China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Schistosomiasis japonica: Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Schistosoma japonicum: A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Pollution in China - Wikipedia2010 China drought and dust storms. Green Wall of China. Pollution in China. South and Southeast Asia. ASEAN Agreement on ... Most polluted cities in China. *Clearing the Air: China's Environmental Challenge - Asia Society - Overview on China air ... "China Daily.. *^ "WEATHER & EXTREME EVENTS 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". 16 January 2013. Imaginechina/Corbis ... "China 'buried smog death finding'". BBC. 2007-07-03.. *^ Wassermann, Rogerio (2009-04-02). "Can China be green by 2020?". BBC. ...
Products - Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,LtdAddress: Room1204,Building 1,Baiyun Mansion,Jianggan District,Hangzhou,Zhejiang,China. Tel: +86-571-28800458 ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Shandong province reported a #fatal #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #flu virus (Ifeng, Jan. 5 '17)China, #Shandong province reported a #fatal #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #flu virus (Ifeng, Jan. 5 '17) ... Title: #China, #Shandong province reported a #fatal #human #infection with #H7N9 #avian #flu virus. ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ... Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic - #China, Oct. '16-Aug. 7 ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Sichuan province: a #Pengzhou city resident died of #H7N9 #influenza, close contacts remained healthy...Title: China, Sichuan province: a Pengzhou city resident died of H7N9 influenza, close contacts remained healthy so far. ... China, #Sichuan province: a #Pengzhou city resident died of #H7N9 #influenza, close contacts remained healthy so far (Apr. 24 ' ... China, Sichuan province: a Pengzhou city resident died of H7N9 influenza, close contacts remained healthy so far ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ...
Evaluating Host and Viral Factors Among HIV Infected Former Commercial Blood Donors in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China - Full...Wu Z, Rou K, Cui H. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in China: history, current strategies and future challenges. AIDS Educ Prev. 2004 Jun ... The HIV epidemic in China has reached a phase of exponential growth. Among the infected are FBDs in rural communities, who ... Evaluating Host and Viral Factors Among HIV Infected Former Commercial Blood Donors in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China. This ... HIV infected former commercial blood donors (FBDs) in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China were infected with HIV from a common-source ...
Hui XuAnalysis of Antineutrophil Cytoplasm Antibody from 118 730 Patients in Tertiary Hospitals in Jiangxi Province, China.. *Authors ... Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology , Shanghai ... National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. ... Department of Analytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, PR China. Electronic address: *. ...
OSA | Wavelet-transform analysis of spectral shearing interferometry for phase reconstruction of femtosecond optical pulsesKey Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technical Science, EMC, University of Tianjin; Tianjin 300072, China ...
Clinical Practice Conference: Nanjing, China - KDIGOThe KDIGO Clinical Practice Conference in Nanjing, China was held August 25-26, 2016. Executive Committee member, Zhi-Hong Liu ... Clinical Practice of IgA Nephropathy and Lupus Nephritis in China Presenter: Zhi-Hong Liu ... Conference and invited KDIGO to play a major role with a full day of talks on KDIGO guidelines and their relevance in China. It ...
Aciclovir tablets acyclovirChina2315 Singapore159 China, mainland159 Taiwan106 Anhui Province, China43 Hanoi, Vietnam43 Chongqing aciclovir tablets ...
Hangzhou FandaChem Co.,LtdWe have expertise in exporting superior quality Fine Chemicals from whole China. ... FandaChem is an experienced and professional China-based chemical Manufacturer and Exporter. ... FandaChem is an experienced and professional China-based fine chemical Manufacturer and Exporter. Based in Hangzhou,China,We ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Rickettsial Seroepidemiology among Farm Workers, Tianjin, People's Republic of China - 17126 | Emerging...China Coxiella Burnetii Dispatch Ehrlichia Chaffeensis Ehrlichiosis Farm Workers Female Humans Male Middle Aged Q Fever ... In investigating influenza in an immunodeficient child in China, in December 2010, we found that the influenza virus showed ... Human Infection from Avian-like Influenza A (H1N1) Viruses in Pigs, China ... People's Republic of China, suggest that human infections with these zoonotic bacteria are frequent and largely unrecognized. ...
