Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Seychelles: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Methylmercury Compounds: Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Paternal Deprivation: Prolonged separation of the offspring from the father.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Mercury Poisoning, Nervous System: Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Fathers: Male parents, human or animal.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socialization: The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Depression, Postpartum: Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.United StatesDepressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.BangladeshCommunity Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.IndiaDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Schools: Educational institutions.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Great BritainMotor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child, Abandoned: A child or adolescent who is deserted by parents or parent substitutes without regard for its future care.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Myeloproliferative Disorders: Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.BrazilDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Conversion Disorder: A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.

*  A Pilot Study of Daytrana TM in Children With Autism Co-Morbid for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms -...

Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. Attention Deficit and Disruptive ... A Pilot Study of Daytrana TM in Children With Autism Co-Morbid for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms. ... The researchers hypothesize that Daytrana is a safe and effective medication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders who ... The use of psychostimulants in pervasive developmental disorders. Psychiatr Q. 2005 Fall;76(3):271-81. Review. ...

*  Dose Finding Study of Pioglitazone in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (PIO) - Full Text View -

Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. Pioglitazone ... DSM-IV criteria for Autistic Disorder or Asperger's Disorder (autism spectrum disorder) will be confirmed by a clinician with ... Dose Finding Study of Pioglitazone in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (PIO). This study has been completed. ... The specific aims of this study are: 1) To examine the safety of pioglitazone in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ...

*  Safety Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not...

Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). Pervasive Child Development Disorder. ... Autistic Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Developmental Disabilities. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Asperger ... Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism Autistic Disorder Asperger's Disorder Asperger's Pediatric Autism Pervasive Developmental ... Safety Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not ...

*  Drug Treatment for Autism - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Donepezil. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic disorder. *Seizure disorder requiring the use of ... Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have impaired communication, problems with social interaction, and ... compared to placebo for treating cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. ... and autism&rank=2

*  Early Connections, Early Detection and Intervention in Infants at Risk for Autism - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental ... Participants include families with a child who has been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or typical development and a ... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) ... Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) ..."Child Development Disorders, Pervasive"&rank=16

*  Relationship Training for Children With Autism and Their Peers - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Children will be randomly assigned to one of four interventions that comprise all autistic children, all nonautistic children, ... randomized controlled trial of social skills at school for children with autism spectrum disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry ... Autism Autistic Disorder Behavioral: Social skills training targeting children with autism Behavioral: Social skills training ..."Autistic Disorder"&rank=15

*  Vitamin D to Prevent Autism in Newborn Siblings - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. Vitamins. Vitamin D ... Number of Children Who Developed Autism [ Time Frame: Child assessed at 3 years of age ]. The child will be screened by an ... the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory (PDDBI) at 3 years of age to determine whether the child has ... Vitamin D is a neurohormone which is important for development of the child, especially of the child's brain. The primary ...

*  Study of Toddlers With Language Delay - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Mental Disorders. ... Shape mapping of the hippocampus in young children with autism spectrum disorder. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Apr;28(4):672-7. ... The at-risk children will be matched at initial on chronological age, SES, and sex, to typically developing children (n=75) ... J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Feb;48(2):128-38. Dager SR, Wang L, Friedman SD, Shaw DW, Constantino JN, Artru AA, Dawson G, ...

*  Cholesterol in ASD: Characterization and Treatment - Full Text View -

Autistic Disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder. Asperger Syndrome. Child Development Disorders, Pervasive. Neurodevelopmental ... Autism Spectrum Disorder. Cholesterol. Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. ASD. Pervasive Developmental Disorder. PPD-NOS. ... DSM-IV diagnosis of Rett Disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, schizophrenia, another psychotic disorder, or substance ... Children between the ages of 4 and 12 who have been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. ... in ASD: Characterization and Treatment&rank=1

*  Michael Stevens, PhD > Psychiatry | Yale School of...

Child Behavior Disorders; Child Development; Child Development Disorders, Pervasive; Depressive Disorder, Major; ... Subtypes of pervasive developmental disorder: Clinical characteristics. Child neuropsychology. 1999; 5(1):1-23 ... Sensorimotor performance in school-age children with autism, developmental language disorder, or low IQ. Dev Med Child Neurol. ... including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Autism Spectrum Disorders ...

