on patient choice of provider, implying that the ongoing process of health transition will lead people to use the higher quality services offered at the county hospitals. We discuss the implications of the results for organizing health care finance and delivery in rural China to achieve efficiency and equity.  (+info)

(8/4015) Contraceptive needs of women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic for the first time.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for, and potential uptake of, a contraceptive service within a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. METHODS: 544 women, median age 17 years (range 13-54) including 142 teenagers, attending the Fife GUM clinics serving a semirural population of 350,000 for the first time in the 12 month period from 1 September 1995 to 31 August 1996 were interviewed. RESULTS: Contraception was required by 353, of whom only 5% (29) were at risk of unplanned pregnancy, although half (15) of these were teenagers. 23 of 29 (79%) stated that they would access contraception at a GUM clinic if it were available. Of women using contraception, 67% (217/324) were taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP), of whom 177 obtained supplies from their general practitioners and were happy with this. However, 92/177 (52%) stated that they would access the OCP at GUM clinics if it were available. Overall, of the 243 women who stated that they would access contraception at the GUM clinic, 23 of whom were currently at risk of an unplanned pregnancy, the demand was principally for condoms and the OCP. CONCLUSION: The majority of women attending GUM clinics for the first time are using contraception, or have deliberately chosen not to do so. Only 5% were at risk of unplanned pregnancy. In general, the women using contraception were happy with their current source of contraception, but about two thirds would use a contraceptive service at GUM clinics if it were available at the time they were attending the clinic. It was found that teenagers accounted for half of those women at risk of unwanted pregnancy. However, the majority of teenagers requiring contraception would consider obtaining it from GUM clinics.  (+info)

  • aggregate
  • This paper proposes a methodology for the simultaneous demand-supply DTA calibration based on both aggregate measurements and disaggregate route choice observations to improve the calibration accuracy. (
  • The major RDoC framework consists of a matrix where the rows represent specified functional Constructs , concepts summarizing data about a specified functional dimension of behavior, characterized in aggregate by the genes, molecules, circuits, etc., responsible for it. (
  • and a new generation of land-use models such as LEAM and UrbanSim has developed since the 1990s that depart from these aggregate models, and incorporate innovations in discrete choice modeling, microsimulation, dynamics, and geographic information systems. (
  • Analysis is disaggregate in that individuals are the basic units of observation, yet aggregate because models yield a single set of parameters describing the choice behavior of the population. (
  • axiom
  • Contributions for which Luce is known include formulating Luce's choice axiom formalizing the principle that additional options should not affect the probability of selecting one item over another, defining semiorders, introducing graph-theoretic methods into the social sciences, and coining the term "clique" for a complete subgraph in graph theory. (
  • The axiom is often encountered in economics, where it can be used to model a consumer's tendency to choose one brand of product over another. (
  • The choice axiom after twenty years" (PDF). (
  • Theory
  • Tversky and Kahneman, 1992 ) that provide a better description of human behavior compared with expected utility theory ( Machina, 1987 ). (
  • A model for neutral elements (1959a, b) provided a way to represent noise elements in the Estes and Burke (1953) choice theory. (
  • A recruitment theory of simple behavior. (
  • In contrast to EUT, PT is posited as an alternative theory of choice, in which value is assigned to gains and losses rather than to final assets (total wealth), and in which probabilities are replaced by decision weights. (
  • In criminology, rational choice theory adopts a utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. (
  • Rational choice theory has sprung from older and more experimental collections of hypotheses surrounding what have been essentially, the empirical findings from many scientific investigations into the workings of human nature. (
  • 1962
  • The core of the field is the set of models developed following work by Stan Warner in 1962 (Strategic Choice of Mode in Urban Travel: A Study of Binary Choice). (
  • circuits
  • The leech is uniquely well suited for studying these complicated questions due to its relatively simple nervous system, its exceptionally well-characterized behaviors and neural circuits, and the ease with which one can employ semi-intact preparations to study the link between physiology and decision-making. (
  • regard
  • Factors that influence consumer decision process It is evident that consumers in our modern world continually face multiple decisions with regard to product choice due to many competing products, such aspects as a products attributes have been shown to be involved in the consumer decision process (Catalin & Andreea, 2014). (
  • These effects are particularly apparent, and compelling, with regard to behaviors affecting health. (
  • multinomial
  • Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley (especially Daniel McFadden, who won a Nobel Prize in Economics for his efforts) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Moshe Ben-Akiva) (and in MIT associated consulting firms, especially Cambridge Systematics) developed what has become known as choice models, direct demand models (DDM), Random Utility Models (RUM) or, in its most used form, the multinomial logit model (MNL). (
  • rational choice
  • While EUT has dominated the analysis of decision-making under risk and has generally been accepted as a normative model of rational choice (telling us how we should make decisions), descriptive models of how people actually behave deviate significantly from this normative model. (
  • Rational choice is based on numerous assumptions, one of which is individualism. (
  • social
  • Constructs are in turn grouped into higher-level Domains of functioning, reflecting contemporary knowledge about major systems of cognition, motivation, and social behavior. (