China Jo-Jo Drugstores Announces Second Quarter Fiscal 2014 Confe... ( HANGZHOU China Nov. 13 2013 /PRNe...)China Jo-Jo Drugstores Inc. through its...,China,Jo-Jo,Drugstores,Announces,Second,Quarter,Fiscal,2014,Conference,Call,medicine ... HANGZHOU China Nov. 13 2013 /PRNewswire/ ...To participate in the conference call (identification number 4651164)...About China ... The Medical Device Market: China. 9. China Biologic Products to Report Third Quarter 2013 Financial Results. 10. MEDTEC China ... NASDAQ Grants China Jo-Jo Drugstores 180-Day Extension to Regain Compliance with Bid Price Requirement. 2. 2013 China Human ...
WHO | Wild poliovirus confirmed in ChinaWild poliovirus confirmed in China. 1 September 2011 - The Ministry of Health, China, has informed WHO that wild poliovirus ... The last WPV case in China was reported in 1999, due to an importation from India. The last indigenous polio case occurred in ... All four cases are from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Genetic sequencing of the isolated viruses ... China in 1994. A national team of clinicians, laboratory experts, epidemiologists and public health experts has been dispatched ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Hunan confirmed a #fatal case of #human #infection with #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus (Sina, Nov. 21 ...China, #Hunan confirmed a #fatal case of #human #infection with #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus (Sina, Nov. 21 '16) ... Title: #China, #Hunan confirmed a #fatal case of #human #infection with #H5N6 #avian #influenza virus. ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ... Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic - #China, Oct. '16-Aug. 7 ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Shaanxi province reported its first #human case of #H7N9 #influenza of the year (Sina, May 3 '17)China, #Shaanxi province reported its first #human case of #H7N9 #influenza of the year (Sina, May 3 '17) ... Title: China, Shaanxi province reported its first human case of H7N9 influenza of the year. ... China, Shaanxi province reported its first human case of H7N9 influenza of the year ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ...
Faculty and Staff----Beijing Institute of Genomics Chinese Academy of Sciences6.Wang, Y., Xue, Y. and Li, J. (2005) Towards molecular breeding and improvement of rice in China. Trends Plant Sci. 10:610-614 ... 2001 Associate Director, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, China. 2002 Adjunct Professor, College of Life ... 2004-2014 Director,Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS, China. 2014.5 Director, Beijing Institute of Genomics ... 1999 Assistant Director, Institute of Developmental Biology, CAS, China. 2000 Professor, Faculty of Life Sciences, The ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 virus #activity at seasonal #peak, with no sign of sustained #human-to-human ...... part of China H7N9 epidemic showed an upward trend. China CDC on the January 9th risk assessment said that China has entered ... 2017-01-09 14:43 Source: China News Network China news agency, Beijing, January 9 (Reporter Dong Zaichang) - Since December ... China enters into seasonal peak of Avian Influenza H7N9 virus activity with no sign of sustained human-to-human transmission so ... China, #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 virus #activity at seasonal #peak, with no sign of sustained #human-to-human #transmission so ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Guangdong province had not #human cases of #H7N9 #influenza in a week (Mar. 10 '17)China, #Guangdong province had not #human cases of #H7N9 #influenza in a week (Mar. 10 '17) ... Title: China, Guangdong province had not human cases of H7N9 influenza in a week. ... China, Guangdong province had not human cases of H7N9 influenza in a week ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ...
Minor: Chinese Language and Culture: Modern Languages and Literatures: Loyola University ChicagoHIST 344: Early Modern China: 1550-1800. HIST 345: Reform and Revolution in China, 1800-1949 HIST 346: China Since 1949: The ... HIST 300E: Topics in World History: Christianity in China. HIST 342: Traditional China from Antiquity to 1550 ... ENVS 281C: Environmental Sustainability and Science in China HIST 300E: Topics in World History: Chinese History Through Film ... LITR 245: China Through Film and Literature LITR 245: Masterpieces of Chinese Fiction ...