*  Genetic disorder in kids misdiagnosed as autism - Futurity

The researchers selected 29 children-16 boys and 13 girls-for additional scrutiny, administering two tests. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a gold-standard assessment for autism, was administered to the children. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), a 40-question parent screening tool for communication and social functioning based on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, was administered to their parents.. Typically, a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder requires elevated scores on both a parent report measure, such as the SCQ, and a directly administered assessment such as the ADOS. Prior studies of autism in chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome have only used parent report measures.. Only five of the 29 children had scores in the elevated range on the ADOS diagnostic tool. Four of the five had significant anxiety. Only two-7 percent-had SCQ scores above the cut off. No child had both SCQ and ADOS scores in ...

*  Genetics of Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorders - Autism Science Foundation

End Date: July 1st, 2018 The purpose of the study is to better understand autism through evaluating people's characteristics and looking at various genetic markers for subtle differences. This research is being done because it is possible that a change in genetic material is one of the causes of these disorders. For this reason, they are inviting those with a diagnosis of autism along with their parents, siblings, as well as other family members to volunteer their time and participate. The details of the study are listed below:.. Involvement: Questionnaire, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), Vineland, Differential Abilities Scales (DAS), Physical exam, and Blood draw. Commitment: 1 visit to Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, NY that lasts between 3 and 4 hours. Compensation: $25 Toys R'Us Gift Card and $35 parking ...

*  autism spectrum disorders

The purpose of this article is to focus on the difference between prescription medications given to children with autism spectrum disorders versus children in the general population. Published in February 2016, this article focuses on a study that was conducted during the years 2007-2010. This study was a cross-sectional study of ambulatory prescription fills from Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire.. Autism Spectrum Disorders, or ASDs, affect more children than we may think. In fact, during this study, there were 13,100 children diagnosed with ASD, compared to the 936,721 children without ASD diagnosis. That means that about 1 in every 71 children is diagnosed with ASD. Also, along with the ASD diagnosis comes prescription medications. Furthermore, this study showed that children with ASDs consume more prescription drugs than the general pediatric population.. ...

*  Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Cautionary Note - Oxford Medicine

This chapter presents a cautionary tale about the impact of the broader definition of autism on how investigators are conducting their research. Diagnostically, the autism spectrum has expanded to include milder types of autism that are not necessarily associated with intellectual disabilities. At the same time, the inclusionary criteria for autism studies have narrowed to primarily include persons with high IQs, to the exclusion of those with autism and low IQs or with co-occurring syndromes or neurological disorders. The current research practice of truncating IQ and focusing primarily on those with high IQs does not represent the full scope of autism as a spectrum disorder, limits generalizability of findings, and does not represent the majority of persons who have autism spectrum disorder. The chapter describes several ideas for increasing the representation of those with intellectual disabilities into future autism spectrum disorder research.

*  Demographic and Cognitive Profile of Individuals Seeking a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood | SpringerLink

Little is known about ageing with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the characteristics of adults referred to a specialist diagnostic centre for assessment of possible ASD, 100 of whom received an ASD diagnosis and 46 did not. Few demographic differences were noted between the groups. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were high in individuals with ASD (58 %) and non-ASD (59 %). Individuals who received an ASD diagnosis had higher self-rated severity of ASD traits than non-ASD individuals. Within the ASD group, older age was associated with higher ratings of ASD traits and better cognitive performance. One interpretation is that general cognitive ability and the development of coping strategies across the lifespan, do not necessarily reduce ASD traits but may mitigate their effects. ...

*  NEARI | Bookstore | An Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders, Sexual Behaviors, and Therapeutic Intervention

The frequency of Autism Spectrum Disorders being diagnosed has risen significantly in recent years. During this same time the numbers of children and teens identified with problematic sexual behaviors have also increased. Therapists trained in traditional treatment strategies for people with sexual behavior problems are more and more frequently called upon to work with these youth, but the assumptions and methods that work so well with other clients often fail with this population. This timely book provides essential information about the Autism Spectrum Disorders, how to adjust the assessment process to accommodate this disorder, and practical approaches to understanding unique family dynamics, and healthy and problematic sexual behaviors. This book also provides insights to working with Autism Spectrum cases when there is the co-occurrence of intellectual disabilities and/or various mental health problems ...

