Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child, Exceptional: A child whose needs, abilities, or other characteristics vary so much from the average in mental, physical, or social areas that a greater than usual level of services is needed to facilitate the child's maximum potential development.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.United StatesJuvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Aid to Families with Dependent Children: Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Housing, AnimalChild, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Animals, LaboratoryPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

*  Indian Child Welfare Act legal definition of Indian Child Welfare Act
What is Indian Child Welfare Act? Meaning of Indian Child Welfare Act as a legal term. What does Indian Child Welfare Act mean ... Definition of Indian Child Welfare Act in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Indian Child Welfare Act. Also found in: Acronyms, Wikipedia. Indian Child Welfare Act. The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), ... The Indian Child Welfare Act handbook; a legal guide to the custody and adoption of Native American children, 2d ed.. The ...
*  Cash transfers and child labor
Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor ... The findings underline the usefulness of cash transfers as a relatively safe policy instrument to improve child welfare, but ... on child labor. The authors find no evidence that cash transfer interventions increase child labor in practice. On the contrary ... there is broad evidence that conditional and unconditional cash transfers lower both children's participation in child labor ...
*  Children & Youth: Children Need Our Help!! Group on Care2
Children Need Our Help! Welcome to this group as a global voice for all children. Lets make our voices heard! Children Need Our ... Children Need Our Help! Welcome to this group as a global voice for all children. Lets make our voices heard! ... Ending child marriage 7 years ago. •. Abandoning FGM/C 7 years ago. •. Paediatric HIV/AIDS in Zambia - Part IV 8 years ago. •. ... Syrian children with disabilities are back to learning, at Homs school club 3 years ago. •. Families displaced by violence ...
*  Maternity and Child Welfare Conference | The BMJ
Maternity and Child Welfare Conference. Br Med J 1949; 2 doi: (Published 16 July 1949) ...
*  Petition · Thalassemia & Child Welfare Group , Indore ·
Rajni Bhandari needs your help with "Thalassemia & Child Welfare Group , Indore". Join Rajni and 12 supporters today. ... Rajni Bhandari needs your help with "Thalassemia & Child Welfare Group , Indore". Join Rajni and 12 supporters today. ... Symptoms Some children with mild thalassemia have no symptoms at all. In children who do, symptoms of thalassemia can range ... Rajni Bhandari started this petition to Thalassemia-Child-Welfare-Group-Indore Rajni Bhandari ...
*  National Conference on Maternity and Child Welfare | The BMJ
National Conference on Maternity and Child Welfare Br Med J 1945; 2 :59 ... National Conference on Maternity and Child Welfare. Br Med J 1945; 2 doi: (Published 14 ...
*  Appendix D - Child Welfare Information Gateway
Child Welfare Workforce Development and Workplace Enhancement Institute: Knowledge Development and Application Planning ... Working With Children, Youth, and Families in Permanency Planning. *Working With Children, Youth, and Families After Permanency ... Pamela Johnson, Children's Bureau. Hal Lawson, SUNY at Albany. Anita Light, National Association of Public Child Welfare ... youth, and families and for their outstanding role in the planning and implementation of the 2005 Child Welfare Workforce ...
*  Free Subscriptions - Child Welfare Information Gateway
Looking for the latest child welfare news and resources? Subscribe to one or all of our free services by selecting one of the ... Child Welfare in the News. Child Welfare in the News is a weekday listing of news articles of interest to child welfare workers ... Subscribe to the Child Welfare in the News RSS Feed. Child Welfare in the News is a weekday listing of news articles of ... Disclaimer: Child Welfare Information Gateway is a service of the Children's Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, ...
*  Child Welfare Board - Wikipedia
The Child Welfare Board of New York was established on July 1, 1915. There is one board for each of New York's counties, except ... The amount which can be granted to any one family is not fixed, but may not be greater than the cost of placing the children in ... The law permits the board to grant allowances to widowed mothers with children under the age of sixteen years, in order that ... such children may be cared for in their homes by their mothers instead of being placed in institutions. ...
*  Incontinence | Rainbowkids Adoption & Child Welfare Advocacy
Waiting Children. 4,156 kids ready to be adopted 51 adoption agencies that can help ... 01 Mar - Adoption Webinar (online) by: Wide Horizons for Children. * 01 Mar - FREE Online Adoption Webinar-4:30pm CST by: ... Through RainbowKids, thousands of special needs and waiting children have found families... READ ABOUT US ... 05 Mar - Free Online Adoption Information Meeting by: Children's Home Society of Minnesota. ...
*  PKU | Rainbowkids Adoption & Child Welfare Advocacy
Waiting Children. 4,156 kids ready to be adopted 51 adoption agencies that can help ... These children will likely have a prognosis similar to their un-affected peers. Other children may have been diagnosed and ... Some children in orphanages or foster homes were detected young and their condition was cared for well from a young age. ... Some of these children are able to catch up with peers intellectually with intensive therapy, but still others will never catch ...
*  The church's war on women's health and child welfare
... bishops spent their summer continuing to undermine the health and welfare of both.The first strike against women's health arose ... Just when you thought the Roman Catholic hierarchy's relationship with women and children couldn't get grimmer, a number of U.S ... The church's war on women's health and child welfare. by Jamie Manson ... ...
*  Using Evaluation Data - Child Welfare Information Gateway