A TIME'S MEMORY: #China, #Henan reported two new #human cases of #H7N9 #influenza from April 29 to May 5 2017 (May 8 '17)China, #Henan reported two new #human cases of #H7N9 #influenza from April 29 to May 5 2017 (May 8 '17) ... Title: China, Henan reported two new human cases of H7N9 influenza from April 29 to May 5 2017. ... China, Henan reported two new human cases of H7N9 influenza from April 29 to May 5 2017 ... China-#Influenza [#H1N1pdm09, #H3N2, B, #H7N9] Weekly #Report - Week 36 - September 18 2017 (CNIC, edited) ...
Le Teng-Hui's political cross-straits policy and mainland China's reactionThis caused Mainland China to react strongly and triggered sharp tension between Taiwan and Mainland China. This thesis ... For the US, Taiwan is only a pawn that it uses to contain Mainland China. Therefore, in the Cross-Strait issue, the US has more ... From the perspective of Mainland China, either in terms of nationalism or national security, Taiwan's secession is a life-and- ... If Taiwanese authorities were to declare independence, the only option for Mainland China would be to launch a unification war ...
Bithynia misellaProvince of China). The species has been recorded from Viet Nam (Bến Tre Province) and China (Yuyao (Zhejiang Province), " ... The species is known from northern Viet Nam, through southeastern and eastern China, to the Korean peninsular (Kwon et al. 1985 ... China (Fujian, Guangdong, Heilongjiang, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Shanghai, Tianjin, Zhejiang); Korea, ...
WHO | Human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - updateHuman infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in China - update. 16 April 2013 - As of 16 April 2013 (18:00 CET), the National ... To date, a total of 63 patients have been laboratory-confirmed with influenza A(H7N9) virus in China; including 14 deaths. More ... it is expected that there will be further cases of human infection with the virus in China. So far, there is no evidence of ...
CHINA DEITIESDEITIES OF CHINA. Original Paintings by. Zhang Xian Chang click on image for enlargement. xxxx xxxx. xxxx 100 deities of ... Zhang came up with the idea of copying the pictures when he was doing post-graduate study at the China Central Academy of Arts ...
China : NPRChina
Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Coles PhillipsHesquiaht First NationIn Secret Tibet: In Secret Tibet (In disguise amongst lamas, robbers, and wise men) is a travel book by author Theodore Illion, first published in English in 1937.Japonica: Japonica refers to things related to Japan.Schistosoma japonicum: Schistosoma japonicum is an important parasite and one of the major infectious agents of schistosomiasis.This parasite has a very wide host range, infecting at least 31 species of wild mammals, including 9 carnivores, 16 rodents, one primate (Human), two insectivores and three artiodactyls and therefore it can be considered a true zoonosis.
(1/13273) Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention. (+info)
(2/13273) Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.
BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC. (+info)
(3/13273) Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk.
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. (+info)
(4/13273) Angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms M235T/T174M: no excess transmission to hypertensive Chinese.
The gene encoding angiotensinogen (AGT) has been widely studied as a candidate gene for hypertension. Most studies to date have relied on case-control analysis to test for an excess of AGT variants among hypertensive cases compared with normotensive controls. However, with this design, nothing guarantees that a positive finding is due to actual allelic association as opposed to an inappropriate control population. To avoid this difficulty in our study of essential hypertension in Anqing, China, we tested AGT variants using the transmission/disequilibrium test, a procedure that bypasses the need for a control sample by testing for excessive transmission of a genetic variant from parents heterozygous for that variant. We analyzed two AGT polymorphisms, M235T and T174M, which have been associated with essential hypertension in whites and Japanese, using data on 335 hypertensive subjects from 315 nuclear families and their parents. Except in the group of subjects younger than 25 years, M235 and T174 were the more frequently transmitted alleles. We found that 194 parents heterozygous for M235T transmitted M235 106 times (P=0.22) and that 102 parents heterozygous for T174M transmitted T174 60 times (P=0.09). Stratifying offspring by gender, M235 and T174 were transmitted 60 of 106 times (P=0.21) and 44 of 75 times (P=0.17), respectively, in men, and 46 of 88 times (P=0.75) and 16 of 27 times (P=0.44), respectively, in women. Our results were also negative in all age groups and for the affected offspring with blood pressure values >/=160/95 mm Hg. Thus, this study provides no evidence that either allele of M235T or T174M contributes to hypertension in this Chinese population. (+info)
(5/13273) Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.
