Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Mandatory Reporting: A legal requirement that designated types of information acquired by professionals or institutions in the course of their work be reported to appropriate authorities.Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Persons who were child victims of violence and abuse including physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment.Child Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A phenomenon in which symptoms of a disease are fabricated by an individual other than the patient causing unnecessary, and often painful, physical examinations and treatments. This syndrome is considered a form of CHILD ABUSE, since another individual, usually a parent, is the source of the fabrication of symptoms and presents the child for medical care.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Shaken Baby Syndrome: Brain injuries resulted from vigorous shaking of an infant or young child held by the chest, shoulders, or extremities causing extreme cranial acceleration. It is characterized by the intracranial and intraocular hemorrhages with no evident external trauma. Serious cases may result in death.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Bites, Human: Bites inflicted by humans.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Child Rearing: The training or bringing-up of children by parents or parent-substitutes. It is used also for child rearing practices in different societies, at different economic levels, in different ethnic groups, etc. It differs from PARENTING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the child and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Elder Abuse: Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Rib FracturesDomestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Battered Child Syndrome: A clinical condition resulting from repeated physical and psychological injuries inflicted on a child by the parents or caregivers.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Punishment: The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.Emergency Nursing: The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients admitted to the emergency department.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.United StatesSubstance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pain Insensitivity, Congenital: A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Criminal Law: A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Child, Institutionalized: A child who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Near Drowning: Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Emergency Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Checklist: Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Father-Child Relations: Interaction between the father and the child.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Mouth Rehabilitation: Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Homicide: The killing of one person by another.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Retinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Family Therapy: A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.TurkeyCultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Child Custody: The formally authorized guardianship or care of a CHILD.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Survivors Healing Center: The Survivors Healing Center is a not-for-profit located in Santa Cruz County, California. Founded in 1987, its mission is to provide services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse and educate the public and service agencies about the issue.Child Rights Taskforce – AustraliaRoy Meadow: Sir Samuel Roy Meadow (born 1933) is a retired British paediatrician, who first came to public prominence following a 1977 academic paper describing a phenomenon dubbed Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSbP). For his work, ‘The Captive Mother’, he was awarded the prestigious Donald Paterson prize of the British Paediatric Association in 1968; in 1980 when a second professorial chair in paediatrics was inaugurated at St James’s University Hospital, Leeds, he was invited to accept it; in 1998, he was knighted for services to child health.Gray baby syndromeCerebral contusionBaby Falak: Falak was a two-year-old girl who was admitted to AIIMS Trauma Centre in New Delhi, India on 18 January 2012, with a fractured skull and human bite marks on her body. She was brought to the hospital by a 15-year-old girl who claimed to be her mother.Substance-related disorderBritish Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases: The British Pediatric Association Classification of Diseases is a system of diagnostic codes used for pediatrics.Trupti Patel: Trupti Patel is a qualified pharmacist from Berkshire, England, who was acquitted in 2003 of murdering three of her children, Amar (5 September 1997–10 December 1997), Jamie (21 June 1999–6 July 1999), and Mia (14 May 2001–5 June 2001).Outline of domestic violence: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence:Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Kitten Rescue: Kitten Rescue is a nonprofit, all volunteer 501(c)(3) charity that operates one of the largest kitten and cat welfare and adoption centers in Los Angeles, California. The organization was founded in the spring of 1997, and aims to find loving homes for unwanted and abandoned cats and kittens, as well as to help Los Angeles become a no-kill city.Adopted child syndrome: Adopted child syndrome is a controversial term that has been used to explain behaviors in adopted children that are claimed to be related to their adoptive status. Specifically, these include problems in bonding, attachment disorders, lying, stealing, defiance of authority, and acts of violence.PunishmentQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre: The Shanghai Drug Abuse Treatment Centre, or SDATC (), is a governmental organization providing drug abuse treatment and rehabilitation services in Shanghai, China. SDATC is the only government-supported centre in Shanghai and was established in 1997 on the approval of Shanghai Narcotic Control Commission and Shanghai Public Health Bureau.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA), also called hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV—is an extremely rare inherited disorder of the nervous system which prevents the sensation of pain, heat, cold, or any real nerve-related sensations (including feeling the need to urinate); however, patients can still feel pressure. CIPA is the fourth type of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), known as HSAN IV.Expert elicitation: In science, engineering, and research, expert elicitation is the synthesis of opinions of authorities of a subject where there is uncertainty due to insufficient data or when such data is unattainable because of physical constraints or lack of resources. Expert elicitation is essentially a scientific consensus methodology.Criminal justice system of the Netherlands: The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. The Netherlands criminal code is based on the Napoleonic Code, imposed during the time of the French Empire.Developmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.Mothers TalkResearch Society on Alcoholism: The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) is a learned society of over 1600 active members based in Austin, Texas. Its objective is to advance research on alcoholism and the physiological and cognitive effects of alcohol.Diffeomorphism: In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are smooth.Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.List of emergency medicine courses: This list of emergency medicine courses contains programs often required to be taken by emergency medical providers, including emergency medical technicians, paramedics, and emergency physicians.Chalkstick fracture: Chalkstick fractures are fractures, typically of long bones, in which the fracture is transverse to the long axis of the bone, like a broken stick of chalk. A healthy long bone typically breaks like a hard woody stick as the collagen in the matrix adds remarkable flexibility to the mineral and the energy can run up and down the growth rings of bone.Mallow General Hospital: Mallow General Hospital is a public hospital located in Mallow, County Cork, Ireland.http://www.Millennium PeopleDrug test: A drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen, for example urine, hair, blood, breath, sweat, or oral fluid/saliva—to determine the presence or absence of specified parent drugs or their metabolites. Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers screening for drugs prohibited by law (such as cannabis, cocaine and heroin) and police officers testing for the presence and concentration of alcohol (ethanol) in the blood commonly referred to as BAC (blood alcohol content).Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Anti-abortion violence: Anti-abortion violence is violence committed against individuals and organizations that provide abortion. Incidents of violence have included destruction of property, in the form of vandalism; crimes against people, including kidnapping, stalking, assault, attempted murder, and murder; and crimes affecting both people and property, including arson and bombings.List of social psychology theoriesMedical radiographyFull-body CT scan: A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography (CAT) scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans.Mental disorderBurnHomicide: Homicide occurs when one human being causes the death of another human being. Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death.Oneirology: Oneirology (; from Greek [oneiron, "dream"; and -λογία], ["the study of") is the scientific study of [[dream]s. Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Muskoka Initiative: The Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health is a funding initiative announced at the 36th G8 summit which commits member nations to collectively spend an additional $5 billion between 2010 and 2015 to accelerate progress toward the achievement of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, the reduction of maternal, infant and child mortality in developing countries. A second summit on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health was held in Toronto from May 28-30, 2014 in follow-up to the original 36th G8 summit.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Urban Services Department: Urban Services Department () was a government department in Hong Kong. It carried out the policies and managed the facilities of the former Urban Council.Retinal haemorrhagePsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.List of drug interactions: The following is a list of interactions with various prescription and over-the counter drugs:History of psychopathy: Psychopathy, from psych (soul or mind) and pathy (suffering or disease), was coined by German psychiatrists in the 19th century and originally just meant what would today be called mental disorder, the study of which is still known as psychopathology. By the turn of the century 'psychopathic inferiority' referred to the type of mental disorder that might now be termed personality disorder, along with a wide variety of other conditions now otherwise classified.
(1/1334) Mothering to death.
Three families are described in which the healthy only child was, from early childhood, put to bed and treated as if ill, dependent, and incapable. This abnormal mothering continued for 28, 45, and 48 years, respectively, and the children died as disabled adults. In each case, the three mothers evaded medical, educational, and social services. The origins of their behaviour are examined, and the links with more common forms of separation anxiety, school refusal, and perceived and factitious illness are discussed. (+info)
(2/1334) The prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies.
AIM: To obtain a prevalence rate and determine the distribution of accidental bruising in babies. METHODS: 177 babies aged 6-12 months were examined naked to look for bruises. They were seen in health visitor hearing test clinics and child health surveillance clinics. The site, size, shape, and colour of bruises were recorded on a skin map, and the parent's explanation noted. Any other injury was recorded. Data collection included the baby's age, mobility and weight, demographic details, and health visitor concerns. RESULTS: Twenty two babies had bruises, giving a prevalence rate of 12%. There was a total of 32 bruises, 15 babies had one bruise. All bruises were found on the front of the body and were located over bony prominences. Twenty five of the bruises were on the face and head, and seven were on the shin. The babies with bruises on the shin were mobile. There was a highly significant increase in bruises with increase in mobility. CONCLUSIONS: The study has produced a prevalence and distribution of bruising in babies and sets a baseline from which to work when assessing bruises. It also tested out the methodology, which could be used in further research, particularly of younger babies. Clinicians need to assess a baby's level of development when considering whether a bruise is accidental. (+info)
(3/1334) Primary prevention of child abuse.
In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. (+info)
(4/1334) Unnatural sudden infant death.
AIM: To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths. METHOD: Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied. RESULTS: Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 were given another cause of natural death. In 24 families, more than one child died; 58 died before the age of 6 months and most died in the afternoon or evening. Seventy per cent had experienced unexplained illnesses; over half were admitted to hospital within the previous month, and 15 had been discharged within 24 hours of death. The mother, father, or both were responsible for death in 43, five, and two families, respectively. Most homes were disadvantaged--no regular income, receiving income support--and mothers smoked. Half the perpetrators had a history of somatising or factitious disorder. Death was usually by smothering and 43% of children had bruises, petechiae, or blood on the face. CONCLUSIONS: Although certain features are indicative of unnatural infant death, some are also associated with SIDS. Despite the recent reduction in numbers of infants dying suddenly, inadequacies in the assessment of their deaths exist. Until a thorough postmortem examination is combined with evaluation of the history and circumstances of death by an experienced paediatrician, most cases of covert fatal abuse will go undetected. The term SIDS requires revision or abandonment. (+info)
(5/1334) Adolescents' pregnancy intentions: relations to life situations and caretaking behaviors prenatally and 2 years postpartum.