The following resources explore how to use data and evaluation findings effectively to strengthen child welfare programs and ... Using Administrative Child Welfare Data to Identify Sibling Groups. Lery, Shaw, & Magruder. Children and Youth Services Review ... Working With Children, Youth, and Families in Permanency Planning. *Working With Children, Youth, and Families After Permanency ... Child Welfare Practice and Data: Making the Connection. Children's Services Practice Notes, 14(2), 2009. North Carolina ...
*  Child Abuse & Neglect - Child Welfare Information Gateway
Offers resources on child abuse and neglect, including definitions, identification of signs and symptoms, statistics and data, ... Working With Children, Youth, and Families in Permanency Planning. *Working With Children, Youth, and Families After Permanency ... Child Abuse & Neglect Child Abuse & Neglect. Offers resources on child abuse and neglect, including definitions, identification ... Addresses the occurrence of child fatalities, perpetrator characteristics, and risk factors.. For help with reporting child ...
*  Report Shows Significant Progress In Child Welfare | EmaxHealth
The child welfare systems in Fulton and Dekalb counties show significant improvements in the last year according to a report ... As part of a settlement reached in 2005, both sides agreed to specific goals for measuring the quality of child welfare ... Are You Protecting Your Child from Too Much X-ray Exposure? Do you ever worry that your child is being exposed to too much ... You'll Shoot Your Eye Out Kid, FDA Christmas Warning It's not just BB guns and your child shooting his (or a sibling's) eye out ...
*  Speech Delay | Rainbowkids Adoption & Child Welfare Advocacy
Waiting Children. 4,156 kids ready to be adopted 51 adoption agencies that can help ... It affects five to ten percent of preschool kids.. Children who have spent their early years in orphanages or foster care often ... Speech delay in children who have experienced trauma or early deprivation is extremely common and can be reversed with therapy ... 01 Mar - Adoption Webinar (online) by: Wide Horizons for Children. * 01 Mar - FREE Online Adoption Webinar-4:30pm CST by: ...
*  Mental health, education, child welfare, and juvenile justice | RTI
... child welfare, and juvenile justice. In Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs (pp. 273 - 304). ...
*  Indian Child Welfare Act - Wikipedia
Text of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 Indian Child Welfare Act page from the National Indian Child Welfare Association. ... A Practical Guide to the Indian Child Welfare Act, p. 46-49 A Practical Guide to the Indian Child Welfare Act, p. 56-63 Jones, ... 196 Indian Child Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C. § 1903 Robert J. McCarthy, The Indian Child Welfare Act: In the Best Interests of the ... Indian Child Welfare Act, (Pub.L. 95-608, 92 Stat. 3069, enacted November 8, 1978, 25 U.S.C. §§ 1901-1963) Indian Child Welfare ...
*  Child Welfare Information Gateway - Wikipedia
The Child Welfare Information Gateway covers child-welfare topics, including family-centered practice, child abuse and neglect ... How the Child Welfare System Works Major Federal Legislation Concerned With Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption How ... Children's Bureau. (2006, July/August). Child Welfare ... Prior to the creation of Child Welfare Information Gateway, the Children's Bureau operated two separate, federally mandated ...
*  Envisioning a Thoughtful and Caring Child Welfare System | Tikkun Magazine
The child welfare system in the United States is not living up to its name. Rather than nurturing the intellectual potential, ... I speak from my experience as a caseworker, administrator, and creator of a unique program in child welfare. Twenty-five years ... Envisioning a Thoughtful and Caring Child Welfare System. by Sidney Goldberg. April 1, 2013 ... Envisioning a Thoughtful and Caring Child Welfare System Tikkun28(2): 11. ...
*  Arizona child-welfare agency aims to keep more kids at home
A revised policy at Arizona's Department of Child Safety aims to more clearly define when it's safe to leave a child at home, ... ARIZONA DEPARTMENT OF CHILD SAFETY Republic series explores Arizona child-welfare system , 1:52. Reporter Bob Ortega outlines ... The updated safety protocol sets a seemingly high bar for when a child-welfare worker should remove a child from his or her ... The Arizona Department of Child Safety reports improving trends in child welfare over a six-month period in early 2017. Wochit ...
*  Extended Conversation - Child Welfare and Its Limits
Home , Extended Conversation - Child Welfare and Its Limits. Extended Conversation - Child Welfare and Its Limits. (This ... Courtney: When children come into care, almost immediately they are in the supervision of the court and the child welfare ... The other situation is where a child welfare worker goes out, does an investigation, and finds a child who is clearly at risk ... Do you want the child welfare agency to provide housing? I did a study: The biggest predictor of whether people got their kids ...
*  National Award for Child Welfare - Wikipedia
National Award for Child Welfare is a national award in India. Instituted in 1979, the award is conferred to "institutions and ... individuals for their outstanding performance in the field of child development and welfare". The award consists of a cash ...
*  Child Welfare League of America - Wikipedia
Child Welfare League of America. Retrieved 17 July 2008. "Child Welfare League of America to Present Champion For Children ... The Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) is the oldest child welfare organization in the United States. The organization's ... "Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) Hails Introduction of Bill to Create White House Conference on Children and Youth." ... New York: Child Welfare League of America. ISBN 0878681744. Magura, Stephen (1986). Outcome Measures for Child Welfare Services ...
*  The Norwegian Child Welfare Services - Wikipedia
Child Welfare Act, chapter 7 Child Welfare Act, §§ 2-3, 6-5 Child Welfare Act, § 4-4 Child Welfare Act, §§ 4-1, 6-3 Child ... 4-4a Child Welfare Act, §§ 4-12, 4-29 Child Welfare Act, §§ 4-4, 4-10 Child Welfare Act, § 4-6 Child Welfare Act, § 7-24 Child ... Child Welfare Act Child Welfare Act, § 2-2 Child Welfare Act, § 2-3 Child Welfare Act, § 2-1 "About us". The Norwegian ... the Child Welfare Service in consultation with the parents may place children under foster care, in a child welfare institution ...