*  Migration and autism spectrum disorder: population-based study | The British Journal of Psychiatry

One possible explanation for the observed association between mother's (employed as a proxy for both parents') country of birth and risk of low-functioning autism is that the underlying autism-spectrum disorder rates vary in different countries of origin. It is difficult to examine this possibility, because very little is known about indigenous prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in low- and middle-income countries.28 Difference in risk by ethnicity or skin colour is another possible explanation (for example, reflecting darker skin pigmentation increasing the risk of maternal vitamin D insufficiency during pregnancy6), although a British study found little evidence of an independent ethnic effect on the risk of autism in the absence of maternal migration.7 Studies from the USA have reported both elevated13 and reduced3 risks of autism in non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic children compared with White children, and provided some evidence that Black ethnicity may be linked to ...

*  Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior: Implications for Autism Spectrum Disorders - Oxford Medicine

This chapter examines the role that oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, and their related systems play in mediating the core components of social behavior. It discusses their involvement in both normal social behavior and how their disregulation leads to disturbances in behavior. Parallels are drawn between the neurobiological findings in animal models and the genetic and imaging studies done in both typical and clinical human populations. Finally, the direct evidence implicating a role for these neuropeptide systems in autism spectrum disorders is presented with a discussion of how these findings may shape the development of novel pharmacological therapies for treating social impairment.

*  Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) -

|p|Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that causes problems with social understanding, social behaviour and communication.|/p|

*  Anxiety and Mood Disorders in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder - Oxford Medicine

The study of anxiety and mood disorders is a relatively new area in the field of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This chapter highlights a number of issues and questions that research is beginning to address: How common are anxiety and affective disorders in the ASD population? How do we assess and treat psychiatric comorbidity in this group? What are the causes and correlates of anxiety and mood disorders for individuals with ASD? What should clinicians and researchers do next to further our understanding of these issues? What are the clinical implications of comorbidity for this population?

*  Recommended Testing for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Mounting evidence is showing biochemical, physiological and metabolic impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, TS and other developmental disorders. Testing children individually allows Defeat Autism Now doctors to develop individualized treatment plans that can dramatically enhance social, cognitive and language development.

*  Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) FAQs Index by

Read frequently asked questions (FAQs) about autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Get information about vaccines, statistics, special education, and mitochondrial diseases in this article.

*  Autism Spectrum Disorders - Oxford Medicine

Autism is an emerging area of basic and clinical research, and has only recently been recognized as a major topic in biomedical research, and is now an intense growth area in behavioral and educational treatments. This resource provides a comprehensive summary of all current knowledge related to the behavioral, experiential, and biomedical features of the autism spectrum disorders, including major behavioral and cognitive syndromology, common co-morbid conditions, neuropathology, neuroimmunology, and other neurological correlates such as seizures, allergy and immunology, gastroenterology, infectious disease, and epidemiology.

*  Socioeconomic Inequality in the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from a U.S. Cross-Sectional Study | Autism...

Prevalence increased with increasing SES in a dose-response manner, with prevalence ratios relative to medium SES of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 0.76) for low SES, and of 1.25 (95% CI 1.16, 1.35) for high SES, (P,0.001). Significant SES gradients were observed for children with and without a pre-existing ASD diagnosis, and in analyses stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and surveillance data source. The SES gradient was significantly stronger in children with a pre-existing diagnosis than in those meeting criteria for ASD but with no previous record of an ASD diagnosis (p,0.001), and was not present in children with co-occurring ASD and intellectual disability.. ...

*  Environmental Exposures That Increase the Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders - Oxford Medicine

This chapter summarizes the present knowledge of the environmental factors that are known to increase the autism risk. These include rubella infection and exposure to ethanol, thalidomide, valproic acid, and misoprostol. The discussion then turns to what we can learn from environmental etiologies.

*  DMOZ - Health: Mental Health: Disorders: Neurodevelopmental: Autism Spectrum: Support Groups: North America: United States:...

Autism interventions delivered at an early age for Autism Spectrum Disorders can lead to dramatic progress. Children with pervasive development disorder, also benefit. Come see children recovering from these challenging conditions. ...

*  Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

The Scientific World Journal is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journal's Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 81 subject areas that are covered within the journal's scope.

*  Genomes Unzipped

This guest post was contributed by Joseph Buxbaum, Mark Daly, Silvia De Rubeis, Bernie Devlin, Kathryn Roeder, and Kaitlin Samocha from the Autism Sequencing Consortium (see affiliations and details at the end of the post).. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable condition characterized by deficits in social communication, and by the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or stereotyped interests. While it is clear from family and twin studies that genetic factors contribute strongly to the onset of this disorder, the search for specific risk genes for ASD has only recently begun to yield fruit. Finding these specific genes is critical not only for providing potential diagnoses for individual families, but also for obtaining insights into the pathological processes that underlie this neurodevelopmental disorder, which may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic approaches. Identification of ASD genes may at some point also reveal part of what makes us social beings.. In a paper ...

