Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Dental Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.Reproductive and Urinary Physiological Phenomena: Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.Musculoskeletal and Neural Physiological Phenomena: Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.Integumentary System Physiological Phenomena: The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.Reproductive Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.Physiological Phenomena: The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena: Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Digestive System Physiological Phenomena: Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Nervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Cell Physiological Phenomena: Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Bacterial Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Environment (biophysical): Environment}}Gastrointestinal physiology: Gastrointestinal physiology is a branch of human physiology addressing the physical function of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. The major processes occurring in the GI system are that of motility, secretion, regulation, digestion and circulation.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.
(1/714) Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.
The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household. (+info)
(2/714) Enteropathogenic bacteria in faecal swabs of young children fed on lactic acid-fermented cereal gruels.
The influence of consumption of a lactic acid-fermented cereal gruel togwa with pH < or = 4 on the presence of faecal enteric bacteria such as campylobacter, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC:O157), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), salmonella and shigella was evaluated. Under 5 years old healthy children listed in an ascending order of age were alternatively assigned and given either a lactic-acid fermented cereal gruel togwa (test diet) or an unfermented cereal gruel uji (control diet) once a day for 13 consecutive days. The presence of the enteropathogens was examined in rectal swabs collected from the children at baseline (before feeding session started), on days 7 and 13, and additionally 14 days (follow-up day) after the feeding session had stopped. The swabs were cultured on to different optimal media for respective enteropathogen and confirmed by standard microbiological and serological methods. Campylobacter spp. dominated among the enteropathogens (62% out of total) followed by Salmonella spp., ETEC and Shigella spp. Children with isolated enteropathogens in the togwa group was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) from 27.6% at baseline to 7.8, 8.2 and 12.7% on days 7, 13 and follow-up day, respectively. The effect was more pronounced in those children taking togwa > 6 times during the study period. In the control group, there was a slight decrease from 16.7% at baseline to 11.4% on day 7 and 8.1% on day 13. On the follow-up day, enteropathogens were found in 22.6% of the children, which was significantly higher than in those children taking togwa > 6 times. We conclude, that regular consumption of togwa with pH < or = 4, once a day, three times a week may help to control intestinal colonization with potential diarrhoea-causing pathogens in young children. (+info)
(3/714) Cost-effective treatment for severely malnourished children: what is the best approach?
In urban Bangladesh, 437 children with severe malnutrition aged 12-60 months were sequentially allocated to treat either as i) inpatients, ii) day care, or iii) domiciliary care after one week of day care. Average institutional cost (US$) to achieve 80% weight-for-height were respectively $156, $59 and $29/child. As a proportion of the overall costs, staff salaries were the largest component, followed by laboratory tests. Parental costs were highest for domiciliary care, as no food supplements were provided. Nevertheless it was the option most preferred by parents and when the institutional and parental costs were combined, domiciliary care was 1.6 times more cost-effective than day care, and 4.1 times more cost-effective than inpatient care. CONCLUSION: With careful training and an efficient referral system, domiciliary care preceded by one week of day care is the most cost-effective treatment option for severe malnutrition in this setting. (+info)
(4/714) The Pathways study: a model for lowering the fat in school meals.
We describe the development and implementation of the Pathways school food service intervention during the feasibility phase of the Pathways study. The purpose of the intervention was to lower the amount of fat in school meals to 30% of energy to promote obesity prevention in third- through fifth-grade students. The Pathways nutrition staff and the food service intervention staff worked together to develop 5 interrelated components to implement the intervention. These components were nutrient guidelines, 8 skill-building behavioral guidelines, hands-on materials, twice yearly trainings, and monthly visits to the kitchens by the Pathways nutrition staff. The components were developed and implemented over 18 mo in a pilot intervention in 4 schools. The results of an initial process evaluation showed that 3 of the 4 schools had implemented 6 of the 8 behavioral guidelines. In an analysis of 5 d of school menus from 3 control schools, the lunch menus averaged from 34% to 40% of energy from fat; when the menus were analyzed by using the food preparation and serving methods in the behavioral guidelines, they averaged 31% of energy from total fat. This unique approach of 5 interrelated food service intervention components was accepted in the schools and is now being implemented in the full-scale phase of the Pathways study in 40 schools for 5 y. (+info)
(5/714) The Narangwal Nutrition Study: a summary review.