Kitten Rescue: Kitten Rescue is a nonprofit, all volunteer 501(c)(3) charity that operates one of the largest kitten and cat welfare and adoption centers in Los Angeles, California. The organization was founded in the spring of 1997, and aims to find loving homes for unwanted and abandoned cats and kittens, as well as to help Los Angeles become a no-kill city.Abandoned child syndrome: Abandoned child syndrome is a behavioral or psychological condition that results primarily from the loss of one or both parents, or sexual abuse. Abandonment may be physical (the parent is not present in the child's life) or emotional (the parent withholds affection, nurturing, or stimulation).Israel and animal welfare: Israel's protection of animal welfare rests upon the Animal Welfare Law, 1994 which is composed of an Animal Protection Law and an Animal Experimentation Law. The law was originally introduced by Abraham Poraz in 1993 and passed by the Knesset on January 11, 1994.Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation: Sunshine Social Welfare Foundation (Chinese: 陽光社會福利基金會) is a charity established in 1981 in Taiwan to provide comprehensive services for burn survivors and people with facial disfigurement.Shared parenting: Shared parenting refers to a collaborative arrangement in child custody or divorce determinations in which both parents have the right and responsibility of being actively involved in the raising of the child(ren). The term is often used as a synonym for joint physical custody, but the exact definitions vary, with different jurisdictions defining it in different ways, and different sources using the term in different ways.Sandra Sully (songwriter): Sandra Sully is a songwriter who co-wrote Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now". BMI Website, Songwriter Sandra Sully In 2006 she was credited as a co-writer of Mariah Carey's Grammy Award–winning song "We Belong Together" which incorporated part of "If You're Think You're Lonely Now".Urban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.Closed adoptionNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Child Maintenance and Other Payments Act 2008List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Texas Juvenile Justice Department: The Texas Juvenile Justice Department (TJJD) is a state agency in Texas, headquartered in the Braker H Complex in Austin.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Substance-related disorderQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand: The College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand was founded in 1964. It is a part of AAU, Anand, Gujarat, India.Gestation crate: A gestation crate, also known as a sow stall, is a metal enclosure used in intensive pig farming, in which a female breeding pig (sow) may be kept during pregnancy and for most of her adult life.Wilson G.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Mothers TalkMassachusetts Animal Rights Coalition: The Massachusetts Animal Rights Coalition (MARC), is a non-profit volunteer-run animal rights organization based in Massachusetts, United States. MARC is the largest and most active animal rights group in Massachusetts and operates as a tax exempt 501(c)(3) corporationhttp://corp.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.Interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs: The interbreeding of dingoes with other domestic dogs is an ongoing process affecting the population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia. The current population of free ranging domestic dogs in Australia is now probably higher than in the past.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

