Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Child Restraint Systems: Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.KentuckySafety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.TennesseeAutomobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Equipment Failure: Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Baby walkerPersonal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Fold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Moline Automobile Company: The Moline Automobile Company (1904 - 1919) was an American brass era automobile manufacturer in Moline, Illinois known for the Moline-Knight.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Airbag dermatitis: Airbag dermatitis (also known as an "Airbag burn") is caused skin irritation and trauma secondary to the deployment of airbags.Physical restraintNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.University of Kentucky College of DentistryVessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Outline of Tennessee: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Tennessee:Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.
(1/29) A comparison of respiratory patterns in healthy term infants placed in car safety seats and beds.
(2/29) Child safety restraint use among children attending day care centers.
(3/29) Effectiveness of belt positioning booster seats: an updated assessment.
(4/29) Free child passenger restraints for patients in an urban pediatric medical home: effects on caregiver behavior.
CONTEXT: Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in children despite the availability of effective child passenger restraints that reduce morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate restraint is more common in minority and low-income populations. Removing barriers by distributing child passenger restraint systems (CPRS) and providing education has been 1 approach to improve child safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of providing no-cost CPRS in combination with targeted education to improve restraint use for low-income, minority, and urban children in a medical home. DESIGN: This prospective, non-randomized, community-based cohort study used a certified car seat technician to provide CPRS and training to the caregivers of 101 children when those caregivers reported not owning the appropriate type of restraint system during the index clinic visit. RESULTS: In the first 3 months of follow-up, caregivers were 2.4 times more likely to report appropriate use of CPRS: relative risk 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.5). Reported improvement declined slightly between months 4 and 9. CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate restraint significantly improved, yet rates remained suboptimal. Multifactoral approaches are needed to understand why the set of patients studied and other at-risk populations may not use child restraints properly even when given access and information. (+info)
(5/29) Relative benefits of population-level interventions targeting restraint-use in child car passengers.
(6/29) Abdominal injuries in belt-positioning booster seats.
Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30-53 mm and 41-89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0-13.3 mm and 1.2-2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. (+info)
(7/29) Performance evaluation of child safety seats in far-side lateral sled tests at varying speeds.
Protection of children in Child Safety Seats (CSS) in side impact crashes has been a topic of recent studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of CSS in far-side impacts through a series of sled tests conducted at varying test speeds. Forty eight sled tests were conducted at three speeds (24 km/h, 29 km/h and 36 km/h), under two different CSS attachment conditions (LATCH and seat belt attached), using rear facing and forward facing CSS from four different manufacturers. Analyses were conducted to examine head retention within the CSS, velocity of the head as it passes an imaginary plane (cross over into other occupant space or door), lateral trajectory of the head and knee; head, chest and pelvis accelerations; neck and lumbar loads and moments. In addition to these parameters, the CSS were visually inspected for structural integrity after each test. Results from these sled tests highlighted the differential performance of CSS in far-side impacts. During the tests, all CSS experienced significant lateral movement irrespective of attachment type. In rear facing CSS tests, one of the designs failed as the seat disengaged from its base. In forward facing CSS tests, it was observed that the seat belt attached CSS experienced less rotational motion than the LATCH attached CSS. ATD head retention within the seat was not achieved with either CSS attachments at any speed. The findings from this study augment the current efforts to define regulatory sled setup procedure for far-side impact crashes involving children in CSS, which currently does not exist and will eventually further the protection of children in automobiles. (+info)
(8/29) Effectiveness of hands-on education for correct child restraint use by parents.