*  Adolescent Transition to Adulthood and Vocational Issues - Oxford Medicine

This chapter provides a framework for understanding the unique obstacles to helping adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) acquire the life skills needed to enhance their independence and quality of life. The first section reviews the current literature regarding the life-course of symptom impairment and abatement that adolescents and adults with ASDs continue to face. Such issues include communication and social abilities, behavior challenges, daily living skills, and adaptation to community living/vocational environments. The second section provides a suggested method for approaching life skill instruction with adolescents diagnosed with ASDs by assessing underlying problems, recognizing the unique ASD learning styles, teaching survival life skills, providing case examples, and addressing issues related to transitioning to residential and vocational settings.

*  serology | mSphere

The cause (or causes) of most cases of autism spectrum disorder is unknown. Evidence from epidemiological studies and work in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders suggest that both genetic and environmental factors may be implicated. The latter include gestational infection and immune activation. In our cohort, high levels of antibodies to herpes simplex virus 2 at midpregnancy were associated with an elevated risk of autism... ...

*  UC Davis researchers find how viral infection disrupts neural development in offspring, increasing risk of autism

Activating a mother's immune system during her pregnancy disrupts the development of neural cells in the brain of her offspring and damages the cells' ability to transmit signals and communicate with one another, researchers with the Center for Neuroscience and Department of Neurology have found. The researchers said the finding suggests how maternal viral infection might increase the risk of having a child with autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia.

Relationship Development Intervention: Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), based on the belief that the development of dynamic intelligence is the key to improving the quality of life for individuals with autism. The program's core philosophy is that individuals with autism can participate in authentic emotional relationships if they are exposed to them in a gradual, systematic way.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.Language delay: Language delay is a failure in children to develop language abilities on the usual age appropriate for their developmental timetable. Language delay is distinct from speech delay, in which the speech mechanism itself is the focus of delay.Nature Seychelles: Nature Seychelles is a registered non-governmental association in Seychelles dedicated to environmental conservation.Developmental Disability (California): In California, Developmental Disabilitymeans a disability that is attributable to mental retardation], [[cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, or disabling conditions found to be closely related to mental retardation or to require treatment similar to that required for individuals with mental retardation.Child Maintenance and Other Payments Act 2008MethylmercuryMothers TalkMental disorderBipolar disorderMadrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Timeline of Minamata disease: The following is a timeline of key events related to Minamata disease:Language pedagogy: Language education may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs. There are many methods of teaching languages.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.SeaChoice: SeaChoice is a program of Sustainable Seafood Canada that uses the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch recommendations to raise consumer awareness about the importance of buying seafood from sustainable sources. It is best known for publishing consumer guides for responsible seafood purchasing.Evolution of human intelligence: The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved and are closely tied to the evolution of the human brain and to the origin of language.Social anxiety disorderBritish Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale: The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS),also known as the Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale (BNAS),Kaplan, R. M.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.SchizophreniaClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is a 10-item questionnaire that was developed to identify women who have PPD. Items of the scale correspond to various clinical depression symptoms, such as guilt feeling, sleep disturbance, low energy, anhedonia, and suicidal ideation.SAFE FOODSAdult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderPoverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Closed adoptionFocus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of special education. The editors-in-chief are Alisa K.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,BrexpiprazoleWaterladder pumpEconomy of ChittagongHair analysisHyperthymic temperament: Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Greek hyper ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an excessively positive disposition similar to, but more stable than, the hypomania of bipolar disorder.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder: In psychology, relationship obsessive–compulsive disorder (ROCD) is a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on intimate relationships (whether romantic or non-romantic). Such obsessions can become extremely distressing and debilitating, having negative impacts on relationships functioning.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityLucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}List of subjects related to the Quebec independence movement: This is a list of subjects related to the Quebec independence movement.Substance-related disorderTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingClaustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Breastfeeding promotion

(1/993) Reduction of stimulus overselectivity with nonverbal differential observing responses.