(1/1572) The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children.

The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors.  (+info)

(2/1572) A management information system for nurse/midwives.

The experiences of nurse/midwives with a simple management information system in the private sector are reported from four facilities in Nigeria. When such a system is being introduced, special attention should be given to strengthening the ability of health workers to record and collate data satisfactorily.  (+info)

(3/1572) Developing communality: family-centered programs to improve children's health and well-being.

Despite decades of enormous investment in research and public programs, the United States continues to face pandemics of preventable health problems such as low birth weight, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, and interpersonal violence. With some justification, these problems have been blamed on the failings of families. The reasons why families may function poorly in their child-rearing roles have not been coherently or vigorously addressed by our social policies; sometimes these policies have aggravated the problems. This paper provides background to allow a better understanding of families' role in the social determination of children's health, and argues for programs and policies that assist families through the creation of social supports embedded in communities that are characterized by trust and mutual obligation.  (+info)

(4/1572) The determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania.

This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with increased risk of death. The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania should therefore maintain its commitment to encouraging women to space their births at least two years apart and delay childbearing beyond the teenage years. Further, this study shows that there is a remarkable lack of infant and child mortality differentials by socioeconomic subgroups of the population, which may reflect post-independence health policy and development strategies. Whilst lack of socioeconomic differentials can be considered an achievement of government policies, mortality remains high so there is still a long way to go before Tanzania achieves its stated goal of 'Health for All'.  (+info)

(5/1572) Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.  (+info)

(6/1572) Dirt and diarrhoea: formative research in hygiene promotion programmes.

Investment in the promotion of better hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoeal diseases and as a component of water and sanitation programmes is increasing. Before designing programmes capable of sustainably modifying hygiene behaviour in large populations, valid answers to a number of basic questions concerning the site and the intended beneficiaries have to be obtained. Such questions include 'what practices favour the transmission of enteric pathogens?', 'what advantages will be perceived by those who adopt safe practices?' and 'what channels of communication are currently employed by the target population?' A study of hygiene and diarrhoea in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, used a mixture of methods to address such questions. This paper draws on that experience to propose a plan of preliminary research using a variety of techniques which could be implemented over a period of a few months by planners of hygiene promotion programmes. The techniques discussed include structured observation, focus group discussions and behavioural trials. Modest investment in such systematic formative research with clear and limited goals is likely to be repaid many times over in the increased effectiveness of hygiene promotion programmes.  (+info)

(7/1572) The census-based, impact-oriented approach: its effectiveness in promoting child health in Bolivia.

This paper describes the effectiveness for child health of a primary health care approach developed in Bolivia by Andean Rural Health Care and its colleagues, the census-based, impact-oriented (CBIO) approach. Here, we describe selected achievements, including child survival service coverage, mortality impact, and the level of resources required to attain these results. As a result of first identifying the entire programme population through visits at least biannually to all homes and then targeting selected high-impact services to those at highest risk of death, the mortality levels of children under five years of age in the established programme areas was one-third to one-half of mortality levels in comparison areas. Card-documented coverage for the complete series of all the standard six childhood immunizations among children 12-23 months of age was 78%, and card-documented coverage for three nutritional monitorings during the previous 12 months among the same group of children was 80%. Coverage rates in comparison areas for similar services was less than 21%. The local annual recurring cost of this approach was US $8.57 for each person (of all ages) in the programme population. This cost includes the provision of primary care services for all age groups as well as targeted child survival services. This cost is well within the affordable range for many, if not most, developing countries. Manpower costs for field staff in Bolivia are relatively high, so in countries with lower salary scales, the overall recurring cost could be substantially less. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the CBIO approach and found it to be worthy of replication, particularly if stronger community involvement and greater reliance on volunteer or minimally paid staff could be attained. The results of this approach are sufficiently promising to merit implementation and evaluation in other sites, including sites beyond Bolivia.  (+info)

(8/1572) Injury control strategies: extending the quality and quantity of data relating to road traffic accidents in children.