This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with their hands compared with 9.2% of the Chinese. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels (mean blood lead was 30.2 and 26.4 mcg/100 ml respectively). The study indicated that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers might have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands. (+info)
(6/13273) Characterization of a new genotype of measles virus detected in China and England.
We report the co-circulation of a new lineage of measles virus (MV) and an Edmonston-like (Ed-like) genotype of MV in China during 1995-7. Sequence analysis of 25 strains was performed on a 282 nucleotides (nt) region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene, a 450-nt region of the haemagglutinin (H) gene and a 152-nt region of the matrix (M) gene by direct sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons obtained from clinical specimens. The entire H gene was sequenced from two strains. The results showed that 24/25 Chinese strains belonged to a new genogroup and were distinct from the vaccine strains used in China and the UK, and also from MV strains previously described in Europe, Africa and the USA. The remaining strain was Ed-like. Two strains of the new genotype (IV) and one of the Ed-like genotype were also detected in the UK in 1996. (+info)
(7/13273) Protective alterations in phase 1 and 2 metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by oltipraz in residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China.
BACKGROUND: Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part due to consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins, which require metabolic activation to become carcinogenic. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase IIa chemoprevention trial, we tested oltipraz, an antischistosomal drug that has been shown to be a potent and effective inhibitor of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models. METHODS: In 1995, 234 adults from Qidong were enrolled. Healthy eligible individuals were randomly assigned to receive by mouth 125 mg oltipraz daily, 500 mg oltipraz weekly, or a placebo. Sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry or to fluorescence detection were used to identify and quantify phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites of aflatoxin B1 in the urine of study participants. Reported P values are two-sided. RESULTS: One month of weekly administration of 500 mg oltipraz led to a 51% decrease in median levels of the phase 1 metabolite aflatoxin M1 excreted in urine compared with administration of a placebo (P = .030), but it had no effect on levels of a phase 2 metabolite, aflatoxin-mercapturic acid (P = .871). By contrast, daily intervention with 125 mg oltipraz led to a 2.6-fold increase in median aflatoxin-mercapturic acid excretion (P = .017) but had no effect on excreted aflatoxin M1 levels (P = .682). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent, high-dose oltipraz inhibited phase 1 activation of aflatoxins, and sustained low-dose oltipraz increased phase 2 conjugation of aflatoxin, yielding higher levels of aflatoxin-mercapturic acid. While both mechanisms can contribute to protection, this study highlights the feasibility of inducing phase 2 enzymes as a chemopreventive strategy in humans. (+info)
(8/13273) Prevention of stroke in urban China: a community-based intervention trial.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke has been the second leading cause of death in large cities in China since the 1980s. Meanwhile, the prevalences of hypertension and smoking have steadily increased over the last 2 decades. Therefore, a community-based intervention trial was initiated in 7 Chinese cities in 1987. The overall goal of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at reducing multiple risk factors for stroke. The primary study objective was to reduce the incidence of stroke by 25% over 3.5 years of intervention. METHODS: In May 1987 in each of 7 the cities, 2 geographically separated communities with a registered population of about 10 000 each were selected as either intervention or control communities. In each community, a cohort containing about 2700 subjects (>/=35 years old) free of stroke was sampled, and a survey was administered to obtain baseline data and screen the eligible subjects for intervention. In each city, a program of treatment for hypertension, heart disease, and diabetes was instituted in the intervention cohort (n approximately 2700) and health education was provided to the full intervention community (n approximately 10 000). A follow-up survey was conducted in 1990. Comparisons of intervention and control cohorts in each city were pooled to yield a single summary. RESULTS: A total of 18 786 subjects were recruited to the intervention cohort and 18 876 to the control cohort from 7 cities. After 3.5 years, 174 new stroke cases had occurred in the intervention cohort and 253 in the control cohort. The 3.5-year cumulative incidence of total stroke was significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort (0.93% versus 1.34%; RR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.84). The incidence rates of nonfatal and fatal stroke, as well as ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, were significantly lower in the intervention cohort than the control cohort. The prevalence of hypertension increased by 