PURPOSE: This study explores if and how adolescents' pregnancy intentions relate to life situations and health-related behaviors prenatally and up to 2 years postpartum. METHODS: Adolescent girls who reported that they had "wanted a baby" (n = 75) as their reason for pregnancy were compared with those who reported that the pregnancy "just happened" (n = 79) at four separate time periods: prenatally, at 6 and 24 months postpartum, and at 18 months postpartum for teens who became pregnant again subsequent to the study pregnancy. RESULTS: Those who stated that they wanted a baby were more likely to be Hispanic, married, and out of school before becoming pregnant. They were less likely to receive welfare as their primary means of support and to have run away from home in the past than teens who stated that their pregnancy just happened. Self-reported reason for pregnancy was unrelated to repeat pregnancy by 18 months postpartum, but those who had wanted the study baby were less likely to undergo elective termination of a subsequent pregnancy and less likely to become pregnant by a different partner. The groups diverged at 24 months postpartum when those who wanted a baby were more likely to be married to the father of the baby, be financially supported by him, receive child care assistance from him, and have attempted or succeeded at breastfeeding the study child. CONCLUSION: Self-reported reason for pregnancy reveals many important characteristics of pregnant adolescents both at the time of presentation and up to 2 years postpartum. Young women in this study who reported intentional pregnancy seem to fare better with regard to their financial status and their relationship with the father of the baby. (+info)
(6/1334) Vulvovaginitis: clinical features, aetiology, and microbiology of the genital tract.
AIM: To clarify the contribution of clinical and environmental factors and infection to the aetiology of vulvovaginitis in premenarchal girls, and to determine clinical indicators of an infectious cause. DESIGN: It was necessary first to define normal vaginal flora. Cases were 50 premenarchal girls > 2 years old with symptoms of vulvovaginitis; 50 controls were recruited from girls in the same age group undergoing minor or elective surgery. RESULTS: Interview questionnaire showed no difference between cases and controls in regards to hygiene practices, exposure to specific irritants, or history of possible sexual abuse. Normal vaginal flora was similar to that described in previous studies, with the exception of organisms likely to be associated with sexual activity. 80% of cases had no evidence of an infectious cause. In the 10 cases in whom an infectious cause was found, there was significantly more visible discharge and distinct redness of the genital area on examination compared with other cases. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that vulvovaginitis in this age group is not usually infectious or necessarily related to poor hygiene, specific irritants or sexual abuse, although any of these can present with genital irritation. The possibility of sexual abuse should always be considered when a child presents with genital symptoms, but our data indicate it is not a common contributing factor. Infection is generally associated with vaginal discharge and moderate or severe inflammation. (+info)
(7/1334) The association between tender points, psychological distress, and adverse childhood experiences: a community-based study.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that characteristics of somatization and illness behavior, and their childhood antecedents, are associated with the presence of multiple tender points. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-nine subjects who had demonstrated psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire score > or =2) had a tender point examination and in-depth psychological evaluation. In addition, subjects were interviewed about a number of adverse childhood experiences. The 99 subjects with 5 or more tender points were compared with the remaining 190 subjects. RESULTS: A high tender point count (> or =5) was associated with low levels of self-care (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-5.0), reports of a greater number of somatic symptoms (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-4.9), high levels of fatigue (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.3), and a pattern of illness behavior characterized by increased medical care usage (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.1-8.4). Those with high tender point counts were substantially more likely to report adverse childhood experiences, including loss of parents (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.9) and abuse (OR 6.9, 95% CI 2.0-24.6). These results were not explained by the presence of chronic pain. CONCLUSION: These data add further weight to the hypothesis that tender points, as part of the fibromyalgia syndrome, are strongly associated with specific components of psychological distress as well as characteristics of somatization and its antecedents. It is possible that these features contribute to the development of the syndrome of fibromyalgia. (+info)
(8/1334) How can we boost IQs of "dull children"?: A late adoption study.
From 5,003 files of adopted children, 65 deprived children, defined as abused and/or neglected during infancy, were strictly selected with particular reference to two criteria: (i) They were adopted between 4 and 6 years of age, and (ii) they had an IQ <86 (mean = 77, SD = 6.3) before adoption. The average IQs of adopted children in lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES) families were 85 (SD = 17) and 98 (SD = 14.6), respectively, at adolescence (mean age = 13.5 years). The results show (i) a significant gain in IQ dependent on the SES of the adoptive families (mean = 7.7 and mean = 19.5 IQ points in low and high SES, respectively), (ii) IQs after adoption are significantly correlated with IQs before adoption, and (iii) during adolescence, verbal IQs are significantly lower than performance IQs. (+info)
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