This review describes how an extended database of information can provide the opportunity to go beyond the traditionally distinct health, engineering, and education initiatives in order to identify the effectiveness of more overarching policies for injury control. Such information can be used to raise awareness and to encourage community participation in designing a road traffic accident prevention strategy.  (+info)

  • child's
  • Decisions about a child's welfare are now the responsibility of a team, rather than just one staffer. (
  • The Child Welfare Services are required to take action if measures implemented in the home environment are not sufficient to safeguard the child's needs. (
  • It recognises the child's unique and privileged place in African society and that African children need protection and special care. (
  • It aims to protect the private life of the child and safeguard the child against all forms of economic exploitation and against work that is hazardous, interferes with the child's education, or compromises his or her health or physical, social, mental, spiritual, and moral development. (
  • centers
  • Since January, 2009-2011, the Society has disbursed over $3 million in direct aid to children in Russia through its medical programs, scholarships and by supporting orphanages, homeless shelters, hospitals, rehabilitation centers for disabled children and schools. (
  • It also oversees a number of institutions and centers working on the improvement and supervision of youth in the seven Emirates of the country. (
  • Set up male and female Youth centers and distribute them throughout the country on a geographic and population basis. (
  • The UAEGAYSW oversees a number of its institutions including the eight youth centers in Sharjah Ajman and Alghail, girls' centers in Oum al Qaïwaïn, AL Fujairah, Ras Al Khaimah, Falaj Mualla and Marbah. (
  • Along with these centers, the GAYSW has youth associations and scientific clubs in cities like Al Fujairah and Ras Al Khaimah. (
  • agencies
  • Congress's overriding purpose in passing the ICWA was to protect Indian culture and tribal integrity from the unnecessary removal of Indian children by state and federal agencies. (
  • Year after year, most caseworkers go through the motions, while heeding the entrenched and narrow mandates set forth by their agencies as the lives of children under their care stagnate. (
  • Historically, that wasn't always the case in the U.S. The child welfare agencies would use voluntary placements. (
  • The CWLA is the trusted authority for professionals who work with children and the only national organization with members from both public and private agencies, providing unique access and influence to all sectors of the children's services field. (
  • The Norwegian Child Welfare Services (Norwegian: Barnevernet, literally "child protection") are the public agencies responsible for child welfare in Norway. (
  • This "municipal child welfare" is aided by two agencies that constitute the "governmental child welfare": The Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs (Norwegian Barne-, ungdoms- og familiedirektoratet, abbreviated Bufdir) is a governmental body responsible for the "theoretical" aspects of child welfare (interpretation of the law and commissioning and dissemination of research). (
  • Member organizations include provincial/territorial ministries of child and family services, child and family service agencies, health and social services, youth services and federal government departments. (
  • abuse
  • Liang Jie (April 1991) Liang Jie, a ten-year-old boy with disabled legs, was forced to swallow magnets for reporting abuse on another child. (
  • Children in Africa are affected by many different types of abuse, including economic and sexual exploitation, gender discrimination in education and access to health, and their involvement in armed conflict. (
  • state
  • The report, covering the period between January 1, 2007 and June 30, 2007, is the third from independent agents monitoring child welfare results for the state. (
  • Under the guidelines of the Norwegian Child Welfare Services, children are entitled to participate in decisions involving their personal welfare, and have the right to state their views in accordance with their age and level of maturity. (
  • That the state board of education is hereby authorized to establish and maintain at Iowa City as an integral part of the State University, the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station, having as its objects the investigation of the best scientific methods of conserving and developing the normal child, the dissemination of the information acquired by such investigation, and the training of students for work in such fields. (
  • The Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association (Centre) was formed on 30 April 1991 and has subsidiary bodies such as the Centre, State/Division, District Supervisory Committees, Township Associations and Branch Associations. (
  • Directorate Sports and Youth Welfare also known as Department of Sports & Youth Welfare is one of the department of state government of Madhya Pradesh, India, entitled for the development in the field of sports and youth welfare. (
  • Directorate Sports and Youth Welfare functions as the vital Department for the development of Backward Classes of the society and minority communities in the state of Madhya Pradesh. (
  • Limits foster care maintenance payments to children who are in the State-licensed foster family homes of individuals or in licensed nonprofit private child-care institutions. (