Three individuals with mental retardation exhibited stimulus overselectivity in a delayed matching-to-sample task in which two sample stimuli were displayed on each trial. Intermediate accuracy scores indicated that participants could match one of the samples but not both of them. Accuracy in a baseline condition was compared to accuracy with a differential observing response procedure. This procedure prompted participants to make simultaneous identity-matching responses that required observation and discrimination of both sample stimuli. These observing responses were never followed by differential consequences. When observing responses were prompted, participants' accuracy scores improved. In a return to the baseline condition, when differential observing responses were no longer prompted, accuracy returned to intermediate levels. The results show that stimulus overselectivity can be greatly reduced by a behavioral intervention that controls observing behavior and verifies discrimination, but that exposure to such procedures alone may be insufficient for lasting benefits.  (+info)

(2/993) Lack of benefit of a single dose of synthetic human secretin in the treatment of autism and pervasive developmental disorder.

BACKGROUND: Secretin is a peptide hormone that stimulates pancreatic secretion. After recent publicity about a child with autism whose condition markedly improved after a single dose of secretin, thousands of children with autistic disorders may have received secretin injections. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single intravenous dose of synthetic human secretin in 60 children (age, 3 to 14 years) with autism or pervasive developmental disorder. The children were randomly assigned to treatment with an intravenous infusion of synthetic human secretin (0.4 microg per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo. We used standardized behavioral measures of the primary and secondary features of autism, including the Autism Behavior Checklist, to assess the degree of impairment at base line and over the course of a four-week period after treatment. RESULTS: Of the 60 children, 4 could not be evaluated - 2 received secretin outside the study, and 2 did not return for follow-up. Thus, 56 children (28 in each group) completed the study. As compared with placebo, secretin treatment was not associated with significant improvements in any of the outcome measures. Among the children in the secretin group, the mean total score on the Autism Behavior Checklist at base line was 59.0 (range of possible values, 0 to 158, with a larger value corresponding to greater impairment), and among those in the placebo group it was 63.2. The mean decreases in scores over the four-week period were 8.9 in the secretin group and 17.8 in the placebo group (mean difference, -8.9; 95 percent confidence interval, -19.4 to 1.6; P=0.11). None of the children had treatment-limiting adverse effects. After they were told the results, 69 percent of the parents of the children in this study said they remained interested in secretin as a treatment for their children. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of synthetic human secretin is not an effective treatment for autism or pervasive developmental disorder.  (+info)

(3/993) Effects of a fixed-time schedule on aberrant and adaptive behavior.

Fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement have been used to decrease destructive behavior. However, the effects of FT schedules on acquisition and maintenance of appropriate behavior remain unclear. In this study, we present a case in which an FT schedule produced an increase in adaptive behavior and resulted in a significant decrease in destructive behavior.  (+info)

(4/993) A population-based study of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and autism.

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) is a cause of autism. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all children born in Denmark from January 1991 through December 1998. The cohort was selected on the basis of data from the Danish Civil Registration System, which assigns a unique identification number to every live-born infant and new resident in Denmark. MMR-vaccination status was obtained from the Danish National Board of Health. Information on the children's autism status was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, which contains information on all diagnoses received by patients in psychiatric hospitals and outpatient clinics in Denmark. We obtained information on potential confounders from the Danish Medical Birth Registry, the National Hospital Registry, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 537,303 children in the cohort (representing 2,129,864 person-years), 440,655 (82.0 percent) had received the MMR vaccine. We identified 316 children with a diagnosis of autistic disorder and 422 with a diagnosis of other autistic-spectrum disorders. After adjustment for potential confounders, the relative risk of autistic disorder in the group of vaccinated children, as compared with the unvaccinated group, was 0.92 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.68 to 1.24), and the relative risk of another autistic-spectrum disorder was 0.83 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.65 to 1.07). There was no association between the age at the time of vaccination, the time since vaccination, or the date of vaccination and the development of autistic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides strong evidence against the hypothesis that MMR vaccination causes autism.  (+info)

(5/993) Autism: a medical primer.

Autistic disorder, a pervasive developmental disorder resulting in social, language, or sensorimotor deficits, occurs in approximately seven of 10,000 persons. Early detection and intervention significantly improve outcome, with about one third of autistic persons achieving some degree of independent living. Indications for developmental evaluation include no babbling, pointing, or use of other gestures by 12 months of age, no single words by 16 months of age, no two-word spontaneous phrases by 24 months of age, and loss of previously learned language or social skills at any age. The differential diagnosis includes other psychiatric and pervasive developmental disorders, deafness, and profound hearing loss. Autism is frequently associated with fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis, and may be caused by lead poisoning and metabolic disorders. Common comorbidities include mental retardation, seizure disorder, and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Behavior modification programs are helpful and are usually administered by multidisciplinary teams, targeted medication is used to address behavior concerns. Many different treatment approaches can be used, some of which are unproven and have little scientific support. Parents may be encouraged to investigate national resources and local support networks.  (+info)

(6/993) Sleep patterns of children with pervasive developmental disorders.

Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2-11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep-wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep in those children who were described by their parents as having a sleep problem compared to those without a designated problem. Interestingly, regardless of parental perception of problematic sleep, all children with PDD exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. The results demonstrate that sleep problems identified by the parent, as well as fragmentation of sleep patterns obtained from sleep diary and CSHQ data, exist in a significant proportion of children with PDD.  (+info)

(7/993) Pathological demand avoidance syndrome: a necessary distinction within the pervasive developmental disorders.

A proposal is made to recognise pathological demand avoidance syndrome (PDA) as a separate entity within the pervasive developmental disorders, instead of being classed under "pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified" (PDDnos, DSM-IV). Discriminant functions analysis shows PDA to be significantly different on many counts from classic autism and Asperger's syndrome, both separately and together, including an equal sex ratio (150 cases). Demand avoidance using social manipulation is seen in all children, which strongly contrasts with the features of autistic spectrum disorders. A criterial structure is described, supported by statistical data from a random sample of 50 children diagnosed with PDA, together with a follow up sample of 18 young adults.  (+info)

(8/993) Is fever suppression involved in the etiology of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders?

BACKGROUND: There appears to be a significant increase in the prevalence rate of autism. Reasons for the increase are unknown, however, there is a substantial body of evidence that suggests the etiology involves infections of the pregnant mother or of a young child. Most infections result in fever that is routinely controlled with antipyretics such as acetaminophen. The blocking of fever inhibits processes that evolved over millions of years to protect against microbial attack. Immune mechanisms in the central nervous system are part of this protective process. HYPOTHESIS: The blockage of fever with antipyretics interferes with normal immunological development in the brain leading to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism in certain genetically and immunologically disposed individuals. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological studies to determine associations between the use of antipyretics and neurodevelopmental disorders should be undertaken. Biochemical tests will involve the examination of fluids/serum by mass spectrometry and the determination of cytokine/chemokine levels in serum and cell culture fluids after stimulation with fever-inducing molecules from bacteria, viruses and yeast. Postmortem brain can be examined by immunohistochemistry or other methods such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine altered expression levels of chemokines/cytokines and other molecules. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS: 1) The use of antipyretics during pregnancy or in young children may be reserved for more severe fevers. 2) The perplexing genetic findings in autism may be better understood by categorizing genes along functional pathways. 3) New treatments based on immune, cell, pharmacological or even heat therapies may be developed.  (+info)