  • As individuals have different identities based on their personal experiences, choices or background (including social class, ethnicity or culture), an organisation must understand to whom it directs its brand. (
  • Lifestyle brands operate off the idea that each individual has an identity based on their choices, experiences, and background (e.g. ethnicity, social class, subculture, nationality, etc. (
  • Choice can be controlled through the perception and understanding of the potential pain or punishment that will follow an act judged to be in violation of the social good, the social contract. (
  • model
  • Mode choice analysis is the third step in the conventional four-step transportation forecasting model. (
  • known
  • Consumers are known to choose a brand that is acceptable to their self-image that they are trying to portray. (
  • Both options can be presented concurrently or sequentially in two intervals (also known as two-interval forced choice, 2IFC). (
  • Conversely, the rejection of a sure thing in favor of a gamble of lower or equal expected value is known as risk-seeking behavior. (
  • involves
  • It is assumed that crime is purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs for such things as money, status, sex and excitement, and that meeting these needs involves the making of (sometimes quite rudimentary) decisions and choices, constrained as these are by limits, ability, and the availability of relevant information. (
  • influence
  • Marketing attribution provides a level of understanding of what combination of events in what particular order influence individuals to engage in a desired behavior, typically referred to as a conversion. (
  • Analysis
  • Conditional Logit Analysis of Qualitative Choice Behavior. (
  • A 2005 meta-analysis of 9 studies (7 US, one Germany, one Finland) about what adults regret most concluded, that overall adults regret choices regarding their education the most. (
  • Mode choice analysis allows the modeler to determine what mode of transport will be used, and what modal share results. (
  • The mode choice version of diversion curve analysis proceeds this way: one forms a ratio, say: c transit c auto = R {\displaystyle {\frac {c_{\text{transit}}}{c_{\text{auto}}}}=R} where: cm = travel time by mode m and R is empirical data in the form: Given the R that we have calculated, the graph tells us the percent of users in the market that will choose transit. (
  • individual
  • Expectations of self-efficacy determine whether an individual will be able to exhibit coping behavior and how long effort will be sustained in the face of obstacles. (
  • Choice, with all other conditions equal, will be directed towards the maximization of individual pleasure. (
  • yield
  • Most theoretical analyses of risky choices depict each option as a gamble that can yield various outcomes with different probabilities. (
  • research
  • The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project is designed to implement Strategy 1.4 of the NIMH Strategic Plan: "Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures. (
  • different
  • It has been proposed that the brain is equipped with multiple time-measurement systems associated with different types of interval-timing behavior. (
  • task
  • The decision to feed is a complex task that requires making several small independent choices. (
  • The term 2AFC is often mistakenly used for describing the more common yes-no task, where a subject is presented with one option only and is forced to choose whether it belongs to one or another category. (
  • human
  • In the period 1972-1984, Konečni carried out, in parallel, field experiments on altruistic behavior, and laboratory and field studies on human physical and verbal aggression. (
  • processes
  • Within these three processes lifestyle of the consumer also becomes intertwined with consumers tending to choose a brand they feel is congruent with their self- image, their identity - who they feel they are and what they connect with the most. (
  • important
  • Moreover, physical activity is an important behavior for prevention of weight regain and maintenance of significant weight loss resulting from dietary restriction, and physical activity contributes to weight loss in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. (
  • consider
  • Consider the choice between a prospect that offers an 85% chance to win $1000 (with a 15% chance to win nothing) and the alternative of receiving $800 for sure. (
  • Process regret may occur, if a person does not consider information about all available choices before making a decision. (
  • Control
  • The swiftness, severity, and certainty of punishment are the key elements in understanding a ruling class ability to control their citizens behavior. (
  • parents
  • It is this action parents worry about most -- whether their own behavior or their child's. (
  • helps parents keep expectations reasonable, reduce annoying behavior and handle sibling rivalry. (
  • personal
  • Regret is a negative conscious and emotional reaction to one's personal decision-making, a choice resulting in action or inaction. (
  • means
  • This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. (
  • make
  • In most experiments, the participant must make a choice response between two directions of motion (e.g. up or down), usually indicated by a motor response such as a saccade or pressing a button. (
  • By determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, it strongly influences both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. (
  • data
  • CBD travel was analyzed using historic mode choice data together with projections of CBD land uses. (
  • purchase
  • This procedure was followed because it was thought that income (resulting in the purchase and use of automobiles) drove mode choice. (
  • decision
  • howeer, those same decision makers would choose the very same chance of a large gain when the chance of getting nothing increased from 89 to 90/100 ( Allais, 1953 ). (
  • activity
  • As a population, mPFC neurons conveyed precise information about the elapse of time with their activity tightly correlated with the animal's choice of target. (
  • These results suggest that the mPFC might be part of an internal clock in charge of controlling interval-timing behavior, and that linearly changing neuronal activity on a logarithmic time scale might be one way of representing the elapse of time in the brain. (
  • models
  • Choice models permit comparison of more than two alternatives and the importance of attributes of alternatives. (