  • Permits a State not using its full allotment for foster care to utilize the excess under part B (Child Welfare Services) for Title IV, subject to stated conditions. (
  • Requires each State to submit such statistical reports as the Secretary may require with respect to children for whom payments are made under this Act. (
  • Sets forth revised State plan requirements under part B (Child Welfare Services) of Title IV including requiring States to provide that the standards and requirements with respect to child care under Title XX shall apply with respect to day care services under part B of Title IV. (
  • The General Authority of Youth and Sports Welfare (GAYSW) is the United Arab Emirates' supreme state owned authority responsible for the welfare of youth and sports activities in the United Arab Emirates. (
  • Providing for the responsibilities that every child has with regard to their and society, the state and the international community. (
  • 100,000
  • Every year approximately 100,000 children with Thalassemia Major are born world over, of which 10,000 are born in India it is estimated that there are about 65,000-67,000 b-thalassemia patients in our country with around 9,000-10,000 cases being added every year. (
  • aims
  • A revised policy at Arizona's Department of Child Safety aims to more clearly define when it's safe to leave a child at home, even if it seems risky. (
  • Gopali Youth Welfare Society commonly abbreviated as GYWS is a government-registered NGO in West Bengal and aims to improve the living standards of people in Gopali village. (
  • The Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association (Burmese: မြန်မာနိုင်ငံ မိခင်နှင့်ကလေး စောင့်ရှောက်ရေး အသင်း, abbreviated MMCWA) is a non-governmental organisation in Burma which aims to protects mothers and their children in the country. (
  • It also aims to control the poverty while providing employment to the people and implementing various welfare programmes and schemes to achieve the above objective. (
  • It aims to prevent the sale and trafficking of children, kidnapping, and begging of children. (
  • prevention
  • Therefore there is emphasis for shift from treatment to prevention of birth of such children in future. (
  • The Institute of Medical Education and Prevention (I.E.P.M) announced that, especially for children, it is important to use devices less often. (
  • foster children
  • Rather than nurturing the intellectual potential, capacity for joy, and emotional wellness of foster children, the system too often takes a narrow approach to maintaining only the children's physical well-being. (
  • parents
  • minor) parents who might be totally oblivious of this trait until they have a thalassemia major child. (
  • If parents or persons can be identified as thalassemia carriers before marriage, it becomes easy to prevent the disease in children. (
  • Local health authorities notify parents of students if their children are not up-to-date on their vaccinations. (
  • Here's a warning to parents about a popular toy that recently led to internal burn injuries in very young children. (
  • I believe another system is possible-one that starts from the foundational premise that all people are capable of building satisfying lives through the pursuit of their interests-and that is staffed by workers who treat children and their parents with deep care and respect. (
  • I was painfully familiar with the lack of opportunities to build satisfying and productive lives for children once they were removed from their parents' homes and placed in substitute care, and I wanted to do something about it. (
  • Some were concerned it might be too lenient in an effort to keep kids with their parents. (
  • This is a compliance-driven system, as opposed to an outcome-driven system, and we already have the treatment mapped out for you, it doesn't matter who you are: All children in Illinois are ADHD oppositional defiant with a touch of manic depressive illness, and all parents in Illinois and nationally need classes in parenting, drug drops, anger management and domestic violence. (
  • The real challenge is how can we get parents whose children we've taken away involved the day we take them away and keep them involved in the lives of their placed children? (
  • We don't tell our parents now where the children are on the assumption that they. (
  • So I'd like the focus to be getting these kids back to their parents as fast as possible, or if not get them back, then figure out what's the best permanent alternative. (
  • When I wear my clinician hat I say that it's a parallel process, that we're beating up the parents in the way they beat up their kids. (
  • Roughly 3% of all children in Norway receive some sort of measure from the Child Welfare Services, most of them in the form of relief measures to the child and its parents (such as counselling, advice, external support contacts, access to day care etc. (
  • Children who are placed in these institutions have the following criteria: orphans below the age of fourteen, without relatives or friends available to provide care, infants who have been abandoned, and children below the age of thirteen whose parents are Shanghai citizens but are legally prevented from being able to care for their children and who are without relatives and friends. (
  • Prohibits payments to parents after the child has reached age 18 and to parents who are no longer legally responsible for support of the child. (