Between April 1968 and May 1973 the department of International Health of The Johns Hopkins University carried out investigations into the interactions of malnutrition and infection and their effects on preschool child growth, morbidity and mortality in 10 villages of Punjab, North India. Base line surveys before the introduction of services revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition and undernutrition and infectious disease morbidity, as well as lack of accessibility, underutilization and poor population coverage of governmental health services. Study villages were selected in separate clusters and allocated to a control group and three service groups in which nutrition care and medical care were provided singly and in combination by auxiliary health workers resident in each village. Outcome effects were measured through means of longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys. Service inputs and service costs were similarly monitored. Results showed significant improvement of growth (weight and height) and hemoglobin levels of children. Perinatal mortality was reduced by nutrition supplementation to pregnant women. Medical care significantly reduced postneonatal and 1 to 3 mortality, and decreased illness duration of all six conditions examined in this paper. The auxiliary health worker capably managed more than 90% of health needs on her own and referred the rest safely to the physician. Analysis of cost per child death averted showed that cost-effectiveness declined with increasing age of the child. Prenatal nutrition care to pregnant women was most cost-effective in preventing perinatal deaths followed by medical care for infants, and then medical care for the 1 to 3 year age group. The relevance of the field research to national or international endeavors to solve present health problems of developing nations and the timeliness of projects such as the Narangwal Nutrition Study is also evaluated. (+info)
(6/714) Feeding problems in merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy.
Feeding difficulties were assessed in 14 children (age range 2-14 years) with merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, a disease characterised by severe muscle weakness and inability to achieve independent ambulation. Twelve of the 14 children were below the 3rd centile for weight. On questioning, all parents thought their child had difficulty chewing, 12 families modified the diet, and 13 children took at least 30 minutes to complete a meal. On examination the mouth architecture was abnormal in 13 children. On videofluoroscopy only the youngest child (2 years old), had a normal study. The others all had an abnormal oral phase (breakdown and manipulation of food and transfer to oropharynx). Nine had an abnormal pharyngeal phase, with a delayed swallow reflex. Three of these also showed pooling of food in the larynx and three showed frank aspiration. These six cases all had a history of recurrent chest infections. Six of eight children who had pH monitoring also had gastro-oesophageal reflux. As a result of the study five children had a gastrostomy, which stopped the chest infections and improved weight gain. This study shows that children with merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy have difficulties at all stages of feeding that progress with age. Appropriate intervention can improve weight gain and reduce chest infections. The severity of the problem has not been previously appreciated in this disease, and the study shows the importance of considering the nutritional status in any child with a primary muscle disorder. (+info)
(7/714) Preparing for the next round: convalescent care after acute infection.
Infections pose a nutritional stress on the growing child. No therapeutic goal is as important as the rapid recovery of preillness weight after acute infections. Successful convalescence, with supernormal growth rates, can be achieved with relatively brief periods of intensive refeeding, offsetting any tendency toward reduced immune defenses or other nutritionally determined susceptibilities to further infection. Since the mother is the only person who can effectively manage convalescent care, she must be given specific tasks with measurable targets in order to reliably oversee the child's rehabilitation. Not generally considered in the realm of preventive medicine, effective home-based convalencent care is the first crucial step in preventing the next round of illness. An approach to the widespread mobilization of mothers to monitor and sustain their children's growth is proposed in this paper. Rather than a passive recipient of health services, the mother becomes the basic health worker, providing diagnostic and therapeutic primary care for her child. Only the mother can break the malnutrition-infection cycle. (+info)
(8/714) Peritoneal transport properties and dialysis dose affect growth and nutritional status in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mid-European Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group.
To evaluate a possible effect of peritoneal transport properties and dialysis dose on the physical development of children on chronic peritoneal dialysis, a cohort of 51 children was prospectively followed for 18 mo. Peritoneal transport characteristics were assessed by serial peritoneal equilibration tests (PET), dialysis efficacy by dialysate and residual renal clearance measurements, and growth and nutritional status by the longitudinal changes (delta) of height SD score (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS, and serum albumin. delta height SDS was negatively correlated with the creatinine equilibration rate observed in the initial PET (r = -0.31, P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis confirmed the negative effect of the high transporter state (partial r2 = 0.07), and disclosed an additional positive effect of dialytic C(Cr) (partial r2 = 0.11) and a weak negative effect of daily dialysate volume (partial r2 = 0.04) on delta height SDS. delta BMI SDS was strongly age-dependent (r = -0.48, P < 0.001); while relative body mass gradually increased below 4 yr of age, it remained stable in older children. Positive changes in BMI SDS were associated with rapid PET creatinine equilibration rates (univariate r = 0.35, P < 0.05) and/or large dialysate volumes (multivariate partial r2 = 0.11), suggesting a role of dialytic glucose uptake in the development of obesity. The change in serum albumin concentrations was positively correlated with dialysate volume (partial r2 = 0.14), and negatively affected by dialytic protein losses (partial r2 = 0.06). In conclusion, the peritoneal transporter state is a weak but significant determinant of growth and body mass gain in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Rapid small solute equilibration contributes to impaired growth but enhanced acquisition of body mass. Dialytic small solute clearance has a weak positive effect on statural growth independent of the transporter state, but does not affect body mass gain. (+info)