  • This is an open-label study of the efficacy of Daytrana (methylphenidate transdermal system) for the treatment of attention and behavioral symptoms in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. (
  • The researchers hypothesize that Daytrana is a safe and effective medication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders who have symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. (
  • The investigators propose a pilot, single blind, placebo run-in, dose finding study of pioglitazone in children with autism with the ultimate goal of identifying appropriate dosing and outcome measures for a larger follow-up randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. (
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of memantine in the treatment of pediatric patients with autism, Asperger's Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). (
  • This clinical study was a 48-week, multicenter, multinational, open-label extension study in pediatric outpatients with autism, Asperger's Disorder, or PDD-NOS conducted at 106 study centers. (
  • This 11-week study will examine the safety and effectiveness of the medication donepezil ( Aricept® ) compared to placebo for treating cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (
  • Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have impaired communication, problems with social interaction, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. (
  • A recent study found that donepezil HCl helped to improve speech production, attention span, and ability to express emotions in a group of children with autism. (
  • to identify risk indices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 6 to 24 month old infants who have an older sibling with ASD or infants who have an older neurotypical sibling. (
  • Researchers at the University of Washington want to learn more about the benefits of early monitoring and intervention for younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). (
  • The information gained in this study may improve methods of early detection and intervention for infants who may be at risk for developing autism and lead to better outcome for these young children and their families. (
  • Participants include families with a child who has been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder or typical development and a younger sibling 12 months old or younger. (
  • This study will determine whether peer interaction training interventions are effective in enhancing the social relationships of children with autism. (
  • The combination treatment includes children with and without autism. (
  • Children with autism often have poor relationships with other children during their childhood and through their adult lives. (
  • This study will examine the social inclusion of children with autism, following different peer-related interventions training children with autism and their peers. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether by administering vitamin D to mothers who already have at least one child with autism and who are pregnant, that the vitamin D will prevent the recurrence of autism in the newborn sibling. (
  • The child will be screened by an Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (MCHAT) interview at 18 months of age, and by a questionnaire, the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavioral Inventory (PDDBI) at 3 years of age to determine whether the child has developed autism or not. (
  • This approach will study whether making the pregnant mother, whose child is at risk for autism because of a previous child with autism, replete with vitamin D will prevent that recurrence of autism in the newborn sibling. (
  • This investigation will focus on two areas: 1) early communication impairments as predictors of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and later developmental delays, and 2) the relationship between communication and evidence of CNS function (sleep, EEG) and structure (MRI DTI and volumetrics) in young children at risk for ASD. (
  • Autism symptoms, language status, and cognitive development at 36 months will serve as the primary outcome measures. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders ( ASD ) are developmental disabilities characterized by impaired social interaction and repetitive and/or stereotypical behaviors. (
  • To compare behavioral and other characteristics among children who have autism spectrum disorders and high, low, or normal cholesterol levels. (
  • Pilot work suggests that some individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have very low blood cholesterol levels. (
  • The CNDLAB variously focuses on research of several psychiatric disorders commonly seen in pediatric groups, including Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Major Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Autism Spectrum Disorders. (
  • Currently we are focused on Tourette syndrome (TS) and Obsessive Compulsive disorder (OCD), Autism and related pervasive developmental disorders, childhood onset schizophrenia and structural brain disorders. (
  • Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder - it is a disorder that's unnoticeable at first but that slowly builds up (through the acquisition of symptoms) during a child's development. (
  • In something called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) the necessary criteria that someone with autism must have are listed. (
  • This is because we do not really know the feelings and thoughts of children with autism about their repetitive behaviours - this is due to a lack of research into this area and the difficulty of speaking to autistic children about their feelings (due to language difficulty and their lack of social interest). (
  • Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are developmental disorders that do not appear to be linked to vaccines. (
  • Children with autism may receive special education services. (
  • Autism in children and adults is a developmental disorder, characterized by impaired development in communication, social interaction, and behavior. (
  • Autism interventions delivered at an early age for Autism Spectrum Disorders can lead to dramatic progress. (
  • A multimethod assessment of anxiety and problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability. (
  • Despite the increased risk for anxiety disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is a lack of research on the assessment and treatment of anxiety in this population, particularly for those with an intellectual disability (ID). (
  • Autism, Asperger's syndrome and semantic-pragmatic disorder: where are the boundaries? (
  • However, many children do not meet these criteria, yet show some of the features of autism. (
  • It is argued that rather than thinking in terms of rigid diagnostic categories, we should recognise that the core syndrome of autism shades into other milder forms of disorder in which language or non-verbal behaviour may be disproportionately impaired. (


  • While most research has attempted to treat the behavioral deficits commonly associated with ASD, few studies have attempted to improve the core features of this disorder. (
  • Children will complete behavioral testing and an overnight Sleep/EEG as well as MRI at either a 12 or 18 month initial. (
  • Follow-up visits that include behavioral assessment will occur at 24 and 36 months for all children (and at 18 months of age for the 12-month cohort). (
  • Children who have low cholesterol levels will take part in a study in which they will receive either cholesterol supplementation or a placebo, and will have detailed physical and psychological examinations to measure possible improvement in behavioral or other characteristics. (
  • First, half of individuals with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) meet the behavioral criteria for autistic disorder (Tierney et al, 2001), and three quarters have some type of ASD (Sikora et al, 2006). (

autistic children

  • Sessions will focus on improving the social skills of autistic children. (
  • Sessions will involve educating the peers of autistic children to increase their acceptance of their autistic peers. (
  • Children will be randomly assigned to one of four interventions that comprise all autistic children, all nonautistic children, or a mixed group of both. (
  • The first intervention focuses on improving the social skills of autistic children. (
  • The second intervention involves educating the peers of autistic children to increase their acceptance of their autistic peers. (
  • The autistic children will complete a friendship survey, clinical global impressions scales, and a battery of neuropsychiatric tests. (
  • A non-profit corporation organized by a group of parents who embarked on intensive home treatment programs for their autistic children. (