  • Development
  • In Child delinquents: Development, intervention, and service needs (pp. 273 - 304). (
  • The Child Welfare Services' statutory obligation is "to ensure that children and youth who live in conditions that may be detrimental to their health and development receive the necessary assistance and care at the right time. (
  • The Iowa Child Welfare Research Station attached to the University of Iowa conducted pioneering research into child development and child psychology during the 20th century. (
  • Among its contributions to this field of knowledge, the Station conducted studies in the normal physical growth rates of children, studies in intellectual development in children and its relation to environment, studies in classroom management techniques that support positive outcomes, and developed collections of data regarding speech development and therapy for children with cerebral palsy. (
  • The Station also helped establish research standards for conducting research into child development. (
  • One of the major function and objective of this department is to frame the policies and laws for the development of the sports as well as the welfare of the youth. (
  • Since the foundation of the UAE in 1971 and then, the political leadership of the country paid a great attention to youth and sports sector by improving and instutionalizing such sector in view of the utmost importance of youth and sports sector in countries' development. (
  • In 2006, the chairmanship of the GAYSW was shifted to Abdurrahman Bin Mohamed Al Owais, the Minister of culture, youth and Community development, who served in this position until 2013 when Sheikh Nahyan Mubarak Al Nahyan has chaired the authority. (
  • https
  • Pictures from the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station in the Iowa Digital Library, University of Iowa Libraries Iowa Child Welfare Research Station at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, archived at WebCite at "Forces Behind Food Habits and Methods of Change" by Kurt Zadek Lewin, an account of research performed at the Station. (
  • Priority
  • The organization's primary objective is to "Make Children a National Priority. (
  • The CWLA provided the secretariat function and seed funding during the planning phase and coordinated the symposium, called "Canada's Children: The Priority for the '90s", which was held in Ottawa in October 1991. (
  • Defines
  • Like the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the Children's Charter is a comprehensive instrument that sets out rights and defines universal principles and norms for the status of children. (
  • The ACRWC defines a "child" as a human being below the age of 18 years. (
  • sixteen
  • The law permits the board to grant allowances to widowed mothers with children under the age of sixteen years, in order that such children may be cared for in their homes by their mothers instead of being placed in institutions. (
  • Able bodied children are employed after age sixteen, disabled children are transferred to another welfare institute after the age of fourteen. (
  • services
  • The child welfare systems in Fulton and Dekalb counties show significant improvements in the last year according to a report released today by court-appointed representatives assigned to monitor the Kenny A. Consent Decree and the Division of Family and Children Services' progress. (
  • The report validates our concentrated efforts and our continued improvement," said Mary Dean Harvey, director of the Division of Family and Children Services. (
  • As part of a settlement reached in 2005, both sides agreed to specific goals for measuring the quality of child welfare services in those counties. (
  • Outcome Measures for Child Welfare Services: Theory and Applications. (
  • Each Norwegian municipality is obliged to have Child Welfare Services. (
  • In urgent cases (i.e. imminent danger for the physical or mental health of the child), the municipal welfare services are entitled (and obliged) to issue a provisional care order. (
  • It plays a significant role in promoting best practices among those in the field of child welfare, including child protective services, children's mental health and youth justice across Canada. (
  • Many years before the Child Welfare League of Canada (CWLC) was founded, Canadians working in the field of child and youth services were active in the Child Welfare League of America, the oldest and largest North American organization devoted to the well-being of children. (
  • The National Steering Committee recommended the establishment of the Child Welfare League of Canada, which would continue its affiliation with CWLA to ensure Canadian members access to special CWLA services and publications. (
  • Provides coverage for such child up to age 18 under titles XIX (Medicaid) and XX (Grants to States for Services) of the Act. (
  • municipal
  • The municipal government of Shanghai took charge of the New Public Child Care Hall in January 1956, and renamed it the Shanghai Child Care Institute. (
  • Systems
  • Assists States with opening new, collaborative dialogs with all stakeholders in their child welfare systems through the use of data and data analysis. (
  • Even when it's not clear that they're really being neglected or abused, some child welfare systems are more open to those sorts of kids. (
  • With one of the systems of care focuses being on family and youth involvement, your local system must think about new presenters and co-presenters, assuring cultural diversity in your presenters and cultural competence in your presentations. (