4.3% in the intervention cohort and by 7.8% in the control cohort. The average systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased more in the control cohort than in the intervention cohort. Among hypertensive individuals in the intervention cohort, awareness of hypertension increased by 6.7% and the percentage of hypertensives who regularly took antihypertensive medication increased 13.2%. All of these indices became worse in the control cohort. The prevalence of heart diseases and diabetes increased significantly in the both cohorts (P<0.01). The prevalence of consumption of alcohol increased slightly, and that of smoking remained constant in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: A community-based intervention for stroke reduction is feasible and effective in the cities of China. The reduction, due to the intervention, in the incidence of stroke in the intervention cohort was statistically significant after 3.5 years of intervention. The sharp reduction in the incidence of stroke may be due to the interventions having blunted the expected increase in hypertension that accompanies aging as well as to better and earlier treatment of hypertension, particularly borderline hypertension. Applied health education to all the residents of the community may have prevented some normotensive individuals from developing hypertension and improved overall health awareness and knowledge. (+info)
- Their period of stay in the country will hereby be cut short according to the Law of the People's Republic of China on Control of the Entry and Exit of Aliens. (telegraph.co.uk)
- SHANGHAI--China Merchants Bank Co. (3968.HK) said Wednesday it has terminated an agreement to buy a 60.5% stake in a Tibet-based trust firm because the deal has yet to receive regulatory approval. (marketwatch.com)
- Two British Free Tibet campaigners are flying home from China after they were arrested for unfurling a Tibetan flag and banner outside the Olympic stadium, their campaign group has said. (telegraph.co.uk)
- The posting 'A Short Stay in Tibet' originally contained a strong critique of China, but appeared to have been changed to be more sympathetic towards the Chinese. (telegraph.co.uk)
- The government of China continue to extract various natural resources without any environmental safeguard, as a result, Tibet is facing an environmental crisis, the ramifications of which will be felt far beyond its borders. (123himachal.com)
- The plant species also include about 2,000 varieties of medicinal plants used in the traditional medical systems of Tibet, China and India. (123himachal.com)
- In Tibet, there are over 532 different species of birds in 57 families, which makes about 70.37 percent of the total families found in China. (123himachal.com)
- In the early 1960s a rumour circulated through China that one of its soldiers in Tibet had been brutally fed to the vultures. (bookcrossing.com)
- Title : #Update: Increase in #Human #Infections with #Avian #Influenza #H7N9 Viruses During the 5th #Epidemic - #China, Oct. '16-Aug. 7 '17. (blogspot.com)
- Avian Influenza, H7N9 subtype, human case in Shaanxi province of China. (blogspot.com)
- The last WPV case in China was reported in 1999, due to an importation from India. (who.int)
- The HIV epidemic in China has reached a phase of exponential growth. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We must not allow the rest of the world to sit on its hands while China destroys the spirit of the Tibetan people. (causes.com)
- According to Wu and Feng (1992), the Tibetan Plateau consisted of over 12,000 species of 1,500 genera of vascular plants, accounting for over half of the total general found in China. (123himachal.com)
- Fenced pasture: a possible risk factor for human alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan pastoralist communities of Sichuan, China. (ajtmh.org)
- An epidemiological and ecological study of human alveolar echinococcosis transmission in south Gansu, China. (ajtmh.org)
- HIV infected former commercial blood donors (FBDs) in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China were infected with HIV from a common-source exposure to contaminated blood. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- west of China and south of East Turkistan. (123himachal.com)
- Epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis with particular reference to China and Europe. (ajtmh.org)
- The last indigenous polio case occurred in China in 1994. (who.int)
- Any participant with a CD4 count less than 200 cells/mm3 or meeting other China Comprehensive AIDS Response (CARES) treatment criteria will be referred for further evaluation and care. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Hydatid Control within a Continental System in P.R.China. (ajtmh.org)
- What China is doing now, and what China HAS done are so different, and I am angry with myself for not realising the distinction before now. (telegraph.co.uk)
- It is understood that the pair, who were arrested alongside two US activists, left China last night. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Her mother Linda, 58, a broadcast journalist, said last night: "There are rumours in China that they have been released and put on planes, but we've heard nothing official. (telegraph.co.uk)
- This study will enroll HIV-1 infected FBDs and age-matched HIV uninfected adults in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China. (clinicaltrials.gov)