  • In particular, Dr. Stevens has made significant conceptual contributions in the past several years to understanding neural network connectivity in neurodevelopmental psychiatric illnesses and cognitive development. (
  • Our lab is interested in identifying and characterizing genes and genetic mechanisms involved in neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. (


  • Providing additional cholesterol to the diets of children with ASD may help improve behavior. (
  • The present study evaluated a multimethod strategy for the assessment of anxiety and problem behavior in three children with ASD and ID. (

Attention Deficit

  • An fMRI auditory oddball study of combined-subtype Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (


  • Currently, Dr. Stevens is responsible for directing a clinical neuroscience research lab at the Olin NRC that uses neuroimaging (both fMRI and structural neuroimaging) and other neurobiological research techniques (EEG, genetics, neuropsychological assessment) to address cognitive and clinical neuroscience questions in childhood psychiatric disorders. (
  • His research program to date can be broadly described as study of neurobiological risk for psychiatric illness, differentiating clinically similar psychiatric disorders that arise in childhood on the neurobiological level (including identifying predictive endophenotypes for genetic association studies), and studying the interaction of neurobiological abnormalities and maturation. (


  • Teachers will be asked to complete a questionnaire describing the autistic child and his or her interaction with peers. (


  • Characteristics of the autistic child will be assessed through an interview that evaluates intelligence quotient (IQ), language skills, and social interaction. (
  • Subtypes of pervasive developmental disorder: Clinical characteristics. (


  • Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the person has seizures. (


  • Amygdala Functional Connectivity Predicts Pharmacotherapy Outcome in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder. (


  • Children are often referred to occupational therapy for deficits in hand function, specifically in-hand manipulation problems. (
  • Occupational therapists play an essential role in the evaluation and treatment of children with deficits observed in everyday tasks such as writing, dressing and playing. (
  • If a child presents with IHM deficits, activities could be executed in a slower manner or with greater difficulty 4 . (


  • Parent-Child participants in assessment and monitoring visits but also the Promoting First Relationships PFR intervention (http://pfrprogram. (
  • Children assigned to the fourth intervention will receive the usual training offered in their local school districts. (


  • He is positioned to become a leader in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience by examining trajectories of neural network development, relationships between structural and functional neural network integration, and how abnormalities in systems-level brain connectivity contribute to the pathophysiology of psychiatric illnesses. (


  • Parent-Child participants in assessment and monitoring visits but does not receive any study provided treatment. (


  • He is principal investigator on projects studying the genetic and neural basis of AD/HD, Conduct Disorder, adolescent depression, and traumatic brain injury, and makes active contributions to multiple other NIH-funded grants of his colleagues. (


  • Where language development is impaired, such children tend to be classed as cases of developmental dysphasia (or specific language impairment) whereas those who learn to talk at the normal age may be diagnosed as having Asperger's syndrome. (


  • These abnormalities are usually found in the same areas of the brain of each patient and are always the parts of the brain that we associate with communication development and social functioning. (
  • For example, social hindrances may result in less use of socialising-specific areas of the brain and so improper or lessened development/degradation. (


  • One symptom must be present from the category of Qualitative Impairment in Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication: le arning to speak later than average or being mute, echolalia, failure to initiate or sustain conversation, lack of imagination related play - when children imagine they are something or someone else and fantasise imaginatively. (


  • Also, women of childbearing age are increasingly found to be insufficient/deficient in vitamin D. Vitamin D is a neurohormone which is important for development of the child, especially of the child's brain. (


  • The at-risk children will be matched at initial on chronological age, SES, and sex, to typically developing children (n=75) with no history of developmental delays. (
  • ASD, non-ASD specific delays, catch up) will be determined for children in the at-risk group. (


  • Children 12 or 18 months of age with language delays (i.e., no words at 18 months, limited vocalizations at 12 months) and typically developing toddlers may be eligible to participate. (


  • The aim of the study was to describe the in-hand manipulation skills of a multicultural group of four- and five-year-old children in Bloemfontein. (
  • The research presented here aimed to describe the IHM skills of a multicultural group of 195 four and five-year-old English speaking children in Bloemfontein. (


  • Evaluation of IHM in children has been done in terms of various observation checklists. (


  • A total of 195 children participated in the study, with 98 (50.3%) in the four-year-old and 97 (49.7%) in the five-year-old groups. (