  • family
  • The birth of a thalassemic child thus places considerable strain not only on affected child & family but on society at large. (
  • Most employees of Catholic institutions do not earn enough to support the unplanned children that would likely come with natural family planning. (
  • This did not take into consideration the tribal culture of the extended tribal family, in which children could have close relationships with extended family. (
  • In most of the world, there would be a conversation with the family: "It seems like foster care would be a good place for your kid to be for some period of time while we work with you. (
  • For example, training may need to be created that addresses the family involvement aspect of a child and family team meeting. (
  • Family and youth involvement is evident in positions (employees or contractors) within the system of care. (
  • years
  • 12 gm% in children older than 6 years. (
  • By the time I came to know the teenage residents of this group home, I had worked as a caseworker for twelve years in the Illinois child welfare system. (
  • I had been promoted and was now part of a new division, targeted case management, whose primary goal was to work with the private sector to end the perpetual years of foster care in which huge numbers of youth found themselves. (
  • Furthermore, child workers in Sub-Saharan Africa account for about 80 million children or 4 out of every 10 children under 14 years old which is the highest child labour rate in the world. (
  • The African Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child was formed in July 2001, one and half years after the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child came into force. (
  • health
  • Just when you thought the Roman Catholic hierarchy's relationship with women and children couldn't get grimmer, a number of U.S. bishops spent their summer continuing to undermine the health and welfare of both. (
  • DiNardo, it seems, would prefer that the Roman Catholic hierarchy's ideology and its moralistic assessment of the health needs of women and children be written into federal law. (
  • As of 2008 the MMCWA now functions with 324 township associations, and 11,233 branch associations formed to undertake health and welfare activities nationwide. (
  • program
  • I speak from my experience as a caseworker, administrator, and creator of a unique program in child welfare. (
  • It's too early to gauge how the program is faring for kids. (
  • To fulfil this vision work at PRAYAS is divided into following categories - Helping Hands (exclusively for school children) Internship (for UG/PG students) E-Samadhan (for villagers) Extension Program Employment PrOur mission at PRAYAS is to repeat the success achieved at JVM in other parts of the country via many more creative ideas and initiatives. (
  • workers
  • Most social workers are conditioned by the "best interest of the child" as outlined by Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (Second Edition), which advocates bonding with at least one adult as a parent figure. (
  • Many acts of brutality by child care workers and other staff occurred. (
  • national
  • American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, National Child Welfare Resource Center on Legal and Judicial Issues, & Barton Child Law and Policy Clinic. (
  • The Child Welfare League of Canada, or CWLC, is a membership based national organization dedicated to promoting the well-being and protection of vulnerable young people. (
  • The Child Welfare League of Canada is a national organization with over 115 members in all provinces and territories, including representation at the federal level. (
  • poverty
  • One helps to prevent birth defects and infant mortality while another one feeds and cares for children facing global poverty. (
  • Other factors affecting African children include migration, early marriage, differences between urban and rural areas, child-headed households, street children and poverty. (
  • society
  • The Russian Children's Welfare Society is a not-for-profit, 501(c)(3) organization based in New York City with branches in Moscow and San Francisco. (
  • From November 1952 until 1969, Princess Vera worked at the Russian Children's Welfare Society, assisting with day-to-day activities of the organization. (
  • The Society continued to carry out its work helping Russian children in western European countries, particularly France, as well as the Far East, South America and the United States. (
  • After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Society shifted its focus and resources to assist impoverished children living in Russia, having received a $4.5 million bequest from the estate of Virginia P.and John Engalitcheff, Jr. in 1990. (
  • The Russian Children's Welfare Society is currently working with the Russian Aid Foundation on a project entitled "Give Beauty Back to the Children" to raise funds for the Moscow Center for Maxillofacial Surgery to treat children with facial deformities. (
  • bodies
  • Supervise Youth bodies (including Scouts/Guides) and follow up and support their activities and evaluate their performance. (
  • work
  • We'll find a place for the child, you'll be able to visit them, and we're going to work with you. (
  • institutions
  • The County Governors, representing the governmental authority at the county level, supervise the activities of the municipalities and child welfare institutions and handle appeals. (